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Last Updated: Jan 10, 2023
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Symptoms, Stages and Treatment of Endometriosis

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Dr. K.D NayarIVF Specialist • 49 Years Exp.MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, DGO, MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology, Dip.Obstetrtics, FICOG
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Endometriosis is a condition where the endometrial tissue lining the womb, grows outside the urethral lining. This can cause severe pelvic pain and a host of other complications, if it is not treated on time. 

Here is everything you need to know about this ailment:

Symptoms: Owing to the location of this tissue and its painful protrusion through the lining or walls of the womb, one of the earliest and most painful symptoms experienced may include severe cramps and pain during the menstrual cycle. Also, the patient will experience pain in the lower abdomen region about a week before the onset of the cycle. Heavy bleeding as well as infertility may be experienced in such cases too. Sexual intercourse will also give rise to pain in the region, while discomfort will be felt during the bowel movements. Pain in the lower back will also be experienced throughout the menstruation period. 

Stages: There are several stages of this disease and its progression, each of which will require a different form of treatment. These four stages usually depend on the location, size, depth and number of the endometrial implants within the body of the patient.

  1. Minimal Stages: In this stage, usually there will be small wounds and lesions as well as shallow implants on the ovaries. Inflammation in the pelvic cavity can also be felt in this stage.
  2. Mild Stage: In this stage, there will also be light lesions and shallow implants which will spread over the ovaries as well as the pelvic lining.
  3. Moderate Stage: In this stage, the implants will dig deeper into the ovaries and the pelvic lining, which will result in the growth of even more lesions.
  4. Severe Stage: As the name suggests, in this stage the patient will experience deep implants along with lesions in the bowels and the fallopian tubes.

Treatment: There are varied forms of this treatment including pain relief medication for minimal to mild stage patients. Also, hormonal therapy with the help of supplements may be prescribed. Hormonal contraceptives may also be used. In such cases, medication like Danazol, Medroxyprogesterone, Gonadotripin releasing hormone agonists, and other such elements may be prescribed. Conservative surgery and radical surgery may follow, depending on the severity of the condition. Laparoscopy is the preferred form of treatment in such cases.

A hysterectomy can be conducted as a final resort where the surgeon will remove the cervix as well as the uterus of the patient. This will make pregnancy impossible for the patient, thereafter. To stem estrogen production, the ovaries will also be removed.

One must discuss all risks and complications before going in for a certain form of treatment for this ailment.

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