An anal fissure is a small tear in the thin, moist tissue (mucosa) that lines the anus. An anal fissure may occur when you pass hard or large stools during a bowel movement. Anal fissures typically cause pain and bleeding with bowel movements. You also may experience spasms in the ring of muscle at the end of your anus (anal sphincter).
Anal fissures are very common in young infants but can affect people of any age. Most anal fissures get better with simple treatments, such as increased fiber intake or sitz baths.
Common causes of anal fissure include:
· Passing large or hard stools
· Constipation and straining during bowel movements
· Chronic diarrhea
Less common causes of anal fissures include:
· Anal cancer
Signs and symptoms of an anal fissure include:
· Pain, sometimes severe, during bowel movements
· Pain after bowel movements that can last up to several hours
· Bright red blood on the stool or toilet paper after a bowel movement
· Itching or irritation around the anus
· A visible crack in the skin around the anus
· A small lump or skin tag on the skin near the anal fissure
Factors that may increase your risk of developing an anal fissure include:
· Infancy. Many infants experience an anal fissure during their first year of life; experts aren't sure why.
· Aging. Older adults may develop an anal fissure partly due to slowed circulation, resulting in decreased blood flow to the rectal area.
· Constipation. Straining during bowel movements and passing hard stools increase the risk of tearing.
· Childbirth. Anal fissures are more common in women after they give birth.
· Crohn's disease. This inflammatory bowel disease causes chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract, which may make the lining of the anal canal more vulnerable to tearing.
· Anal intercourse.
Complications of anal fissure can include:
· Failure to heal. An anal fissure that fails to heal within six weeks is considered chronic and may need further treatment.
· Recurrence. Once you've experienced an anal fissure, you are prone to having another one.
· A tear that extends to surrounding muscles. An anal fissure may extend into the ring of muscle that holds your anus closed (internal anal sphincter), making it more difficult for your anal fissure to heal. An unhealed fissure can trigger a cycle of discomfort that may require medications or surgery to reduce the pain and to repair or remove the fissure.
Homeopathic remedies are very effective for curing anal fissure. Some of the important remedies are given below
NITRIC ACID 30-Nitric Acid is one of the top remedies for anal fissure. Nitric acid is prescribed when stitching and tearing pains in the anus, or cutting or stinging pain is experienced by the patient. The stool is hard and is accompanied by bright red blood bleeding from the anus. There are much tenesmus and constriction, and a constant oozing of fetid matter from the parts, with burning rawness and smarting.
RATANHIA 30-Ratanhia is a very effective medicine for the treatment of Anal Fissures. It is prescribed when for long-lasting pains in the rectum with excessive burning that follows stool passage is experienced. Patients often describe the pain as being similar to broken glass or a knife piercing in the rectum. The stool requires much effort to be passed out due to the constricted anus.
GRAPHITES 30-Graphites is prescribed when the persons who are susceptible to eczema. The anus is extremely sore and the stools are covered with mucus, with no tenesmus or constriction. The patient usually obese and overweight. The patient is usually chilly and cannot tolerate cold air or cold weather. It is also indicated when anal fissures occur in women around or just after menopause.
PAEONIA 30-Paeonia is an effective medicine for anal fissure with offensive discharge from the anus due to cracks in it. Paeonia is also the best medicine for violent pains in the anus during and after passing stool. The anus is ulcerated and fissured. Itching and burning usually accompany the fissures. There is much rawness and smarting.
SULPHUR 200-Sulphur is prescribed when the stool is hard and dry, causing tears and immense pain in the anus while passage. The patient is fearful of even going to the toilet as he thinks of the pain that will accompany the passage of stool. The pain is accompanied by burning. Sulphur is also effective for itching in anus due to fissure.
PHOSPHORUS 30-Phosphorus is effective for painless anal fissures. The patient is usually tall, thin and narrow chested. There is increased thirst and that too for cold water. The patient is unable to tolerate warm water and as soon as the water turns warm in the stomach, it is vomited. This medicine is known to irritate, inflame and cause degeneration of the mucous membranes all over the body. The stool is long, narrow and hard, like that of a dog. The stool may be white and hard too. The patient is very sensitive to light, sound and all sorts of external impressions.
AESCULUS HIPPO. 30- Aesculus is prescribed when severe pain is experienced in the anus following stool passage. The stool is mainly hard and large followed by severe pains.
SILICEA 30- Silicea is effective when the discharge contains the pus of offensive odor. The stool is passed with difficulty and straining. The stool comes out partially and then recedes again.
ALUMINA 30- Alumina is another effective remedy for fissures with severe constipation and much straining. The mucus membrane of anus is thickened and swollen.
PLATINA 30-Platina is effective for fissures of the anus with crawling and itching every evening.
LACHESIS 30-Lachesis is effective when the person is constipated, anus feels tight as if nothing could pass through it. There is hammering pain in fissure.