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Visual Field Test Tips

Audio Visual Entertainment + Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation

Dr. Anuneet Sabharwal 89% (156 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Psychiatry
Psychiatrist, Delhi
Audio Visual Entertainment + Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation

Now, psychological problems can be managed better using cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation with Audio Visual Entertainment

If you happen to suffer from anxiety, depression, or insomnia, then you could benefit from simulation techniques such as Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) or audio-visual entrainment (AVE). These methods can also be used to treat headaches, give up smoking and fibromyalgia. Read on further to gain an insight and consult with an expert to experience its benefits.

CES and its benefits
Cranial electrotherapy stimulation uses a small device about the size of a cell phone which helps in the stimulation of the brain and the cranium with a very low power current usually below four milliamps. The microcurrent helps in an enhanced production of endorphin that helps in the facilitation of deep levels of relaxation leading to a sense of well - being. The best thing about this particular therapy is that there is no known or seen side-effects and thus a safe procedure to be carried out.

Besides the treatment of anxiety, depression, and disorders of the sleep, cranial electrotherapy stimulation is also proven to show a number of other benefits as well. It can be used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic disorder as well. Clinical studies have also revealed that the therapy is quite beneficial for cognitive dysfunction, traumatic injury of the brain and pain. Also, the therapy plays a crucial role in the enhancement of attention and concentration along with decreasing assaultive behavior. This simple handheld device can be purchased through a prescription for your physician.

Audio - Visual Entrainment and its benefits
The therapy combines the use of mild pulsating LED lights in the eye frames and psychoacoustic sounds in headphones for a quick deep relaxation by guiding the brain into various states of brainwave activity. Hence AVE is known as a mind machine that can help in the treatment of psychological and physiological disorders. The integration of neurotransmitter balancing, hypnotic learning, emotional and behavioral change helps in the immediate boosting up of the attention. This basically provides an all in one solution making the therapy both efficient and effective at the same time.

In this audiovisual entertainment process, the adjustable sound makes it easier for the person to focus and relax in peace. The eye sets are specially designed for the allowance of left and right visual fields of each of eyes to be stimulated individually rather than the entire eye at once. Getting regular sessions of this therapy will make the effects last for a longer duration of time. You will be able to notice less stress, better focus and mood, improved quality of sleep, high energy, and enhanced creativity.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

6006 people found this helpful

Super Fact of the Day: You seek visual clues!

Dr. Lalit Kumar Tripathy 89% (19501 ratings)
MBBS
General Physician, Cuttack
Super Fact of the Day: You seek visual clues!
The only two species known to seek visual clues are humans and dogs. You seek visual clues from another’s eyes, and dogs do it solely with humans

Would you like to share this interesting fact with family or friends? Go ahead and Share!
276 people found this helpful

Male Visual Appealing Treatments for the Face

Dr. Mukesh Batra 89% (516 ratings)
MBBS, MD-Skin,VD & Leprosy, Hair Transplant Surgeon
Dermatologist, Mumbai
Male Visual Appealing Treatments for the Face

What do men want for the face? Ideally, lesser male population seeks dermatologic services as compared with women. However, according to a recent survey completed by American Society of Aesthetic Plastic surgery, the US population spends over $13.5 billion on cosmetic procedures every year out of which only 9.5 were men. The number has grown manifold in the men partaking in cosmetic procedures by 325% since 1997.

Men are becoming more aware of such services and are ready to spend. The pattern has seen manifold increase. They get feedback from others who availed services. Social media also plays an important role. Men prefer those procedures that have minimal downtime.

Treatment of Double ChinMost or all men want to get rid of double chin. This could be a problem for even healthy men due to genetic fat pocket under chin. This makes them look being heavier. Treatment for this may help to debulk the fat. The treatment available may induce negligible bruising or pain. The treated area will appear red for few hours with a feel of numbness. There may be sensitivity to touch for few days. In another treatment, body's molecule copy is used to break down fat in the digestive system. This treatment helps to fix small sized to medium-sized double chin in men. This is also used as a follow up treatment for patients with residual fat.

Temporary solution to reverse aging could be by injecting neurotoxins or fillers. This softens wrinkles heightened with movement. Fillers used are hyaluronic acid and collagen stimulators. These replace the volume loss in those areas and improve a tired look or sagging cheeks or even loss of jawline definition as well as jowls.

Facial Redness in Males: The issue of broken blood vessels, facial redness or rosacea in males cannot have a complete cure via topical treatments. Laser treatments that are available for such issues are highly effective. We have several different lasers to address this and can find the best one for each patient's type of skin. Whether you want the treatment for the entire face or only for any targeted area that is most problematic, it is possible.

With the revolution of perfect looking face, every man can achieve it. The problems of double chin, wrinkles, losing jaw line, or even tired look and facial redness are no more considered as a problem forever. Non-invasive treatments at comprehensive medical and aesthetic dermatology practices have made it possible to get rid of them. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.

2911 people found this helpful

Positive Developements In the Male Enhancement Field

Dr. Vinod Raina 88% (5801 ratings)
MD - General Medicine
Sexologist, Delhi
Positive Developements In the Male Enhancement Field


What man wouldn't want a larger penis? Who wouldn't feel more confident with a bigger, thicker, and firmer erection? Until recently, these questions were fairly irrelevant. But, over the past few years modern science has finally caught up with male desire to be bigger. This article profiles a few of the new techniques that have become available to potentially turn the fantasy of a larger penis into a reality.

Male Enhancement Pills

You've seen them advertised on TV. Products like ExtenZe and Enzyte quickly became household names. These products, and hundreds of others as well, contain ingredients that supposedly increase blood flow into the corpora cavernosa, the two chambers of the penis. This increased blood flow expands the spongy tissue, thus increasing the size of the penis. The products that work best claim to increase the size of the penis by as much as 30%. While that may seem ludicrous, many of the companies that sell these products offer 100% money-back guarantees. This would lead you to believe that the products actually work. As a company, you wouldn't last very long if you were refunding money for dissatisfied customers on a regular basis. By offering a 100% satisfaction guarantee, you are really showing confidence in your product.

Penis Pump

The penis pump consists of a plastic tube with a rubber seal on one end. After inserting the penis into the tube, the rubber forms a vacuum seal around the base of the penis shaft. After squeezing the trigger, the pump yanks the air out of the tube and pulls additional blood into the penis. Similar to the male enhancement pills, the increased blood flow essentially stretches the penis, offering, in theory, a larger, thicker erection. The penis pump is believed to be the oldest method for natural penis enlargement.

Penis Extender

This devise uses the same scientific explanation as exercising. When you exercise, you are, in effect, tearing the microscopic fibers in the muscle tissue. As you continue to exercise and eat well, this torn cell tissue regrows back bigger and stronger. The penis extender works in much the same way. Over an extended period of time, the extender stretches the penis, thus tearing the microscopic tissue fibers in the penis. (Don't' worry, it doesn't hurt.) These tissue fibers rejuvenate, resulting, in theory, a bigger, thicker penis. The penis extender has long been the most popular technique for natural male enhancement.

But What Technique Works Best?

  • Recently, Marco Ordera and Paolo Gontero, two urological researchers at the University of Turin in Italy, researched outcomes from both surgical and nonsurgical penis enlargement techniques. 50% of this research involved surgery performed on 121 men, and the other half involved nonsurgical techniques (on 109 men). Ordera and Gontero found the surgical procedures to be dangerous, with high rates of post-surgical complications. They chose not to recommend this technique. The nonsurgical methods, however, did help grow the penis. The most successful technique, the penis extender, resulted in average growth of 0.7 inches of the flaccid penis in one study. In a separate study of the same method, men reported an average increase of 0.9 inches in length while flaccid and 0.67 inches while erect.
  • While these results are not mind blowing, they do offer encouragement. And rest assured, doctors and medical researchers across the globe are working to find additional techniques to increase this male enhancement. Viagra and Cialis have recently become available; however, they aim to cure erectile dysfunction rather than the actual size of the penis.
3 people found this helpful

Post-Partum Symptoms Arising From The Human Energy Field

Dr. Vinod Raina 88% (5801 ratings)
MD - General Medicine
Sexologist, Delhi
Post-Partum Symptoms Arising From The Human Energy Field

Post-Partum Symptoms Arising From the Human Energy Field

Of all the energy healing clients I've worked with since the 1980s, my postpartum women are some of the nearest and dearest to me. I think this is because, once they can return home feeling better, the lives of the little ones that depend so directly on them are also made better, not to mention the rest of their families.

Most had C-sections, which has become "the way to birth" these days. For convenience, I suppose, but history will have to tell whether it's a good trade-off or not.

When I started working with the human bio-field, C-sections were mostly a long vertical cut down the center of the belly. This was the cut that "Miranda" had when she came in to see me. Actually, she was kind of dragged in by her friend and was a total wreck.

The friend told me that since the baby was born, Miranda had been plagued with terrible fears that she would drop her baby. She began avoiding picking up her little girl for fear she couldn't hold on without dropping her.

She was prescribed antidepressants and anti-anxiety meds, but fortunately felt that it might make things worse and didn't take them. When I scanned the bio-field around her abdomen, it became clear to me why Miranda was feeling the way she did.

There was a huge opening in the field around the belly which indicates that, while the body itself heals over the surgical site, the bio-field does not always follow, and it stays open, unhealed.

There are different ways an opening in the field can feel to me. In Miranda's case, the energy flow around her belly felt like it was rushing out and in a downward motion. It made perfect sense to me why she felt the way she did. Life energy from where she had carried her baby internally was now "falling down" and away from her. That was the condition in her bio-field that she was picking up on and interpreting as fear of dropping her baby.

This is a primary principle to understand when dealing with the human energy field or bio-field. (It's also called the aura, the electromagnetic field and, most accurately, the morphogenetic field.) The body communicates with the bio-field and the bio-field communicates with the body.

The subtle energy of the bio-field interacts with and informs the physically denser body. This has been researched and documented extensively in the late 20th Century but has yet to be incorporated into medical curricula, so it is not yet acknowledged by doctors.

It was no wonder to me that on some subtle level Miranda "knew" that she would drop her baby because that's what the bio-field around her was telling her.

"Sue" had a different postpartum experience. She was constantly exhausted, like Miranda, but also felt she could not 'connect' with her body or with her baby. She started antidepressants but felt the were not 'fixing' the problem. And they weren't because the problem was not biochemical. It was bio-energetic.

Sue's C-section was the newer 'smile' cut under the bikini line. Like Miranda, Sue's incision had healed over but unlike Miranda, her bio-field also was healed over, just the way we'd expect all incisions, all wounds, to heal. So we had to search for other areas where the field might not have healed.

We found that Sue's energy was leaking out of the sit where her IV had been inserted. It was a "slow leak" but constant, and to Sue it felt like she could never get enough rest or take anything that would recharge her batteries and give her energy.

This is like some of the other moms I worked with that had regular childbirth experiences but who had either an epidural and/or episiotomy. These are also sites where the woman's energy can leak out and cause depression, exhaustion, anxiety, the lack of will to live or go on another day.

Sometimes this can even occur in childbirth without an epidural or episiotomy, especially with a difficult birth. The bio-field gets pushed out as the baby comes out and sometimes does not return to its normal place. With an opening or distortion in the bio-field around the first chakra or spiritual center (also called the root chakra), the will to live can simply drain away.

Finally, there was "Carol" whose C-section left her bio-field partially open; but rather than her energy leaking or rushing out, Carol's unhealed bio-field felt like a vacuum that wanted to pull my hand into her body. It was like an open energetic "wound" that left her feeling vulnerable and fearful. She would have terrifying nightmares of being attacked or a victim of unidentifiable and frightening forces.

Carol was a nervous wreck and her baby was picking up on her distress. Everyone in the family was tense and anxious. And that was the condition of all my postpartum clients, their babies, and their families.

Carol was told that it was "all in her mind," because everything "looked good"; she was prescribed a variety of medications. But it was not all in her mind. It was very real and these symptoms needed to be addressed on the level on which they occurred - in the human bio-field.

In every case, once we were able to identify the area in the bio-field that had not healed properly after the birth, it rarely took me more than one healing session to repair the energy field and witness the end of the very real, very disturbing symptoms. While invisible to us, the existence of the human energy field is proven, is real, and can be successfully restored to eliminate very real symptoms.

7 people found this helpful

How are Psychological tests helpful?

Ms. Archana Narwani 96% (112 ratings)
Masters In Clinical Psychology
Psychologist, Pune
How are Psychological tests helpful?

Psychological assessment — also known as psychological testing — is done to help a psychologist better understand an individual and provide valuable insights into the individual’s behavior, skills, thoughts and personality. Psychological testing commonly includes intelligence testing, personality testing, and skills testing, among other areas.

Psychological assessment is never focused on a single test score or number. Every person has a range of competencies that can be evaluated through a number of methods. A psychologist is there to evaluate the competencies as well as the limitations of the person, and report on them in an objective but helpful manner. A psychological assessment report will not only note weaknesses found in testing, but also the individual’s strengths.

It has often ben said that 'you are what you think'. It is the human mind which enabled the entire race to dominate over the planet over millions of other species. How can this very complex instrument is so difficult to understand? The human mind is capable of extreme highs and lows in terms of every aspect such as emotions, achievement, empathy anger and so forth. One field of study is Psychology which does help us in its understanding. 

What are psychological tests?

Psychological tests are a method to gauge various parameters of an individual’s mind and how it works. There are not one but multiple psychological tests which help with determining various aspects of a person’s mental functioning and capabilities among others. Like medical tests such as X-rays and various types of blood reports help us get a better picture of the condition of your body, similarly, psychological testing helps us a get a better view of a person’s thinking and if at all there are any problems with it. Just a few examples of psychological testing are as follows – 

  1. Aptitude testing in children to check for learning disabilities 
  2. Testing for skills such as dexterity or flexibility, and reaction time to look for brain damage or dementia
  3. Memory tests to look for psychological disorders as well as dementia
  4. Testing for anxiety related disorders especially in social conditions, both in children and adults

How are these helpful?
More than pinpointing psychological disorders, these tests are meant to help an individual point out problems and then start on a treatment or therapy to overcome the problems. These tests can help a person in many ways such as – 

  1. Identifying problems early on when they are mild, thus making treatment more effective
  2. Help them further in studies or their career where certain conditions or problems were becoming an impediment
  3. Provide methods to tackle a phobia
  4. Sometimes, psychological testing is very helpful in diagnosing serious mental issues such as depression which may force many to take their own lives; thus preventing it
  5. Helping to combat physiological problems in cases where no pathological causes are found. In many cases, stress and anxiety lead to other disorders like diabetes, hypertension, gastrointestinal troubles and others. Once the psychological side is treated after correct diagnosis, the physical problems also tend to dissipate. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a psychologist.
4463 people found this helpful

Test Tube Baby Cost

Dr. Sanjeev Kumar Singh 87% (192 ratings)
Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Lakhimpur Kheri
Test Tube Baby Cost

Test tube babies is the term given to the babies who are born with the help of IVF treatments. The cost of test tube baby in India, is less than the western countries. Advanced technology and expert doctors are present all over India especially in Delhi , who have a very high success rate of 65%. The cost of the entire treatment can vary from Rs. 1,10,000 to Rs. 2,00,000. Cost is dependent on many factors like use of fertility drugs and the kind of treatments opted for. It also depends upon the number of cycles. 

Some of the best test tube baby centers in Delhi are:

1. Benison IVF & Health Care Clinic- Dwarka, Delhi

Consultation fees: ₹500

Benison IVF Clinic provides all kind of fertility treatments under one roof like IUI, IVF, ICSI, Egg Donation, Sperm Donation and Surrogacy. They have a team of case managers, nurses, technicians, and experienced gynecologists who treat their patients with utmost warmth and care. Years of experience of these gynecologist helps them with designing customized treatment and delivering a high success rate. 

2. Baby Joy IVF & Surrogacy Centre- Rajouri Garden, New Delhi

Consultation fees: ₹500

Baby Joy is a state of the art IVF & Surrogacy Centre which is known to provide advanced treatment at an affordable cost. They are know to provide an end to end to solution with their team. The center is also known for high success rates.  Doctors here follow international protocols and use of latest technologies. The centre is known for fertility treatment, IUI-Intrauterine-insemination, ICSI and Surrogacy. 

3. New Life India Fertility Clinic- Lajpat Nagar, New Delhi

Consultation fees: ₹800

The New Life India Clinic is an initiative of international chain from Europe- Global Lotus Clinics in India. The clinic are known to meet the standards of Europe and Asia as well as the laws framed by Govt. of India. Some of the services offered by the clinic are In Vitro Fertilization (IVF), Micromanipulation (ICSI), Surrogacy, Blastocyst, Egg Donation and Cryopreservation. 
The team is highly professional in their ethics and with years of experience have been delivering the best results. 

4. Dr. World Ivf Centre- Ring road, New Delhi

Consultation fees: ₹500

World IVF Centre is considered as a pioneer Super Specialty Centre of Delhi. The center has treated hundreds of patients from India and abroad successfully. The gynecologist here are known to focus on methodologies which are known to increase the chances of natural pregnancy before proceeding for IVF. The centre meets International Standards and is also among few centers in India that provide IVF training to Doctors. Some of the facilities provided in the hospital for better treatment are infertility evaluation and treatment, use of ART techniques like Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI). They have an in-house IUI Lab. 

5. Indira Ivf Centre - Patel Nagar, Delhi

Consultation fees: ₹500

Indira IVF clinic is a trusted and successful chain of fertility centers in Delhi. Some of the various treatments provided here are assisted reproductive technologies like IUI, IVF/ICSI, IMSI. The team here consists of best gynecologist, sonographers, embryologists, nurses and counselors that provide a holistic approach. Latest and advanced methods to treat the cases of infertility in both men and women. They have a very high IVF success rate and has become a preferred center for treatment. 

6. Fortis Bloom IVF Centre- Greater Kailash-II, New Delhi

Consultation fees: ₹1000

Bloom IVF Group is amongst India’s 1st centre which was established  in 1991. Under the leadership of Dr Hrishikesh Pai and Dr Nandita Palshetkar,who are a reputed name in the field of obstetrician and gynecologist. There are various techniques of assisted reproduction that help in treating infertility in males and females. Bloom IVF Group is amongst the most premiere chain of hospitals to treat fertility. They have treated over 25000 patients from India and abroad. The  success rate is exceptionally high, especially, in women above 35 years of age. The rate is over 35-40% per started cycle. 

7. Apollo Fertility- Moti Nagar, New Delhi

Consultation fees: ₹800

The apollo group of hospitals has a team of doctors who specialize in reproductive medicine, nurse-counselors, ultrasonographers, embryologists and andrologists. They provide world class infertility treatment using advanced procedures and equipment. They have a high success rate using assisted reproduction therapy and surrogacy.

8.  Max Multi Speciality Centre- Saket, Delhi

Consultation fees: ₹1200

Max hospital is a well known name in healthcare world. It has some of  the best IVF specialist at their Panchsheel center like Dr. Richa Seth. She has 10 years of experience and her areas of special interest are Intrauterine Insemination, Ovulation Induction Treatment (OI), sperm donor programs and blastocyst transfers.

2 people found this helpful

When Should You Go For A Hearing Test?

Dr. (Major) Vipin Kakar Retd. 88% (84 ratings)
MBBS (M.A.M.C), M.S. ENT
ENT Specialist, Delhi
When Should You Go For A Hearing Test?

Here are 6 signs to watch out for that could indicate 'You need to get your Ears tested':

1. Your TV is blaring: Do you often find people around you shouting above the TV sound complaining that it's too loud? When you find it hard to hear the TV at the average volume and find yourself turning up the sound, this could signify a hearing loss. Doctors are seeing a growing number of patients visiting them after prolonged exposure to loud music and sounds.

2. You find it hard to hear phone conversations: Do you find yourself asking the person on the other end of the phone line to 'repeat' themselves, or find yourself pressing the phone instrument right into your ear? If you are trying so hard to hear, you might find yourself missing out on bits of the conversation as focussing to clearly hear the conversation is exhausting work. Getting a hearing test might be a good option if this sounds like you.

3. You have trouble hearing in noisy environments: When you are out dining with friends or family at a busy restaurant or accompanying a friend shopping in a busy street, all that background noise makes it difficult to hear what the people are saying. People with hearing loss often have problems masking out background noise.

4. Family members telling 'you're going deaf': Trust the views of the people closest to you, they never lie about your health. Family members often are the first to sense signs of hearing loss as they find themselves repeating things to you or calling out louder to get your 'attention'.

5. Leaning closer: You find yourself leaning closer to people to follow the conversation or staring at their lips trying to lip-read what's being said.

6. Avoiding social interactions: You find yourself staying away from social occasions, family gatherings or avoid being the first to start conversations. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an ENT specialist.

3921 people found this helpful

Why and When Should I Go for HPV Test?

Panchkula & Delhi
Mother and Child Care, Panchkula
Why and When Should I Go for HPV Test?

Persistent infection of the uterine cervix with high risk human papilloma virus (HPV) leads to development of cervical cancer. Infection with HPV is common especially in sexually active young women, most infections are transient and spontaneously clear within 1 to 2 years without causing cancer. These transient infections may cause temporary changes in cervical cells. If a cervical infection with high risk HPV type persists the cellular changes can eventually develop into more severe precancerous lesions. If pre cancerous lesions are not treated, they can progress to cancer. Thus, an HPV DNA test is recommended to identify the high risk types of HPV.

Why is Pap Smear done?

An HPV test is done to:

Check for high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) in women who had a Pap test that showed abnormal cervical cells called atypical squamous cells (ASCUS). An HPV test can help look for one or more high-risk types of HPV.
Check for HPV in women older than age 30 as part of screening for abnormal cervical cells.
Help check for abnormal cervical cells after treatment of a high-risk HPV infection.

When should one get screened for cervical cancer?

American Cancer Society does not recommend using HPV DNA test to screen for cervical cancer in females under 30. This is because females in their twenties who are sexually active are much more likely (than older females) to have a HPV infection that goes away on its own. For these young females, results of this test are not as significant and may be confusing.

For females age 30 and older, Pap & HPV co testing is less likely to miss an abnormality (i.e. lower false negative rate than pap testing alone. It also lengthens the screening interval to 5 years and still allows abnormalities to be detected in time to treat them.

Women of age >65 yrs who have had adequate screening history or those who have had total hysterectomy do not need any further screening.

HPV TEST

Is HPV test as safe and effective as Pap Smear?

The advantage of the HPV test is that the Pap test misses a fair number of carcinomas as it has a lower sensitivity. Studies have also shown that a negative HPV test is better at predicting that a woman will be free of lesions for the next three years than a negative Pap test.

And while the experience for the patient is the same for both tests, the HPV test requires less material from the cervix to detect an infection so there's less concern that a sample will be inadequate.

How is the HPV test performed?
Before an HPV test, do not douche, use tampons, or use vaginal medicines for at least 48 hours.
In the HPV test, a doctor takes a swab of cells from the cervix, just as for the Pap test. The cells are then analyzed in a laboratory. The genetic material (DNA) of the HPV virus is studied. This test can identify 13 or 14 of the high-risk HPV types associated with cervical cancer. HPV test results are generally available in 1 to 2 weeks.

You may have a small amount of vaginal bleeding or gray-green discharge after this test.

3103 people found this helpful

Mantoux Test or Tuberculin Skin Test

Dr. Kaushal Maheshwari 88% (35 ratings)
MD - Pathology
Pathologist, Noida
Mantoux Test or Tuberculin Skin Test

Diagnosis of tuberculosis is based on a combination of clinical features, smear examination of sputum where available, tuberculin skin testing or Mantoux test, chest X-ray and Histopathologic / cytologic examination as appropriate. Common clinical features are weight loss, persistent fever and /or cough of more than 2 weeks duration and history of close contact with another Tuberculosis patient.

Mantoux test also known as Tuberculin skin test is used for the detection of infection by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis bacteria. The test consists of slowly injecting a liquid intradermally (superficially within the layers of the skin) on the forearm, leading to formation of a raised vesicle which should be easily visible to the naked eye. This liquid, used in India, is Tuberculin PPD RT 23 strain. Tuberculin is a glycerol extract of the Tuberculosis bacteria. This is one of the two WHO accepted standard tuberculins, apart from PPD-S. In India, where the prevalence of tuberculosis is high, the recommended dose of this liquid is 0.1 ml of 1 TU (TU stands for tuberculin units) .1 TU is the strength of the liquid mentioned on the vial. This liquid is usually administered by a very tiny syringe, usually of 26 gauge. (Needle diameter).

Please click on the link to watch a video  demonstrating  how this procedure is performed.

Test principle : The individual who has been infected with Tubercle bacilli responds with a hypersensitivity reaction at the test site in the form of induration. Induration is the palpable raised hardening of the skin, while erythema refers to redness of skin. Only induration is clinically significant and measured after 48 to 72hours following injection. Diameter of the Induration is measured by a scale in millimetres perpendicular to the long axis of the forearm.

Interpretation of the tuberculin test

  1. Size of induration 15 mm and above : - signifies infection with tubercle bacilli
  2. Size of induration 10-14 mm : - could be due to infection with tubercle bacilli, BCG induced sensitivity, or due to cross reaction with other environmental mycobacteria.

It is more likely to be attributable to infection with tubercle bacilli in case of history of contact with smear positive case of pulmonary TB, clinically confirmed TB OR X-ray consistent with active TB.

  1. Size of induration 5 -9 mm: usually non tuberculous in nature generally
  2. Size of induration <5 mm : indicates absence of any type of mycobacterial infection.

Precautions during this procedure :

  1. If a raised vesicle does not appear it means that the liquid has been injected too deeply, and the test should be repeated on the other arm. If the same arm is used the injection site should be should be separated at least 5 cm from the first injection site.
  2. Occasional patients may experience severe allergic reaction to the tuberculin PPD

Comments :

  1. Larger the size of the induration, higher the probability of presence of infection with tubercle bacilli.
  2. Almost all reactions with induration more than 15 mm maybe considered attributable to infection with tubercle bacilli.
  3. Formation of necrosis (ulcer) at the test site, indicates high degree of tuberculin sensitivity and suggests presence of infection with tubercle bacteria.
  4. Tuberculin reaction may be suppressed (falsely low) in presence of immunosuppressive states. Like HIV, malnutrition, patient on steroid therapy etc.
  5. Mantoux test is generally not recommended for infants less than 12 weeks old. If the test turns out to be positive, then it is significant, but if the test is negative, then the test needs to be repeated again.
  6. The tuberculin test detects only the presence or absence of tuberculosis infection. The presence of infection is not synonymous with disease. It simply means, that even if you have tuberculosis infection in your body, as detected by positive Mantoux test, it does not mean you have active Tuberculosis in your body and require anti tuberculosis drugs in all cases. The clinician will correlate your mantoux test result with other tests ( as mentioned at the top of the blog) to give you a final picture.  
  7. For more such interesting articles please visit my blogsite www.doctors4patients.com
5 people found this helpful
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