As life expectancy is increasing so is the incidence of vertebral body (VB) fractures now being the commonest fracture of the body. PVP is an established interventional technique in which bone cement is injected under local anaesthesia via a needle into a fractured VB with imaging guidance providing instant pain relief, increased bone strength, stability, decreasing analgesic medicines, increased mobility with improved quality of life and early return to work in days.
In this era of minimally access surgery replacing open surgeries, PVP is a novel procedure & should be in the first line of management in place of conservatism or major spine surgery for painful uncomplicated compression fracture spine.
Morbidity & consequences of spinal fracture:
Results / Outcome
Percutaneous Vertebroplasty (PVP) is an emerging interventional technique in which surgical polymethyl methacrylate bone cement is injected under local anaesthesia via a large bore needle into a vertebral body (VB) under imaging guidance providing increased bone strength, stability, pain relief, decreased analgesics, increased mobility with improved QOL and early return to work. Started in 1984 by Galibert PVP is done in host of indications.
Senile osteoporotic compression remains the commonest Indication. Other indications are Metastatic VB, Multiple myeloma VB, VB haemangioma, Vertebral osteonecrosis & for strengthening VB before major spinal surgery. The benefit has been extended to the traumatic stable uncomplicated VB compression (VCF) which is commoner in younger age group with active life profile and prime of their career where strict bed rest and acute or chronic pain are unacceptable and they are more demanding for proactive treatment approach so as to be back to work ASAP.
Discovering the fact that VB is the commonest of body, its incidence >the hip, it becomes imperative to take it more seriously. With increasing life-span there is more of aged osteoporotic population, more so due to sedentary indoor lifestyle and post menopausal osteoporosis. Diabetics, smokers & alcoholics are at higher risk of developing osteoporosis. I have seen such alcoholic patient developing six spine fractures in just three months time from a single fracture being on complete bed rest.
Quick fix of fracture spine makes patient walk back same day instead of bed rest of months together avoiding morbidity & mortality of prolonged bed rest, making bedridden patient walk, in a way bringing patient back to normal life.
In this era of MAS replacing open surgeries, PVP is a novel procedure & should be in the first line of management in place of conservatism or major spine surgery for painful uncomplicated compression.
Morbidity & consequenses of spinal
Morbidity and complication of spinal surgery
Preparation & Procedure:
X-ray spine in a/p & lat view. CT is more informative of bone & morphology. MRI is good for soft tissue injuries. Ask for pedicle size in all dimensions and construct a 3D image aiming needle placement and cement filling in scan room itself as rehearsal of PVP. This reduces operative time & gives better results. Conventionally PVP is done by hammering the vertebroplasty needle through the bone. Here we use light weight drill to bore through the vertebra. It is important to set the needle at exact entry site & side with right trajectory aiming the defects.
In lateral view needle should go through middle of the pedicle going up to anterior 1/3 of VB. In P/A view the needle can be in midline or paramedian depending upon & if uni/bipedicular approach is planned. Approach varies as per location of vertebra, anterolateral in cervical, costotransverse/parapedicular in thoracic & transpedicular in lumbar vertebra.
Do bone biopsy if there is any doubt about lession. Do dye test (vertebral venography). Make cement more radiopaque by adding barium /or tungsten. Inject cement with 1or2 ml luerlock syringes strictly under fluoroscope in lateral view & cross checking in P/A view. Stop injecting either there is adequate filling or at the first sight of ectopic cement leak. Keep sample cement to see for hardening. Remove needle with rotational movement before cement hardens.
Pain relief is by virtue of different mechanisms postulated :
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