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Acute Renal Failure - Major Reasons That Can Lead To It!

Written and reviewed by
Dr.Shalabh Agrawal 95% (276ratings)
DNB (Urology), MS, MBBS
Urologist, Delhi  •  20years experience
Acute Renal Failure - Major Reasons That Can Lead To It!

Acute renal failure is an exceptional condition that befalls when the kidney loses the ability to eradicate salts, waste material and fluid from the blood. Since waste elimination is the core function of the kidney, failure to do so results in body fluids rising to dangerous levels. Acute renal failure is often witnessed by people who are already under medical supervision. The condition can aggravate in a matter of few days to few weeks. It is potentially a life-threatening condition and requires expert medical care under supervision.

Potential causes of acute renal failure: There could be a flurry of reasons for a renal failure. Some of the common ones include conditions that slow down the flow of blood to the kidney, kidney gets directly damage, the uterus gets blocked and the waste can’t leave the body through the urine etc. Here is more on the causes:

  1. Kidney failure due to slow blood flow to the kidney: Some diseases or conditions that might slow down the flow of blood to the kidney include fluid loss, heart attack, allergic reaction, infection, extreme dehydration, cardiac diseases, liver failure, consumption of blood pressure related medication, use of drugs such as ibuprofen, naproxen etc., severe burns etc.
  2. Kidney failure due to a direct damage to the kidneys: Some of the agents/diseases or condition that can directly damage the kidneys include
    1. Cancer of the plasma cells
    2. Premature destruction of the RBC, a condition known as the Haemolytic Uremic Syndrome
    3. Certain medication including but not limited to chemotherapy drugs, dyes that are utilized in imagery tests, zoledronic acid etc.
    4. An inflammation of the blood vessels
    5. A disorder of the immune system leading to glomerulonephritis. This condition is known as lupus
    6. A rare disease affecting the connective tissues and skin, known as scleroderma.
    7. Inflammation of the kidney filters known as glomerulonephritis
    8. Consumption of certain toxins including but not limited to heavy metals, alcohol, cocaine etc
    9. A blood disorder, known as the Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

Renal failure due to blockage of the urine: There are certain conditions, diseases that can block the passage of urine leading to acute renal failure. The urinary obstruction can result from an array of conditions including enlarged prostate, kidney stones, blood clots in the tract of the urine, cancer in the bladder, cancer in the colon, damage of the nerve that controls the bladder, cancer-related to the cervics etc.
Some special condition: Apart from the condition mentioned-above, there are certain disorders that can lead to acute renal failure due to clotting of the blood vessels. Some of the conditions are malignant hypertension, hemolytic uremic syndrome, transfusion reaction, ITTP, scleroderma etc.

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