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Overview

Typhoid - Symptom, Treatment And Causes

What is Typhiod?

Typhoid is an illness that is caused by the Salmonella typhimurium bacterium. This bacteria lives in the bloodstream and intestine of human beings.

Typhoid spreads between people only by direct contact with the feces of a Salmonella typhimurium infected person.As no animal can be a carrier of this disease, so typhoid is always transmitted human to human.If typhoid is left untreated, approximately 1 among 4 cases of this disease ends up in death. Nevertheless if treated at the right time the mortality rate is less than 4 percent. Once the bacteria enters the body through the mouth, it the S.typhi bacterium stays in the host’s intestine for 1-3 weeks. After this it slowly makes its way into the bloodstream of the infected patient.Thereafter it spreads to other tissues and organs of the host. The immune system of the patient can hardly fight with the S.typhi bacterium, as it can live within the patient’s cells, shunned away from the host’s immune system.

Symptoms and Causes :

This disease is diagnosed by detecting the presence of this bacterium in the stool, blood, urine or the bone marrow samples of the infected patient.

Countries which have less access to clean water and proper washing facilities register higher number of typhoid cases.

Some of the safety rules while travelling for avoiding Typhoid are:

  • Drink bottled water.
  • In absence of bottled water, drink boiled water that has been boiled for at least one minute before its consumption.
  • Avoid eating foods from street food stands, or eat while the food is still hot.
  • Do not encourage yourself to have ice in your drinks.
  • Avoid peeled raw fruits, rather always peel the fruits yourself.
  • Beware of consuming any food that has been handled by someone else.

South America, Africa and Asia (especially India) are places which are more known for getting infected with this disease.

Treatment :

Before travelling to places which are considered to be high risk zones, getting yourself vaccinated against this disease is recommended. Vaccination against typhoid can be done by a one-off injection or by oral medications.

The live oral vaccine against typhoid consists of 4 tablets. You must take one tablet every day, with an approximation that the last tablet must be consumed 1 week before the travel.For inactive typhoid vaccine a single injection must be taken 2 weeks before the travel date.Typhoid oral live vaccination must be avoided if the person is ill, under 6 years of age or is suffering from HIV.

Treatable by medical professional Require medical diagnosis Lab test always required Short-term: resolves within days to weeks Spread through the air or contaminated surfaces
Symptoms
High fever and chill. Severe diarrhoea. Headache

Popular Health Tips

Typhoid - Signs You Are Suffering From It!

MBBS, Diploma in Tuberculosis and Chest Diseases (DTCD), MD - General Medicine
General Physician, Delhi
Typhoid - Signs You Are Suffering From It!

Typhoid is as an acute illness commonly characterized by high fever and an impaired digestive system. This illness is caused by the bacterium ‘Salmonella Typhi’ and generally spreads from one person to another by means of food or water.

Causes of typhoid

  • Salmonella Typhi, the bacterium responsible for typhoid, primarily spreads on consumption of unhygienic street food and water.
  • Typhoid can also occur as a result of a poor sanitation system. In these cases, the bacterium spreads through fecal matters and the contaminated urine of the infected person.
  • Typhoid can also spread if you share the same food and water consumed by the infected person.

Symptoms 
The symptoms generally appear within 1-3 weeks, after coming in contact with the already infected individual. The ensuing fever and discomfort remains for about 3-4 weeks. The symptoms are:

  • Severe headache and loss of appetite
  • High fever
  • Severe discomfort in the whole body coupled with pain in the abdomen area
  • Drowsiness
  • Diarrhea or constipation
  • A dry cough and appearance of rashes

However, in most of the cases, the symptoms tend to improve from the third week itself.

Treatment
The following treatments can be implemented in order to cure typhoid fever:

  • Doctors generally recommend a prescribed dosage of antibiotics in order to deal with the disease. 
  • Along with the prescribed dosage of antibiotics, the doctors recommend balanced consumption of various fluids such as natural fruit juices and water to restore hydration. A healthy diet packed with all the essential nutrients is another necessity that has to complement the dosage of antibiotics.
  • Choice of antibiotics should be Ceftriaxone, Cefixime, Azithromycin and Ciprofloxacin.

Complications

  1. The two most common complications are haemorrhage (including disseminated intravascular coagulation) and perforation of the bowel. Before antibiotics, perforation had a mortality of around 75%.
  2. Jaundice may be due to hepatitis, cholangitis, cholecystitis, or haemolysis.
  3. Pancreatitis with acute kidney injury and hepatitis with hepatomegaly are rare.
  4. Toxic myocarditis occurs in 1-5% of patients (ECG changes may be present). It is a significant cause of death in endemic areas.
  5. Toxic confusional states and other neurological and psychiatric disturbances have been reported.

Needs and Indications for Hospitalization-

Hospital admission is usually recommended if you have severe symptoms of typhoid fever, such as persistent vomiting, severe diarrhoea or a swollen stomach. As a precaution, young children who develop typhoid fever may be admitted to hospital. In hospital, you'll have antibiotic injections and you may also be given fluids and nutrients directly into a vein through an intravenous drip. Surgery may be needed if you develop life-threatening complications of typhoid fever, such as internal bleeding or a section of your digestive system splitting. However, this is very rare in people being treated with antibiotics. Most people respond well to hospital treatment and improve within three to five days. However, it may be several weeks until you're well enough to leave hospital.

Vaccines

Two types of vaccines are available

  • Injected
  • Oral 

The injected vaccine is more commonly used and  is also known as inactivated typhoid shot . It is injected in one single shot an it can easily provide protection against typhoid. This type is widely prevalent in cases where one has to travel to a typhoid infected place. However, one must be careful and should keep a tab as to what they eat or drink at the time of travelling. Also, this type of vaccine should not be administered on kids below 2 years old.

If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor.

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Symptoms Of Typhoid In Hindi - टाइफाइड के लक्षण

Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Lakhimpur Kheri
Symptoms Of Typhoid In Hindi -  टाइफाइड के लक्षण

टाइफाइड के जीवाणु को साल्मोनेला टाइफी कहा जाता है. यह हमारे मुंह से हमारे शरीर के अंदर प्रवेश करता है. अधिकतम 3 सप्ताह तक हमारी आंतों में अपना घर बनाता है. उसके बाद यह आंतों की दीवार से होते हुए खून में प्रवेश कर जाता है. खून की सहायता से यह अन्य को और शरीर के कई अंगों में फैल जाता है. हमारे शरीर का प्रतिरक्षा तंत्र साल्मोनेला टाइफी से मुकाबला नहीं कर पाता है. क्योंकि यह जीवाणु हमारी कोशिकाओं में बिना प्रतिरक्षा प्रणाली से प्रभावित हुए सुरक्षित रूप से निवास कर सकता है.

जीवाणुओं के कारण दुनिया भर में होने वाला टाइफाइड, भारत की भी एक आम बीमारी है. टाइफाइड के जीवाणु हमारी आंखों और रक्त प्रवाह में संक्रमण करते हैं. यह एक संक्रामक बीमारी है जो एक मनुष्य से दूसरे मनुष्य में फैलता है. एक अनुमान के अनुसार टाइफाइड के मरीज़ का यदि उपचार नहीं किया जाए तो 4 में से एक इंसान की मौत भी हो सकती है. टाइफाइड के आम तौर पर कई लक्षण होते हैं जिनके आधार पर चिकित्सक या फिर कोई भी इसके होने का अनुमान लगा सकता है. आइए देखें ऐसे ही कुछ लक्षणों को 

टाइफाइड  के लक्षणों को 3 चरणों में समझें-

1. प्रथम चरण:- टाइफाइड बुखार के लक्षणों को हम तीन चरणों में समझ सकते हैं. पहले चरण में हल्की बुखार आती है और और शरीर ज्यादातर गर्म रहने लगता है. इसके साथ ही सर दर्द पेट दर्द बदन दर्द आदि जैसे लक्षण भी दिखाई देने लगते हैं
2. द्वितीय चरण:- दूसरे चरण में मरीज का बुखार बहुत ज्यादा हो जाता है. यह 40 डिग्री से लेकर 104 डिग्री के बीच हो सकता है. उसे अपने शरीर में कमजोरी महसूस होती है वह आलस महसूस करने लगता है.
3. तृतीय चरण:- तीसरे चरण में मरीज की सेहत बहुत खराब हो जाती है. तेज बुखार साथी बहुत ज्यादा शारीरिक कमजोरी 24 घंटे आंत ज्वर का बने रहना और सांस लेने में दिक्कत आने लगना आज जैसे लक्षण दिखाई देने लगते हैं.

टाइफाइड के लक्षण
टाइफाइड एक ऐसी बीमारी है जिसके लक्षण लगभग 1 से 2 सप्ताह तक बढ़ती है और 3 से 4 सप्ताह तक रह सकती है.

1. दर्द और बेचैनी की समस्या
टाइफाइड के दौरान मरीज के शरीर मैं मरीज के पूरे शरीर में दर्द रहता है इस दर्द के कारण आपको बेचैनी भी हो सकती है.
2. तेज बुखार होना
टाइफाइड में जैसा कि हमने पहले ही देखा है कि तेज बुखार होता है यह बुखार 104 डिग्री फारेनहाइट से भी ज्यादा हो सकता है.
3. भूख न लगना
इस बीमारी में भूख न लगने की भी समस्या देखी जाती है इसलिए टाइफाइड के दौरान कुछ भी खाने का मन नहीं करता है.
4. दस्त होना
टाइफाइड में दस्त जैसी समस्याएं भी देखी जाती हैं. दस्त रहने के कारण आपके पुरे शरीर में डिहाइड्रेशन यानी पानी की कमी भी हो जाती है.
5. सर दर्द का होना
सर में दर्द का होना भी टाइफाइड के कई कारणों में से एक है. टाइफाइड में सरदर्द होना या सर भारी रहना आम बात है.
6. सुस्ती या आलस आना
इस दौरान होने वाली कई परेशानियों में एक है आलस रहना. यानी कि टाइफाइड में आपके पूरे शरीर में आलस रहता है. आपका मन स्वस्थ रहेगा और कुछ भी करने का मन नहीं करता है
7. छाती में काफ जमा
टाइफाइड बुखार की स्थिति में कई लोगों के छाती में कफ जमा हो सकता है. इस दौरान छाती में कफ़ जमा हो जाने से भी कई तरह की समस्याएं उत्पन्न हो जाती हैं.
8. पेट में दर्द होना
टाइफाइड बुखार में आपके अंदर पेट दर्द की भी समस्या देखी जा सकती है. इस दौरान आपके पेट में लगातार दर्द रह सकता है.

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टाइफाइड का आयुर्वेदिक उपचार

MBBS, M.Sc - Dietitics / Nutrition
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Delhi
टाइफाइड का आयुर्वेदिक उपचार

आयुर्वेद में तमाम रोगों का इलाज उपलब्ध है. आयुर्वेद से इलाज का एक अतिरिक्त फायदा ये है कि इससे सफल इलाज होकर सेहत तो ठीक होता ही है साथ में कई और आवाश्यक तत्व हमें मिल जाते हैं. थायराइड को अपनाना बहुत ही आसान और तरीके बहुत सरल हैं. थायराइड के इलाज के भी कई तरीके आयुर्वेद और घरेलु उपचारों में बताया गया है. इन तरीकों के कई फायदे हैं. सबसे बड़ा फायदा है कि ये आसानी से उपलब्ध है और इसका कोई साइड इफेक्ट भी नहीं है. तो आइए जानें कि थायराइड के उपचार के लिए कौन-कौन से आयुर्वेदिक तरीके उपलब्ध हैं-

  • मुलेठी: थायराइड में थकान का अनुभव जल्दी ही होने लगता है. इस थकान को दूर करने में मुलेठी बहुत कारगर है. इसमें थायराइड ग्रंथि को संतुलित करने वाला और थकान को उर्जा में बदलने वाला तत्व पाया जाता है. और इस प्रकार मुलेठी से थायराइड में आपको लाभ मिलता है.
  • जूस: थायराइड के मरीजों को कुछ फलों जैसे कि संतरा, अंगूर का रस, नारियल पानी, चुकंदर, अन्नानास, गाजर, सेब, पत्तागोभी आदि का जूस लगातार कुछ दिनों तक देने से उन्हें आराम मिलता है. यदि आप इन फलों को कच्चा खाना चाहें तो कच्चा भी खा सकते हैं.
  • साबुत धनिया: थायराइड के बीमारी में साबुत धनिया भी बहुत काम आता है. इसके लिए एक ग्लास पानी में दो चम्मच साबुत धनिया रात में भिगोकर रख दें. सुबह इसे मसलकर तब तक उबालें जब तक कि पानी एक चौथाई न रह जाए. इसके बाद थोड़ा ठंडा होने पर इसे खाली पेट पी लें. और फिर पानी में नमक डालकर गरारे करें. लगातार इस उपचार को करने से थायराइड से निजत मिल सकता है.
  • साबुत अनाज: बुत अनाज से बने खाद्य पदार्थों का सेवन भी आपको थायराइड से दूर रखने में आपकी मदद करता है. क्योंकि साबुत अनाज में फाइबर, विटामिन्स और प्रोटीन आदि प्रचुर मात्रा में पाया जाता है. ये सभी मिलकर थायराइड को बढ़ने से रोकते हैं.
  • आटा: यराइड में राहत के लिए आटा भी काम आता है. इसके लिए 5 किलो आटे के साथ 1 किलो बाजरे का आटा और एक किलो जौ का आटा मिलाकर इससे बनी रोटियां खाने से आपको काफी हद तक थायराइड से निपटने में मदद मिलेगी.
  • गो-मूत्र: सुबह उठकर फ्रेश होने के बाद साफ़ कपड़े से गोमूत्र को छान लें. फिर इसे सुबह खली पेट लें. इसे लेने के डेढ़ घंटे तक आपको कुछ नहीं लेना है. इस दौरान ये ध्यान रखें कि आपको फास्ट फ़ूड और तैलीय भोजन से दूर रहना है. आप पायेंगे कि इससे भी थायराइड ठीक हो रहा है.
  • अदरक: सभी घरों में प्रयोग किया जाने वाला अदरक में मौजूद गुण आपको थायराइड से लड़ने में मदद करते हैं. अदरक में मैग्नीशियम और पोटैशियम ही वो तत्व हैं जो थायराइड से आपको मुक्ति दिलाते हैं. इसके आलावा अदरक में एंटी-इन्फ्लेमेटरी गुण भी होता है जो कि थायराइड का प्रभाव कम करके उसे फंक्शनल बनाता है.

कुछ अन्य जड़ी-बूटी:
काला अखरोट, बाकोपा, निम्बी बाम, अश्वगंधा, इचिंसिया, मुलेठी, अदरक, गेहूं का ज्वारा आदि सभी जड़ी-बूटी थायराइड के उपचार में महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका निभाते हैं. लेकिन इनके उपयोग से पहले आपको किसी आयुर्वेद के डॉक्टर से संपर्क कर लेना चाहिए.

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Typhoid Fever - Follow These Steps and Prevent It!

MBBS, DNB (General Medicine), Certified in Evidence Based Diabetes Management, MNAMS, MRCP (UK)
Internal Medicine Specialist, Kolkata
Typhoid Fever - Follow These Steps and Prevent It!

Typhoid is an infectious bacterial fever with an eruption of red spots on the chest and abdomen and severe intestinal irritation, brought about by the Salmonella typhi bacteria. It can also be brought about by Salmonella paratyphi, a related bacterium that generally causes a less extreme sickness. The bacteria are stored in water or in the food by a human carrier and are then spread to other individuals around them.

There are many ways to avoid typhoid fever:

  1. VaccinationTake one dose of the vaccine one week before travelling. The other is given orally in four cases, with one container to be taken every alternate day. Neither one of the vaccines is 100% effective. Both require repetitive immunisation since the effect of vaccines diminishes over time.
  2. Washing your hands: Frequently washing your hands in hot, soapy water is the most ideal approach to control contamination. Wash before eating or cooking food and after using the toilet. Use a hand sanitiser in cases where water isn't accessible.
  3. Drinking clean water: There are a few ways in which you can avoid getting typhoid fever spread by contaminated water.
    • Abstain from drinking untreated water.
    • Contaminated drinking water is a specific issue in areas where typhoid fever is endemic. Thus, drink only boiled or filtered water, or canned or packaged carbonated drinks.
    • Carbonated filtered water is more secure than non-carbonated filtered water.
    • Request drinks without ice.
    • Use filtered water to brush your teeth and try not to swallow water in the shower.
    • Clean water can get contaminated again in case it is not put away securely.
    • Store the clean drinking water in a container with a little opening and use it within four hours.
  4. Staying away from raw fruits and vegetables: Maintain a strategic distance from crude foods grown in the ground. Since crude produce may have been washed away in water, maintain distance from products of the soil that you cannot peel, particularly lettuce. To be totally protected, you might need to stay away from street food completely.
  5. Cooking: Pick hot foods. Keep away from food that is put away or served at room temperature. Steaming hot nourishments are ideal. Also, in spite of all precautions, there is no assurance that the food served at the finest restaurants is safe for your health. It is best to stay away from foods served by street side vendors. Completely cook all meats, fish and vegetables. Eat them while they are still hot.
  6. Washing: Wash your dishes and utensils with proper dish washing soap and water. Wash your cutting board particularly well with a cleanser and water.
  7. Peeling: Peeling fruits and vegetables protects you from typhoid. Eat natural products that have been freshly washed and peeled, for example, oranges and bananas. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can ask a free question.
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Popular Questions & Answers

Hey doctor, so I've occasional severe chest pain from 1 year. First occurred when I've had a Typhoid, it was unbearable but that was a year ago and it had stopped for a while until 6 months ago when it reoccurred. So I went to a doctor turned out I had severe Hypertension, Bp of 210/100. We did a 2D Echo, the doctor told me the pain wasn't due to any cardiac reason and just gave me tramadol. Now the pain comes every now and then and worsens with certain movements and positions, My sonography of the abdomen was normal but with 2 little problems 1.Gall bladder: Optimally distended. 2.Urinary Bladder: Partially distended. My main question is that do I have any underlying condition that could be the reason for the pain? Pancreatitis or any other? My hypertension and chest pain had no explanation by any doctor whatsoever. I'm 16 and weight 75 kg. Thank you.

MD - Consultant Physician, Doctor of Medicine, MD
General Physician, Ahmedabad
Hi, You have severe hypertension don't neglect as you are very young and you may be having secondary hypertension due to may be correctable condition. Get admitted for few days for immediate cardiac evaluation as you may be having some cardiac hypertensive heart disease. Also angina cardiac pain. Ecg/ echo cardiac. Consult @rs 300 with all reports. Also can visit me in my clinics in Ahmedabad after fixing appointment. SOS 5 mg sorbitrate under tongue and take medicines for high bp in consultation with a physician or cardiologist. You need immediate lowering of bp till 120/80 mm hg.
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Suffering from typhoid from last four years nd consulted many allopathic Dr's nd took ayurvedic medicines BT unable to cure my disease permanently nd suffer a minor fvr in every three or four days nd even not know that whether having typhd or not now. I get checked my blood 15 day before a test known typhi dot nd result was weakly reactive so sir prescribed or help me what to do now.

C.S.C, D.C.H, M.B.B.S
General Physician, Alappuzha
You are mistaken that you have typhoid since 4 years and your interpretation of results may be wrong. A slight rise in value of tiers is not typhoid. You send the result of widal test and consult me online by this site.
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I have tested widal test today. S typhi o is 1: 80 and h is 1: 60 is it positive.

MD - Ayurveda, Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Bangalore
The Widal test is positive if TO antigen titer is more than 1: 160 in an active infection if TH antigen titer is more than 1: 160 in past infection.

Sir, I got my report typhoid IgM positive, so doctor had prescribe me some medicine, but after taking those medicine I feel nausea, n vomiting. One of the medicine (Altax -0) is also given I'm place of Monoaf-O is this medicine right to treat typhoid.

MD - Homeopathy, BHMS
Homeopath, Vadodara
Hi Sumera... you should not be doubting a qualified doctor... In case you are having any complaints then you should consult him again and inform the problem... it is not always that one prescription will cure you... So you should not asking is it right or not... in case you are not getting results.. then consult another doctor...
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Tyhy 'o' positive at 1/160 am I suffering from typhoid. please suggest me precautions for this.

C.S.C, D.C.H, M.B.B.S
General Physician, Alappuzha
One Isolated rise in O antigen is not suggestive of infection. increasing titer in O and H or BH is needed to say you have typhoid