Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
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Menopause is characterized by the absence of menstrual periods for 12 months. It is the time in a woman’s life when the ovaries stop functioning. The periods then stop forever. The normal period of menopause is 51 years of age, however, menopause may happen as ahead of schedule as the 30s or as late as the 60s. There is no solid lab test to determine when a lady will encounter menopause. Early menopause usually starts between the ages of 40 and 45. Untimely menopause begins significantly earlier, before the age of 40. Nevertheless, premature or early menopause is not that common with only about one percent of the women going through early menopause before the age of 40.
The signs and symptoms of early menopause are like the usual menopause. Some basic side effects include:
- Irregular periods (amenorrhea)
- Hot flashes
- Night sweats
- Vaginal dryness
- Mood shifts
- Mental fogginess
- Diminished sex drive
Your specialist will suggest a treatment depending on your individual circumstances. Some common ways to deal with premature or early menopause are as follows:
Hormone Replacement Therapy
Supplements containing estrogen and progestin can help and replace some of your reproductive hormones in the body that can no longer make it all alone. They are frequently taken until the normal period of menopause (around 50) to help avoid bone loss. This treatment is not suggested for all ladies since it expands the danger of:
- Heart issues
- Blood clots
- Breast cancer
Supplemental Calcium and Vitamin D
Supplementary calcium and vitamin D can help in preventing osteoporosis in case you are not getting enough of these supplements from your normal diet. Women between ages 19 to 50 need to consume 1,000 milligrams of calcium for each day through food or supplements. Ladies over age 51 need to consume 1,200 milligrams for each day. A prescribed day-to-day measure of vitamin D has not yet been built up. For grown-up females, most specialists prescribe 600 to 800 global units through food or supplements. One should get a prescription from a doctor before ingesting the medication.
Other strategies to deal with Infertility
A few ladies with untimely menopause can at present get pregnant with no treatment. Ladies who want to have children, however, tend to become infertile after early or untimely menopause, need to consider in-vitro treatment, fertilization or even adoption.
Numerous ladies discover that having a conversation with a therapist can be supportive to adapt to their anxiety. It helps them release their pent up emotions and gives the clarity and satisfaction about their problems. Talk therapies like cognitive behavioral therapy are always beneficial since they help in addressing the symptoms and side effects that a woman may be going through emotionally when it comes to early menopause.
The abnormal growth of the endometrium tissue outside the uterus is known as endometriosis. Ideally, the abnormal tissue is supposed to break down and exit the body. However, in this condition, the tissue is unable to pass out of the body. As a result, the surrounding tissue tends to get irritated and leads to the formation of scar tissues.
The various causes of endometriosis include:
- Immune system disorder: Complications in the immune system might render it incapable of destroying the endometrial tissue that grows outside the uterus.
- Surgical scar implantation: Certain surgeries such as a C-section may result in the attachment of endometrial cells to the incision area.
- Embryonic cell transport: These cells may be transported to other parts of the body by the blood vessels which may lead to endometriosis.
- Retrograde menstruation: Instead of passing out of the body, under this condition, the blood flows back into the pelvic region via the fallopian tubes. When these cells attach themselves to the pelvic cavity, it causes endometriosis.
1. Pain during sexual intercourse
2. Pain during periods including pelvic pain, especially during periods, lower back pain and abdominal pain.
3. Excessive bleeding during periods
The major complication that results is fertility problems. Endometriosis may prevent the combination of the egg and the sperm and thus, impairs your ability to conceive. It is recommended not to delay pregnancy if you have endometriosis. This disorder also tends to increase the risk of ovarian cancer in some women.
How can it be treated?
Endometriosis is usually done using surgery or medications.
- Medication: It usually involves painkillers.
- Hormone therapy: Some of the hormonal therapies include:
- Hormonal contraceptives
- Progestin therapy
- Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH) agonists and antagonists
- Conservative surgery: If a patient wants to become pregnant, surgery is done as much as possible without harming the uterus and ovaries. Suggested procedures include laparoscopy and traditional abdominal surgery.
- Assisted reproductive technologies: An example of this form of treatment is In Vitro Fertilization.
- Hysterectomy: Under severe circumstances, total hysterectomy is conducted in order to facilitate the removal of cervix and uterus. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist and ask a free question.
Pregnancy brings with it many changes, such as physical and emotional. On one hand, you are changing your appearance completely as a person. On the other, your hormones are playing havoc and you are not sure if you are feeling happy, sad, confused, anger all at the same time or within short timespan. There could also be forgetfulness in some women.
It is not just you, but people around you also who are not sure how to manage this, especially your partner, who needs to be explained why this is happening. If you already have a child, don't be surprised if the first child feels very nervous and anxious about your mood swings.
However, good news is that these mood swings settle down and can be managed with a little bit of conscious effort. It is generally noted that the mood swings are worst in the first trimester and settle down gradually during the second trimester onwards. Women are more in control of their emotions and feelings. Though you may not voice it out, there are many concerns going on in your head with your pregnancy and these definitely make you anxious. As your due date nears, expect a surge in your anxiety/fear levels.
Simple methods to deal with mood swings:
- Talk it out: Whether your concern is, if your baby will be healthy or how will you manage finances, the best option is to discuss with your spouse about the same. You could also find support with close friends and relatives. Look for online support groups or from friends from your doctor's clinic you will find that everybody lends an ear and shoulder to support you.
- Rest: Pregnancy is extremely tiring physically and fatigue adds to your irritability. As it also plays with your regular sleep patterns, try and get as much rest and sleep for shorter durations whenever possible. If you are working, discuss with your boss to be able to take breaks.
- Exercise: Consult with your doctor and make sure you follow an exercise regime tailored for you. This not only reduces fatigue but makes you more active and less irritable.
- Nutrition: While you have your cravings, ensure you eat a healthy balanced diet. This not only contributes to physical well-being but also your emotional health.
- Socialize: Try and make new friends or spend time with old ones. They would be extremely delighted to hear your small talks and in the process, you would feel relaxed and happy too.
- Pamper yourself: While there is no point going shopping or pub hopping, treat yourself to a massage at a nearby spa or spend time reading a book or watching a movie. These can be extremely relaxing and easy to follow.
Needless to say, as much as they may sound unpleasant, the entire experience of these mood swings will leave you a different person.
Once the reality of the positive pregnancy test sets in, dreaming about the yet-to-arrive begins. Curiosity about gender, options for names, ways to manage, shopping ideas, etc., begin to get discussed. And then totally out of the blue the news comes that there is a miscarriage. This is one of the most depressing phases. It is very important for the family to be around and support each other. While the entire family is upset and hurt over the news, the mother needs most care as there is just not emotional but a huge physical component also to the episode. On the other hand, remember that miscarriages are extremely common, and is no indication of a fertility issue.
The first step would be to diagnose and confirm the miscarriage. After that, depending on whether it was complete or incomplete, some medical intervention might be required. In most cases, medications like misoprostol are given to expel the uterine contents. These help by clearing out the contents in about a couple of days' time. In some cases, a D and C might be required if your doctor suspects that medication will not suffice. This also helps identify if there is any issue in the uterus that could have caused the miscarriage.
While the above takes care of the physical part, the emotional component also requires cautious management. Needless to say, this is trickier than the earlier one.
- Mourn to your heart's content - When you have nursed a life within you and have lost it, it is very normal to cry for its loss. There would be a mix of emotions - shock, denial, confusion, anger, grief, depression, etc. Take some solace from that fact that this is nature's way of removing unhealthy fetuses.
- Get someone to talk to - Need not be your husband, but anybody whom you can talk to without having to watch words. A sibling, a good friend, a close relative - your choice. Make sure you don't pick ones who will judge and sympathize with you. More than sympathy, you need someone understanding and knowledgeable.
- Socialize more - As you would have kept to yourself post your positive test, use this time to socialize more and meet friends whom you have not regularly been in touch with. Close family members, your children (if you already have), society groups, movie groups, etc., help to a great extent.
- Formal medical counseling: If you are not able to cope with your regular circle of family and friends, try seeking professional advice from counseling.
- Spirituality - Whether you believe in temple or churches, spend some time there. Involve in some religious activity if you would like, this helps very often.
As much as it is painful and traumatic, it is not very uncommon or unnatural. Get back on your feet, the sooner you do, the better.
'Congratulations! You're pregnant!' Almost all women long to hear these words and nothing should come in the way, even diabetes. So, if you are a Type 1 or Type 2 diabetic, here are a few things you should keep in mind to have a healthy baby.
- Your blood sugar must be monitored regularly: The most important thing you can do to have a healthy baby is to keep your blood sugar as close to normal before and during your pregnancy. Testing is recommended a minimum of four times a day. Glucose passes through the mother's blood to the fetus and hence if your blood sugar fluctuates, so will your baby's. High blood sugar levels are especially harmful during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy when the baby's brain, heart, kidneys and lungs are formed.
- Your pregnancy is considered high risk: High blood sugar levels can increase the risk of a miscarriage as well as the risks of your baby being born with birth defects. Diabetes can also increase the risk of developing preeclampsia during the second half of your pregnancy. This could result in a C section or premature birth. Thus, maintain regular checkups and keep your doctor in the loop of all your activities.
- You should watch out for signs of ketosis: When you have low blood sugar, the body produces ketones that can be passed on from you to your baby. This production of ketones is a result of the body's burning of fat instead of glucose to provide energy and can develop a condition called ketosis. Symptoms you should watch out for are stomach aches, nausea, fatigue, muscle stiffness, frequent urination and fruity breath.
- You need Vitamins and Supplements: Most women require vitamin and mineral supplements at the time of pregnancy. Of these, folic acid, iron, calcium and vitamin D are the most important. These supplements help in the healthy growth of the baby.
- You should exercise regularly: Maintaining a regular physical activity routine is very important for diabetics who are expecting a baby. This will help you regularize your blood sugar, relieve stress and strengthen your heart. Avoid activities that increase your risk of falling and aim for at least thirty minutes of daily exercise such as walking, swimming or yoga.
- Check your medication: Some medication can be detrimental during pregnancy such as cholesterol and blood pressure medication. Consult your doctor to find a suitable alternative, if needed. You may also need to change the kind of insulin you take and its frequency and amount. As you get closer to the delivery date, your insulin requirement may even double or triple.
The key to preventing complications during pregnancy is controlling your diabetes. So take your insulin regularly, maintain regular checkups and eat healthy. You need to be seen by your obstetrician more frequently. Your pregnancy will be monitored closely by more frequent ultrasounds and NST. If your sugar level remains under control and pregnancy is advancing well, a natural onset of pains is aimed for and a normal delivery is expected.
I had diabetes in my pregnancy time, but after delivery it's gone, my question is, if any chance to come back.
I and my girlfriend had protected sex on 2feb. But I rubbed her without protection for 5-10 sec. Following which she took an ipill under 24 hours and had her withdrawal bleeding on 8th Feb for 3 days. Now she has not got her periods. Did upt twice in last 7 days and both are negative. Please help.
How to ensure a normal period when you're suffering from PCOS?
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal disorder affecting 12-18% of women of reproductive age. PCOS is a condition where at least two of the following conditions occur:
1. Appearance of acne, excessive hair on your body
2. Irregular delayed periods
3. The presence of 10 to 12 small cysts in the ovaries.
You do not ovulate each month, and some women do not ovulate at all if they are suffering from PCOS. This is because although the ovaries of women, suffering from PCOS, usually have many follicles, they do not develop fully and so ovulation often does not occur. If you do not ovulate, you may not have periods.
So what can you do to have normal periods?
Although some women with PCOS have regular periods, high levels of androgen and also the hormone insulin, can disrupt the monthly cycle of ovulation and menstruation. If you have PCOS, your periods may be irregular or may stop altogether. The average menstrual cycle is 28 days with one ovulation, but anywhere between 21 and 35 days is considered normal, and for a woman suffering from PCOS, this cycle can take as much as 3 months to complete.
To ensure a normal period during PCOS, your doctor can prescribe hormonal contraception. The medication can also reduce menstrual cramps, acne, and excess hair growth. The estrogen and progesterone in hormonal contraception act to override the body's normal hormonal control of menstrual cycle and ovulation. Production of hormones such as testosterone is greatly reduced by the oral contraceptive pill. Some oral contraceptive pills not only aim to block the effects of testosterone but also increase insulin resistance.
By allowing the regular shedding of the uterus lining during menstruation, the pill can reduce the risk of developing endometrial cancer while ensuring you get normal periods.
Note: it is important that you closely watch your weight. Lifestyle changes and weight reduction help a lot when you are suffering from PCOS.
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