A Stress test is done by making you do exercises like walking on a treadmill or riding a stationary bike during an Electro Cardiogram or ECG. Sometimes, medication to stimulate your heart is used instead of exercise.
The stress test compares the circulation of blood in the heart when you are resting and when you are under optimum physical pressure. There are various types of stress tests, but the most common of them is the Treadmill Stress Test or TMT.
Why it’s done?
CAD and Diabetes
People with diabetes are at high risk of coronary artery disease, as it tends to present late, Diabetics also suffer more silent heart muscle problems like Ischemia. This is why TMT is a lifesaver for diabetics as early detection and intervention can save lives.
How is a TMT done?
A nurse or technician will place electrodes on your chest. These are then attached to wires that carry the electrical activity of your heart to the monitor and recorder of the ECG/EKG machine. These leads record different parts of your heart.
How TMT Works
During the TMT, the healthy arteries in the heart dilate more than the blocked ones. This uneven dilation means that more blood is provided to the heart by the healthy arteries as compared to the blocked ones to their designated areas. This lowered blood flow makes the muscles in those areas thirsty for more blood during the TMT, creating symptoms like chest pain, and/or shortness of breath. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Endocrinologist.
Although both seem similar, treadmill and jogging are very different from each other. The same muscles are used in both the exercises and exactly same body movement is involved while performing these workouts. Both are done for cardiovascular fitness, to decrease the amount of fat in your body, and to tone your legs. However, here are a few pointers which show you the difference between treadmill and jogging:
Although jogging outside and on a treadmill might have these few differences, you will get the best results if you are able to combine both together. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Let’s clear the difference between doing workout on treadmill vs. outdoor running:
People have this misconception about the treadmill which they consider to be the same as the outdoor running. Both of them have the advantages and disadvantages. The basic of both remains the same which is running and are good for the body.
If spending energy is your only motive then treadmill walking as compared with running is somewhat easier as it is performed on a pulled ground, where as when you run outside there are other resistance forces which acts on the body i.e. wind force, thus running outside requires more energy. But if you technically see treadmill gives you variety. You can opt for different pre-saved programs. You can change the inclination, resistance and can monitor the calorie burn. But at the same time if you are walking outside you are subjected to the nature and can also enjoy your workout, with the chances of distractions. And if you are running outside a good shoe is must.
Although both are similar, treadmill and jogging are very different from each other. The same muscles are used in both the exercises and the same forward body movement is involved in both the exercises. Both are done for cardiovascular fitness, to decrease the amount of fat in your body, and to tone your legs. However, here are a few pointers which show you the difference between treadmill and jogging:
1. Treadmill is easy: Running on a treadmill is easier than going out for a jog. This is because a treadmill has a plain running surface with a constant environment. But when you go out for a jog, the surface may not be plain; the environment might not be constant as it can be windy or extremely sunny. The treadmill can also be adjusted according to your requirements, like the inclination can be increased or decreased; the speed of the belt can be increased or decreased, etc. It also affects the joints less because you are able to have a flat surface to place your foot every time, unlike the rough surface of the roads and lanes when you jog.
2. Convenience: Running a mile at home on a tread mill is much more convenient than going out for a jog. You can hop onto a treadmill for a run anytime, but going out for jog whenever you feel like, is difficult and can cause inconvenience. The weather might not be appropriate to go for a jog, or you might have certain things to do which you can while you are on the treadmill.
3. Motivation: Treadmills allow you to see how much you have run, which will motivate you to work harder and surpass your previous limit. This is difficult when you go out for a jog as you cannot calculate how much you ran.
4. Burning calories: Jogging outside is much more challenging than jogging on a treadmill. This is because of the various factors which you have to face like weather and terrain while you are jogging outside. This causes you to burn more calories than what you would on a treadmill. However, you can change the inclination and the speed of the treadmill which will also enable you to burn more calories.
Although jogging outside and on a treadmill might have these few differences, you will get the best results, if you are able to combine both together.
Here are 6 signs to watch out for that could indicate 'You need to get your Ears tested':
1. Your TV is blaring: Do you often find people around you shouting above the TV sound complaining that it's too loud? When you find it hard to hear the TV at the average volume and find yourself turning up the sound, this could signify a hearing loss. Doctors are seeing a growing number of patients visiting them after prolonged exposure to loud music and sounds.
2. You find it hard to hear phone conversations: Do you find yourself asking the person on the other end of the phone line to 'repeat' themselves, or find yourself pressing the phone instrument right into your ear? If you are trying so hard to hear, you might find yourself missing out on bits of the conversation as focussing to clearly hear the conversation is exhausting work. Getting a hearing test might be a good option if this sounds like you.
3. You have trouble hearing in noisy environments: When you are out dining with friends or family at a busy restaurant or accompanying a friend shopping in a busy street, all that background noise makes it difficult to hear what the people are saying. People with hearing loss often have problems masking out background noise.
4. Family members telling 'you're going deaf': Trust the views of the people closest to you, they never lie about your health. Family members often are the first to sense signs of hearing loss as they find themselves repeating things to you or calling out louder to get your 'attention'.
5. Leaning closer: You find yourself leaning closer to people to follow the conversation or staring at their lips trying to lip-read what's being said.
6. Avoiding social interactions: You find yourself staying away from social occasions, family gatherings or avoid being the first to start conversations. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an ENT specialist.
Persistent infection of the uterine cervix with high risk human papilloma virus (HPV) leads to development of cervical cancer. Infection with HPV is common especially in sexually active young women, most infections are transient and spontaneously clear within 1 to 2 years without causing cancer. These transient infections may cause temporary changes in cervical cells. If a cervical infection with high risk HPV type persists the cellular changes can eventually develop into more severe precancerous lesions. If pre cancerous lesions are not treated, they can progress to cancer. Thus, an HPV DNA test is recommended to identify the high risk types of HPV.
Why is Pap Smear done?
An HPV test is done to:
Check for high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) in women who had a Pap test that showed abnormal cervical cells called atypical squamous cells (ASCUS). An HPV test can help look for one or more high-risk types of HPV.
Check for HPV in women older than age 30 as part of screening for abnormal cervical cells.
Help check for abnormal cervical cells after treatment of a high-risk HPV infection.
When should one get screened for cervical cancer?
American Cancer Society does not recommend using HPV DNA test to screen for cervical cancer in females under 30. This is because females in their twenties who are sexually active are much more likely (than older females) to have a HPV infection that goes away on its own. For these young females, results of this test are not as significant and may be confusing.
For females age 30 and older, Pap & HPV co testing is less likely to miss an abnormality (i.e. lower false negative rate than pap testing alone. It also lengthens the screening interval to 5 years and still allows abnormalities to be detected in time to treat them.
Women of age >65 yrs who have had adequate screening history or those who have had total hysterectomy do not need any further screening.
Is HPV test as safe and effective as Pap Smear?
The advantage of the HPV test is that the Pap test misses a fair number of carcinomas as it has a lower sensitivity. Studies have also shown that a negative HPV test is better at predicting that a woman will be free of lesions for the next three years than a negative Pap test.
And while the experience for the patient is the same for both tests, the HPV test requires less material from the cervix to detect an infection so there's less concern that a sample will be inadequate.
How is the HPV test performed?
Before an HPV test, do not douche, use tampons, or use vaginal medicines for at least 48 hours.
In the HPV test, a doctor takes a swab of cells from the cervix, just as for the Pap test. The cells are then analyzed in a laboratory. The genetic material (DNA) of the HPV virus is studied. This test can identify 13 or 14 of the high-risk HPV types associated with cervical cancer. HPV test results are generally available in 1 to 2 weeks.
You may have a small amount of vaginal bleeding or gray-green discharge after this test.
Diagnosis of tuberculosis is based on a combination of clinical features, smear examination of sputum where available, tuberculin skin testing or Mantoux test, chest X-ray and Histopathologic / cytologic examination as appropriate. Common clinical features are weight loss, persistent fever and /or cough of more than 2 weeks duration and history of close contact with another Tuberculosis patient.
Mantoux test also known as Tuberculin skin test is used for the detection of infection by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis bacteria. The test consists of slowly injecting a liquid intradermally (superficially within the layers of the skin) on the forearm, leading to formation of a raised vesicle which should be easily visible to the naked eye. This liquid, used in India, is Tuberculin PPD RT 23 strain. Tuberculin is a glycerol extract of the Tuberculosis bacteria. This is one of the two WHO accepted standard tuberculins, apart from PPD-S. In India, where the prevalence of tuberculosis is high, the recommended dose of this liquid is 0.1 ml of 1 TU (TU stands for tuberculin units) .1 TU is the strength of the liquid mentioned on the vial. This liquid is usually administered by a very tiny syringe, usually of 26 gauge. (Needle diameter).
Please click on the link to watch a video demonstrating how this procedure is performed.
Test principle : The individual who has been infected with Tubercle bacilli responds with a hypersensitivity reaction at the test site in the form of induration. Induration is the palpable raised hardening of the skin, while erythema refers to redness of skin. Only induration is clinically significant and measured after 48 to 72hours following injection. Diameter of the Induration is measured by a scale in millimetres perpendicular to the long axis of the forearm.
Interpretation of the tuberculin test
It is more likely to be attributable to infection with tubercle bacilli in case of history of contact with smear positive case of pulmonary TB, clinically confirmed TB OR X-ray consistent with active TB.
Precautions during this procedure :