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Malaria Tips

Malaria - Are Aware Of The Common Types?

Alliance Munot Hospital 90% (60 ratings)
General Physician, Pune
Malaria - Are Aware Of The Common Types?

Mosquitoes might be tiny creatures, but are responsible for some of the most dreadful diseases, one of them is malaria. Malaria is caused by a parasite that is transmitted through mosquito bites directly or from mother to unborn baby and through blood transfusions. Very widely spread in the Asian and African continents, people travelling here are very cautious of this disease. In areas that are notorious for mosquito infestations, the local people also take preventive measures to ensure mosquito breeding is prevented or at least minimised.

Spread of the disease: When a mosquito bites an infected person, it picks up the parasite from the person and when it next bites another person, the infection is also transmitted. From there, the parasite travels to the liver and into the bloodstream before reaching another individual. While all people are prone to getting the infection, elderly people, children, pregnant women, and immunocompromised people are at greater risk. Also, new travellers are at greater risk than local people, who are to some extent immune to mosquito bites.

Symptoms: The disease is characterised by moderate to severe shaking chills which are more common in the evening, high fever, profuse sweating, headache, vomiting, and diarrhoea. Quite often, there is about a 4-week gap between the time of the mosquito bite and the onset of symptoms. However, in many people, the disease could lie dormant and symptoms manifest when the immunity is severely lowered.
With the gradual progression of the disease, more severe symptoms could evolve as below, and that is when malaria becomes life-threatening.

  1. Cerebral malaria: Once the parasites enter the bloodstream, they can block the minor blood vessels in the brain leading to cerebral oedema and even brain damage. It could eventually result in coma.
  2. Anaemia: There is large-scale destruction of red blood cells, leading to severe anaemia and weakness and fatigue
  3. Breathing problems: Similarly, accumulation of fluid in the lung spaces can lead to pulmonary oedema which causes difficulty breathing and lung failure.
  4. Organ failure: Blood flow blockage to other vital organs like kidneys, liver, and spleen are also possible. The spleen may rupture leading to severe haemorrhage.
  5. Low blood sugar: The malarial parasite per se and the most commonly used medicine (quinine) are both known to cause low blood sugar levels. This can result in coma and even death.

Once the diagnosis is confirmed, treatment usually consists of chloroquine, Mefloquine, quinine sulfate, or hydroxychloroquine. There are various drug-resistant forms of malaria, and they may require combination therapy.
Prevention assumes greater significance with travellers going for vaccines prior to visiting these areas. Even the local people should find ways to avoid breeding of mosquitoes, use mosquito repellents and nets to avoid the infection.

Know The Types Of Malaria!

Dr. Akshya Purohit 91% (10 ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MD - General Medicine
General Physician, Greater Noida
Know The Types Of Malaria!

Mosquitoes might be tiny creatures, but are responsible for some of the most dreadful diseases, one of them is malaria. Malaria is caused by a parasite that is transmitted through mosquito bites directly or from mother to unborn baby and through blood transfusions. Very widely spread in the Asian and African continents, people travelling here are very cautious of this disease. In areas that are notorious for mosquito infestations, the local people also take preventive measures to ensure mosquito breeding is prevented or at least minimised.

Spread of the disease: When a mosquito bites an infected person, it picks up the parasite from the person and when it next bites another person, the infection is also transmitted. From there, the parasite travels to the liver and into the bloodstream before reaching another individual. While all people are prone to getting the infection, elderly people, children, pregnant women, and immunocompromised people are at greater risk. Also, new travellers are at greater risk than local people, who are to some extent immune to mosquito bites.

Symptoms: The disease is characterised by moderate to severe shaking chills which are more common in the evening, high fever, profuse sweating, headache, vomiting, and diarrhoea. Quite often, there is about a 4-week gap between the time of the mosquito bite and the onset of symptoms. However, in many people, the disease could lie dormant and symptoms manifest when the immunity is severely lowered.
With the gradual progression of the disease, more severe symptoms could evolve as below, and that is when malaria becomes life-threatening.

  1. Cerebral malaria: Once the parasites enter the bloodstream, they can block the minor blood vessels in the brain leading to cerebral oedema and even brain damage. It could eventually result in coma.
  2. Anaemia: There is large-scale destruction of red blood cells, leading to severe anaemia and weakness and fatigue
  3. Breathing problems: Similarly, accumulation of fluid in the lung spaces can lead to pulmonary oedema which causes difficulty breathing and lung failure.
  4. Organ failure: Blood flow blockage to other vital organs like kidneys, liver, and spleen are also possible. The spleen may rupture leading to severe haemorrhage.
  5. Low blood sugar: The malarial parasite per se and the most commonly used medicine (quinine) are both known to cause low blood sugar levels. This can result in coma and even death.

Once the diagnosis is confirmed, treatment usually consists of chloroquine, Mefloquine, quinine sulfate, or hydroxychloroquine. There are various drug-resistant forms of malaria, and they may require combination therapy.

Prevention assumes greater significance with travellers going for vaccines prior to visiting these areas. Even the local people should find ways to avoid breeding of mosquitoes, use mosquito repellents and nets to avoid the infection.

Malaria - Know Its Symptoms!

Dr. Riyaz A Bhat 87% (10 ratings)
MD - Medicine, Diabetologist, Thyroidologist & Endocrinologist
General Physician, Srinagar
Malaria - Know Its Symptoms!

Mosquitoes might be tiny creatures, but are responsible for some of the most dreadful diseases, one of them is malaria. Malaria is caused by a parasite that is transmitted through mosquito bites directly or from mother to unborn baby and through blood transfusions. Very widely spread in the Asian and African continents, people travelling here are very cautious of this disease. In areas that are notorious for mosquito infestations, the local people also take preventive measures to ensure mosquito breeding is prevented or at least minimised.

Spread of the disease: When a mosquito bites an infected person, it picks up the parasite from the person and when it next bites another person, the infection is also transmitted. From there, the parasite travels to the liver and into the bloodstream before reaching another individual. While all people are prone to getting the infection, elderly people, children, pregnant women, and immunocompromised people are at greater risk. Also, new travellers are at greater risk than local people, who are to some extent immune to mosquito bites.

Symptoms: The disease is characterised by moderate to severe shaking chills which are more common in the evening, high fever, profuse sweating, headache, vomiting, and diarrhoea. Quite often, there is about a 4-week gap between the time of the mosquito bite and the onset of symptoms. However, in many people, the disease could lie dormant and symptoms manifest when the immunity is severely lowered.
With the gradual progression of the disease, more severe symptoms could evolve as below, and that is when malaria becomes life-threatening.

  1. Cerebral malaria: Once the parasites enter the bloodstream, they can block the minor blood vessels in the brain leading to cerebral oedema and even brain damage. It could eventually result in coma.
  2. Anaemia: There is large-scale destruction of red blood cells, leading to severe anaemia and weakness and fatigue
  3. Breathing problems: Similarly, accumulation of fluid in the lung spaces can lead to pulmonary oedema which causes difficulty breathing and lung failure.
  4. Organ failure: Blood flow blockage to other vital organs like kidneys, liver, and spleen are also possible. The spleen may rupture leading to severe haemorrhage.
  5. Low blood sugar: The malarial parasite per se and the most commonly used medicine (quinine) are both known to cause low blood sugar levels. This can result in coma and even death.

Once the diagnosis is confirmed, treatment usually consists of chloroquine, Mefloquine, quinine sulfate, or hydroxychloroquine. There are various drug-resistant forms of malaria, and they may require combination therapy.
Prevention assumes greater significance with travellers going for vaccines prior to visiting these areas. Even the local people should find ways to avoid breeding of mosquitoes, use mosquito repellents and nets to avoid the infection.

मलेरिया के उपचार - Malaria ke upchaar!

Dr. Sanjeev Kumar Singh 91% (192 ratings)
Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Lakhimpur Kheri
मलेरिया के उपचार - Malaria ke upchaar!

आपके शरीर का सबसे महत्वपूर्ण हिस्सा पेट होता है. अगर आपका पेट खराब रहता है तो आपकी तबियत भी सही नहीं रहती है. पेट की जलन आपके लिए काफी परेशान करने वाली होती है. पेट की गर्मी कई कारणों से होती है और इससे कई प्रकार की बीमारी भी होती है. आजकल हम कभी कभी खाने पीने में ध्यान नहीं देते है और हमे कई बीमारियां घेर लेती है. पेट के रोग अक्सर दूषित खाना खाने से होते हैं. पेट की गर्मी भी तब होती है जब हम भोजन में कुछ अनहेल्थी खा लेते है. आज इस लेख में हम आपको बताएंगे इससे जुड़े कुछ घरेलू उपायों के बारे में, जिन्हें आप घर पर आज़मा सकते है.

1. अरहर की दाल
अगर आपको पेट की गर्मी की समस्या परेशान कर रहे है तो आपको परेशान नहीं होना है. इसके लिए आपको अरहर की दाल की सहारा लेना है. इसके लिए आपको अरहर की दाल को पीसकर पीना है. ऐसा करने से आपको पेट की जलन से आराम मिल जाएगा.

2. हल्दी से गरारा
आपकी इस समस्या को खत्म करन के लिए आपको हल्दी और पानी मिलाकर इससे गरारा करना है. इससे आपको पेट की जलन से आराम मिल जाएगा. ये एक असरदार घरेलू उपाय है यदि आप इसे नियमित रूप से करें तो काफी फायदा मिलता है.

3. काला नमक और नींबू पानी
आपके पेट के लिए काला नमक वैसे भी बहुत उपयोगी माना गया है. आपको बता दें कि अगर आपको पेट की जलन की समस्या है तो आपको काला नमक और नीबूं पानी मिलाकर आपको पीने से इसमे आराम मिल जाएगा. इससे आपके पेट का पाचन भी सही रहेगा.

4. छाछ, नारियल या गन्ने का जूस
आपको बता दे कि आपको अन्य लीवर संबंधी समस्या हो जाए तो आपको इसके लिए पेट और लिवर तो स्वस्थ रखने के लिए छाछ, नारियल या गन्ने का जूस का सेवन करना चाहिए. इससे आपको इन सारी समस्याओं से आराम मिलेगा.

5. नीम का दातून
अगर आपको हमेशा ये समस्या रहती है तो आपको इसके लिए अपने रोजाना की दिनचर्या में नीम की दातून करना शुरु कर देना चाहिए. नीम आपके शरीर से गर्मी को बाहर निकालने में मदद करती है. ये आपके लिए काफी फायदेमंद है.

6. गुनगुना पानी
आपको बता दें कि इसके लिए आपको गुनगुना पानी भी काफी फायदा करता है. अगर आपको ये समस्या है तो आप इसका सेवन करें. अगर आप इसके साथ नीबूं का इस्तेमाल करते है तो ये आपको ज्यादा फायदा पहुंचाएगा.

7. नारियल पानी
पेट की गर्मी को तुरंत शांत करने के लिए आपको नारियल पानी का सेवन करना चाहिए इससे आपको तुरंत आराम मिल जाएगा. ये आपके लिए किसी रामबाण से कम नहीं है. इसके नियमित सेवन से आपको पेट की गर्मी की समस्या नहीं होगी.

8. गुड़ का पानी
अगर आपके गले में सूजन आ गई है या आपके पेट में गर्मी है तो आपको गुड़ का पानी पीने से इन दोनों समस्याओं से आराम मिलता है. तो आपको इसका सेवन जरूर करना चाहिए. इससे आपके पेट की गर्मी तो शांत होगी ही साथ में आपको कई अन्य लाभ भी मिलेंगे.

9. बबूल की छाल
आपके पेट की गर्मी को शांत करने के लिए आप आयुर्वेदिक औषधि का भी इस्तेमाल कर सकते है. इसके लिए आपको बबूल की छाल का प्रयोग करना है ये बहुत फायदेमंद औषधि होती है. आपको इसकी छाल को पीसकर पानी में मिलाकर कु्ल्ला करना है ऐसा करने से आपको इससे तुरंत आराम मिल जाएगा.

10. ठंडी चीजों का करें सेवन
आपको बता दें कि आपको अगर पेटी की गर्मी से हमेशा के लिए राहत चाहिए तो आपको इसके लिए ठंडी चीजों का सेवन करना चाहिए. इसके लिए आपको नारियल पानी, नीबू, और शहद जैसी चीजें इस्तेमाल करना चाहिए.

 

Central Nervous System (CNS)!

Dr. Radhika A (Md) 92% (13 ratings)
MD - Acupuncture, Diploma In Accupuncture, Advanced Diploma In Accupuncture
Acupuncturist, Delhi
Central Nervous System (CNS)!

Central Nervous System (CNS)
CNS (Central Nervous System) comprises of the brain and the spinal cord. The brain is the most important and complex organ in the human body. It consumes about 20% of the oxygen that we breathe. There are hundreds of thousands of well-connected neurons in the brain. The brain is protected by the skull. The spinal cord is connected to the back of the brain and it runs up to the lumbar region of the back.

Brain and the spinal cord are protected by a three-layered membrane and it is called meninges. The central nervous system has a great impact in controlling our emotions, movements and thoughts. It will affect our breathing, body temperature, production of hormones, heart rate and many other functions. Optic never, retina and other parts are connected to the brain directly.

CNS diseases are trauma, infections, degeneration, tumours, structural defects, stroke and an autoimmune disorder. The signs and symptoms vary from one disease to another disease.

Symptoms of CNS (Central Nervous System)-
The structure and function of the spine or brain will be affected when a person is suffering from CNS.

Some of the symptoms are listed below:

-  Persistent headache

-  Pain in the face

-  Pain in the back

-  Pain in the arms or legs

-  Unable to concentrate

-  Loss of feeling

-  Memory loss

-  Loss of muscle strength

-  Paralysis

-  Slurred speech

-  Sensitivity to light, sound and smell

-  If a person is suffering from a migraine, there will be frequent vomiting and nausea. The person experiences trouble in vision by finding flashing lights. The sensitivity to sound, light and smell is obvious. The patient may experience speech issues as well.

-  Brain tumours will lead to trouble in memorizing things.  The patient suffers from poor thinking and cognitive skills. The other symptoms are seizures, headache, and problem in walking, seeing, hearing and talking. There will be mood swings, weakness and nausea.

-  Multiple sclerosis will affect the brain and spinal cord cells which are integral for the functioning of the nervous system. The symptoms that are prominent with this condition include weakness of muscles, visual disturbances, sensation (pricking to numbness) and trouble in thinking and memory.

-  If there are spinal cord disorders, there will be a change in reflexes. The other symptoms are a loss of bowel movement or bladder, partial or incomplete paralysis, and severe back pain. The general weakness is profound in patients suffering from spinal cord issues.

-  If there are blood clots or blocking of the blood vessel, a person might suffer from a stroke. In addition to dizziness and weakness, there will be sudden numbness in various parts such as an arm, leg and face. The person suffers from a severe headache, trouble with understanding or speaking and problem in walking. A person may lose balance and coordination as well.

Causes of CNS (Central Nervous System)
-  The injury to the brain or the spinal cord will lead to disability. The disability is based on the section of the spinal cord or brain affected by the injury

-  Microorganism or virus will lead to infection. The infection can spread in several ways. There are some infections that affect the spine or the brain directly. Cryptococcal meningitis, malaria and leprosy are some of the infections affected by either virus or bacteria.

-  If a person is affected by Parkinson’s disease, there will be degeneration of the spinal cord or brain. The dopamine-producing cells will degenerate on a gradual basis.

-  Due to birth defects, parts of the brain or spinal cord are not formed properly. The structural defects will lead to various kinds of complications.

-  There are cancerous and non-cancerous tumours which affect the central nervous system. The symptoms and damage are based on the area affected the body.

-  If a person is suffering from the autoimmune disorder, the healthy cells in the body will be destroyed. The nerve’s insulation (myelin) will be affected when a person is suffering from acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. In this process, the white matter in the body will be eliminated.

-  The blood supply to the brain will be interrupted which is called a stroke. When the cells are exposed to the lack of oxygen, the tissue will die and irreversible damage will take place.

How CNS (Central Nervous System) is diagnosed?
-  CNS infection should be diagnosed to determine the right kind of therapy to overcome the condition.

-  To diagnose the CNS disorder, the doctor will take the complete medical history of the patient. After the physical exam, various kinds of diagnostic procedures are implemented to figure out the disorder.

-  Computed tomography scan (CT scan or CAT scan) – It is a diagnostic imaging procedure which uses x-rays and computer technology to figure out the disease. Horizontal as well as axial images of the body will be taken in various angles. It is possible to collect detailed pictures of the body including bones, organs, muscles and fat.

-  Electroencephalogram (EEG) is used to record the brains electrical activity through the electrodes.

-  Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses magnets, radiofrequency, and a computer to record detailed images of organs and structures of the body.

-  The metabolic activity of cells will be measured with Positron emission tomography (PET)

-  Electrodiagnostic tests are used to evaluate and diagnose muscle disorders and motor neurons. The electrical activity and muscle response will be recorded.

-  Arteriogram will be used to detect the blocks in arteries.

-  Spinal tap or lumbar puncture will be done to measure the pressure in the spinal canal and brain. Cerebral fluid will be collected and the possibility of infection will be found.

-  A die will be injected into the spinal canal to obtain the accurate picture of the structure through x-rays. This procedure is called Myelogram.

-  Blood flow in case of stroke will be analyzed with the neurosonography by using high-frequency sound waves.

-  Ultrasound (sonography) uses high-frequency sound waves and computer. Images of blood vessels, organs, tissues will be captured very accurately. The internal organs, as well as their functions, can be assessed with ultrasound.

Prevention
-  Prevention is considered for certain conditions such as a stroke. Most of the other conditions can be focused on the post-infant phase of life. The risk factors for neurological conditions should be avoided. The risk factors include inherited biological traits such as genetic predisposition.

-  The behavioural and biological factors will play an important role in preventing the condition

-  Temperature and climatic conditions and geographical variations will help in managing the condition in a better way

Treatment of CNS (Central Nervous System)
-  If you are suffering from depression, you will want to undergo psychotherapy.  You will want to take the help of psychologist, psychiatrist and trained medical professional to overcome the disorder. You will learn new ways to overcome various challenges and changes that depression affects.

-  If a person is suffering from sleep disorder due to CNS, the rehab management is based on the type of disorder. In most of the cases, the doctors recommend good sleep hygiene. The routines to go to bed will be changed so that there is a possibility to optimize the sleep. Patients are advised to avoid naps and they should exercise on regular basis. Coffee should be avoided before bedtime. The exercising should be avoided before going to bed. Some patients are required to use medications and devices to overcome insomnia and breathing issues.

-  With the help of family members, patients can change their sleep-related issues. The patient should go through the counselling if the sleep affects the work-life balance.

-  The birth defects of the CNS will be overcome through the surgical procedures. There will be defects in the structure of the brain and the spinal cord. There are various kinds of disorders and medical conditions which come under minor to major categories. In the case of microcephaly, the brain growth will be affected. With spina bifida, the spinal cord will not form properly.

-  If a person is suffering from Parkinson’s disease, the muscles will become stiff. There will be difficulty in the initiation and the muscles will become slow. The patient will find it difficult to maintain the balance and posture. The issues include urination problems, constipation, sleep problems, loss of smell, dementia and depression. In addition to general measures to overcome the condition, physical and occupational therapy will be implemented by medical professionals. Some patients will be benefited through the deep brain stimulation.

-  The root cause of CNS disorders that arise due to tumours will be diagnosed before offering the treatment. There are chemically induced tumours, brain tumours formed due to oncogenic viruses and other factors. Certain conditions occur in children as well as adults. Doctors will explore various options including brain chemotherapy to overcome the condition.

-  There is no cure for autism and it is a permanent condition. By implementing the right kind of therapy, the disruptive behaviour can be managed in the best possible way. By imparting special education, the person will become independent. If the autism is diagnosed earlier, the treatment can be initiated quickly and there will be better results. The autism varies from one person to another person. Hence, the required treatment varies as per the condition.

-  The stroke in a newborn baby or children is called as cerebral venous thrombosis. It will lead to a blood clot in the venous sinuses of the brain. The flow of blood from the blood to various parts of the organs will be affected. Cerebral venous thrombosis should be taken up as a medical emergency and the patient should be admitted into the hospital immediately. In addition to IV fluids, the patient will get medications to treat blood clots and seizures.

-  Attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADHD) is a behavioural disorder in children. The disorder affects 3% to 7% of children. There will be a tendency to be hyperactive and the patient will be impulsive and will not pay attention. There will be behavioural and academic difficulties in a person suffering from ADHD. The treatment options for ADHD include psychological intervention, medication, special counselling and support groups.

Complications
-  There is a difference between CNS and peripheral nervous system. Even though CNS and peripheral nervous system are interconnected, the peripheral nervous system is connected outside the brain and spinal cord.

-  Stroke, migraine, brain tumours, multiple sclerosis and spinal cord disorders are common CNS disorders. As per the research, there are more than 600 neurological disorders. The way the disorder affects the human body should be understood and the most appropriate treatment should be offered to the patient. The recovery and normalization of the patient are based on several factors. The condition and cause should be detected at an early phase so that the patient will get the best treatment and the condition can be managed in the best possible way.

-  If there are neurological issues, there will be an impact on the movement, swallowing, speaking, breathing and learning difficulties. The functioning of the brain, nerves, spinal cord and nervous system will be affected.

Myths Related to CNS (Central Nervous System)
Myth #1:  
CNS disorders can be treated very efficiently – Even though most of the neuropsychiatric diseases do not have well-defined etiopathogenesis, there has been great progress on their causes. There are factors that affect genetics as well as the environment. The condition can be managed in a very efficient way by offering medication and family support.

Myth #2:  CNS disorders will lead to social isolation – Patients suffering from CNS disorders should get the best support from the family and friends. There should be a broadminded approach to deal with the patients. With the institutional and community support, the social isolation can be avoided.

Conclusion
CNS diseases or CNS disorders are a group of neurological disorders which affect the structure of the brain or spinal cord. Your vital signs are controlled by CNS. Your ability to see, talk, move, smell and think will be affected by CNS. If a patient is suffering from neurodegenerative disease, there will be an impact on the family and society as well. Hence, early diagnosis will help in offering the best treatment to overcome the condition. In most of the cases, the condition can be managed even though there is no permanent cure for those conditions.

Malaria - Signs You Should Be Aware Of!

Dr. M.P.S Saluja 91% (329 ratings)
MD, House Job Certificate ( SKIN & STD) , MBBS
General Physician, Gurgaon
Malaria - Signs You Should Be Aware Of!

Mosquitoes might be tiny creatures, but are responsible for some of the most dreadful diseases, one of them is malaria. Malaria is caused by a parasite that is transmitted through mosquito bites directly or from mother to unborn baby and through blood transfusions. Very widely spread in the Asian and African continents, people travelling here are very cautious of this disease. In areas that are notorious for mosquito infestations, the local people also take preventive measures to ensure mosquito breeding is prevented or at least minimised.

Spread of the disease: When a mosquito bites an infected person, it picks up the parasite from the person and when it next bites another person, the infection is also transmitted. From there, the parasite travels to the liver and into the bloodstream before reaching another individual. While all people are prone to getting the infection, elderly people, children, pregnant women, and immunocompromised people are at greater risk. Also, new travellers are at greater risk than local people, who are to some extent immune to mosquito bites.

Symptoms: The disease is characterised by moderate to severe shaking chills which are more common in the evening, high fever, profuse sweating, headache, vomiting, and diarrhoea. Quite often, there is about a 4-week gap between the time of the mosquito bite and the onset of symptoms. However, in many people, the disease could lie dormant and symptoms manifest when the immunity is severely lowered.
With the gradual progression of the disease, more severe symptoms could evolve as below, and that is when malaria becomes life-threatening.

  1. Cerebral malaria: Once the parasites enter the bloodstream, they can block the minor blood vessels in the brain leading to cerebral oedema and even brain damage. It could eventually result in coma.
  2. Anaemia: There is large-scale destruction of red blood cells, leading to severe anaemia and weakness and fatigue
  3. Breathing problems: Similarly, accumulation of fluid in the lung spaces can lead to pulmonary oedema which causes difficulty breathing and lung failure.
  4. Organ failure: Blood flow blockage to other vital organs like kidneys, liver, and spleen are also possible. The spleen may rupture leading to severe haemorrhage.
  5. Low blood sugar: The malarial parasite per se and the most commonly used medicine (quinine) are both known to cause low blood sugar levels. This can result in coma and even death.

Once the diagnosis is confirmed, treatment usually consists of chloroquine, Mefloquine, quinine sulfate, or hydroxychloroquine. There are various drug-resistant forms of malaria, and they may require combination therapy.
Prevention assumes greater significance with travellers going for vaccines prior to visiting these areas. Even the local people should find ways to avoid breeding of mosquitoes, use mosquito repellents and nets to avoid the infection.

1 person found this helpful

Malaria - Know The Symptoms It Leads To!

Dr. Shubham Jaiswal 92% (851 ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
General Physician, Delhi
Malaria - Know The Symptoms It Leads To!

Mosquitoes might be tiny creatures, but are responsible for some of the most dreadful diseases, one of them is malaria. Malaria is caused by a parasite that is transmitted through mosquito bites directly or from mother to unborn baby and through blood transfusions. Very widely spread in the Asian and African continents, people travelling here are very cautious of this disease. In areas that are notorious for mosquito infestations, the local people also take preventive measures to ensure mosquito breeding is prevented or at least minimised.

Spread of the disease: When a mosquito bites an infected person, it picks up the parasite from the person and when it next bites another person, the infection is also transmitted. From there, the parasite travels to the liver and into the bloodstream before reaching another individual. While all people are prone to getting the infection, elderly people, children, pregnant women, and immunocompromised people are at greater risk. Also, new travellers are at greater risk than local people, who are to some extent immune to mosquito bites.

Symptoms: The disease is characterised by moderate to severe shaking chills which are more common in the evening, high fever, profuse sweating, headache, vomiting, and diarrhoea. Quite often, there is about a 4-week gap between the time of the mosquito bite and the onset of symptoms. However, in many people, the disease could lie dormant and symptoms manifest when the immunity is severely lowered.
With the gradual progression of the disease, more severe symptoms could evolve as below, and that is when malaria becomes life-threatening.

  1. Cerebral malaria: Once the parasites enter the bloodstream, they can block the minor blood vessels in the brain leading to cerebral oedema and even brain damage. It could eventually result in coma.
  2. Anaemia: There is large-scale destruction of red blood cells, leading to severe anaemia and weakness and fatigue
  3. Breathing problems: Similarly, accumulation of fluid in the lung spaces can lead to pulmonary oedema which causes difficulty breathing and lung failure.
  4. Organ failure: Blood flow blockage to other vital organs like kidneys, liver, and spleen are also possible. The spleen may rupture leading to severe haemorrhage.
  5. Low blood sugar: The malarial parasite per se and the most commonly used medicine (quinine) are both known to cause low blood sugar levels. This can result in coma and even death.

Once the diagnosis is confirmed, treatment usually consists of chloroquine, Mefloquine, quinine sulfate, or hydroxychloroquine. There are various drug-resistant forms of malaria, and they may require combination therapy.
Prevention assumes greater significance with travellers going for vaccines prior to visiting these areas. Even the local people should find ways to avoid breeding of mosquitoes, use mosquito repellents and nets to avoid the infection.

3517 people found this helpful

PM Modi Wins UN's Highest Environment Award - How Can We Contribute?

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
General Physician, Faridabad
PM Modi Wins UN's Highest Environment Award - How Can We Contribute?

Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and French President Emmanuel Macron have been chosen to be conferred with UN's highest environmental honour - 'Champions of the Earth' award.

They have been chosen in the Policy Leadership category for their remarkable contribution towards environment through International Solar Alliance (ISA) and promoting new levels of cooperation on environmental action.

Governments of various countries, global ambassadors and social activists have been appealing the world to do their bit for saving the environment but very little awareness has been seen among people. As per a survey conducted by World Health Organisation (WHO), over 12.6 million people lose their lives due to environmental diseases and the numbers are increasing consistently.

There are various causes which add to deterioration of the environment. Some of them are mentioned below:

  • Air and sound pollutions
  • Hazardous waste
  • Volatile organic compound
  • Plastic pollution
  • Organic dust toxic syndrome
  • Persistent organic pollutants
  • Heavy metals
  • Mercury poisoning
  • Noxious gases including nitrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide and sulphuretted hydrogen

It is a well-known fact that poor or unhealthy environment can lead to numerous life-threatening diseases. These diseases include:

  • Stroke
  • Ischaemic heart disease
  • Cancers
  • Chronic Respiratory Diseases
  • Diarrhoeal Diseases
  • Respiratory Infections
  • Neonatal Conditions
  • Malaria
  • Asthma
  • Smoking-related diseases
  • Diseases caused by toxic or irritant chemicals in the environment
  • Diseases caused by exposure to ultraviolet radiation


Environmental issues can also lead to mental disorders like anxiety, stress, bipolar disorder and more.

How can we prevent these environmental diseases?

We can prevent these diseases by learning not to spread any type of pollution and teaching our coming generations to follow these rules of environment.

Here are some other ways which can help in preventing environmental pollution:

  • Completely quitting the use of plastic
  • Saving water
  • Controlling noise pollution
  • Trying to use public transport as much as possible
  • Not wasting a single bite of food
  • Managing hazardous materials effectively
  • Proper solid waste management
  • Planting as many trees as possible
  • Making adequate arrangements for vector control
  • Trying to keep your home, office and surroundings as clean as possible

Here are some ways which can help in keeping yourself safe from environmental pollution:

  • Wearing a mask whenever outside the house
  • Trying to stay away from traffic as much as possible
  • Not having much exposure to sun rays
  • Installing air purifiers at home
  • Planting trees in the garden area

Not only our Prime Minister but each and every one of us will have to contribute our part to make the environment healthy, otherwise soon the only green planet in the universe will also become an uninhabitable planet.

1 person found this helpful

Enjoy Monsoon Carefully

Dr. Anjali 90% (94 ratings)
BHMS
Homeopath, Ghaziabad
Enjoy Monsoon Carefully

Monsoon gives happiness to everyone after months of scorching heat. It also brings many diseases because of sudden change of temperature, contamination of food and water due to breeding bacteria, insects etc 

General care to be taken during monsoon 

• avoid taking outside food 
• have filtered water and fresh food
• avoid collected water in parks, streets etc 
• dry your feet properly if get wet
• avoid overcrowded areas
• keep surroundings clean and dry to avoid breeding of mosquitoes, bacteria etc 
• use mosquito repellents
• special care to be taken by those who suffer from allergies, old people and children

Monsoons can be enjoyed in a healthier way by taking the above precautions.Do not ignore symptoms like fever, cold, cough, diarrhoea etc. 

 

2 people found this helpful

Malaria - Know How This Disease Spreads!

Dr. Rohith P A 92% (56 ratings)
MBBS
General Physician, Chennai
Malaria - Know How This Disease Spreads!

Mosquitoes might be tiny creatures, but are responsible for some of the most dreadful diseases, one of them is malaria. Malaria is caused by a parasite that is transmitted through mosquito bites directly or from mother to unborn baby and through blood transfusions. Very widely spread in the Asian and African continents, people travelling here are very cautious of this disease. In areas that are notorious for mosquito infestations, the local people also take preventive measures to ensure mosquito breeding is prevented or at least minimised.

Spread of the disease: When a mosquito bites an infected person, it picks up the parasite from the person and when it next bites another person, the infection is also transmitted. From there, the parasite travels to the liver and into the bloodstream before reaching another individual. While all people are prone to getting the infection, elderly people, children, pregnant women, and immunocompromised people are at greater risk. Also, new travellers are at greater risk than local people, who are to some extent immune to mosquito bites.

Symptoms: The disease is characterised by moderate to severe shaking chills which are more common in the evening, high fever, profuse sweating, headache, vomiting, and diarrhoea. Quite often, there is about a 4-week gap between the time of the mosquito bite and the onset of symptoms. However, in many people, the disease could lie dormant and symptoms manifest when the immunity is severely lowered.
With the gradual progression of the disease, more severe symptoms could evolve as below, and that is when malaria becomes life-threatening.

  1. Cerebral malaria: Once the parasites enter the bloodstream, they can block the minor blood vessels in the brain leading to cerebral oedema and even brain damage. It could eventually result in coma.
  2. Anaemia: There is large-scale destruction of red blood cells, leading to severe anaemia and weakness and fatigue
  3. Breathing problems: Similarly, accumulation of fluid in the lung spaces can lead to pulmonary oedema which causes difficulty breathing and lung failure.
  4. Organ failure: Blood flow blockage to other vital organs like kidneys, liver, and spleen are also possible. The spleen may rupture leading to severe haemorrhage.
  5. Low blood sugar: The malarial parasite per se and the most commonly used medicine (quinine) are both known to cause low blood sugar levels. This can result in coma and even death.

Once the diagnosis is confirmed, treatment usually consists of chloroquine, Mefloquine, quinine sulfate, or hydroxychloroquine. There are various drug-resistant forms of malaria, and they may require combination therapy.
Prevention assumes greater significance with travellers going for vaccines prior to visiting these areas. Even the local people should find ways to avoid breeding of mosquitoes, use mosquito repellents and nets to avoid the infection. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

4796 people found this helpful
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