Generally seizures tend to last for about 2 minutes. But status epilepticus (SE) is a condition where people have continuous or sometimes rapid seizures for a period of 30 minutes and more. The literal meaning of status epilepticus is a state of seizure that is continuous. If one seizure lasts for nearly 5 minutes it is a symptom of status epilepticus and is a serious condition. Whenever status epilepticus occurs it becomes a condition which requires immediate medical supervision. The mortality rate is very high in people who suffer from this condition. Some treatments or therapies for status epilepticus emphasize on reducing it instead of trying to end the seizures completely.
There are mainly two types of status epilepticus- mainly convulsive and non-convulsive. The Convulsive type is very common and the most dangerous of the two. It includes seizures that are tonic-clonic where there is a stiffening of the muscles and the person having it loses his/her consciousness coupled with jerking movements. In non-convulsive status epilepticus a person doesn’t lose their consciousness but go into a state of epileptic twilight. There is clouded consciousness. About 25 % of people who suffer from epilepsy are prone to have SE attacks. And 15 % of these people will have one SE attack at some point or the other in their lives. Children below the age of 15 years and adults above the age of 40 years are susceptible to having a status epilepticus attack.
when treating a loved one suffering from status epilepticus it is imperative that the drug being administered is effective enough to stop the seizures from taking place and the method of delivery of the medication is reliable and easy so that the drug can easily get inside the brain and blood stream and start its work.
The different kinds of medications for status epilepticus includes intranasal, intramuscular and intrapulmonary. In the intranasal method the medications such as midazolam or diazepam can be easily administered and are easily and quickly absorbed into the body. Diazepam, especially is being further tested in laboratories for the possible treatment of cluster seizures which are very high in magnitude. In the intramuscular method the drugs can be quickly administered but the rate of absorption is a bit unreliable as it varies. This method also poses a threat of complications at the site of injection. In the intrapulmonary method after the administration of the medications it gets quickly absorbed into the pulmonary capillaries which get into the heart by way of direct flow in the brain. This is a quick route. However, there aren’t any drugs available in the market as of yet that can be quickly absorbed into the lungs, and researches are trying to see if the existing ones can be modified for easy absorption into the lungs while still having their impact on seizure control.
Everyone is eligible to undergo treatment for status epilepticus however, you need to be a minimum of 2 years. Patients who are having seizures for a minimum of 5 minutes or more are diagnosed with status epilepticus and need immediate medical attention.
Children below the age of two years are not-eligible to go for treatment of status epilepticus.
After your seizures have been controlled or stopped and you have received the required treatment it is essential that you adhere to certain post-treatment guidelines in order to prevent any future seizures from occurring. In order to maintain stable conditions you should get blood cultures done from time to time. A lumbar puncture or spinal tap procedure should be carried out in order to keep in check any possibility of infections or subarachnoid haemorrhage. If you have already been diagnosed with an infection then you need to take empirical antibiotics. Anticonvulsants should be maintained regularly and adjusted from time to time depending on the serum level fluctuations. These adjusted anticonvulsants should be administered accordingly.
The time taken to recover from a status epilepticus treatment is proportional to the duration of the attack. If SE can be effectively halted in a short duration of time then it is possible that a full neurological recovery will be successful. There are high chances of causing serious cerebral damage if the seizures continuous to go on for longer durations.
The cost of treatment for Status Epilepticus including any surgery and medications ranges from about Rupees 1600- 574,000 in India. However, the direct cost of SE is about Rupees 19,000.
If patients adhere strictly to the guidelines and regularly take their medications on time their epileptic condition can be stabilized and a possible status epilepticus can be prevented.
Depression is an illness which has a direct impact on the brain. People feel that it’s just feeling down but it is more than that. It is a serious illness caused by changes in brain chemistry. There are other factors also that contribute to the onset of depression, including
Changes in hormone levels,
Difficult life circumstances.
Any of the above mentioned factors or combination can precipitate changes in brain chemistry and may lead to depression. Depression is a serious and a very common condition these days which may lead to suicide in extreme cases.
Signs of Depression:
Loss of pleasure in virtually all activities,
Feeling of fatigue or lack of energy,
Difficulty with concentration or memory,
An increase or decrease in appetite, with a corresponding change in weight.
Thoughts of suicide Depression & Suicide.
A major cause of suicide is mental illness, very commonly depression. People feeling suicidal are overwhelmed by painful emotions and see death as the only way out, losing sight of the fact that suicide is a permanent solution to a temporary state. Most people who succeed with living feel glad that they resist and are alive today. Suicidal thoughts may be fleeting or more frequent, passive or active. People who are in depress state often start preparing for death, such as giving away possessions or acquiring a gun and these are cause of great concern and should be taken very seriously.
How to judge if suicide is a possibility?
There may be some warning signs, though hard to predict but can be an area of concern:
Being depressed or signs of some mental disorders.
Talking about the loss of interest in living or not to be around.
Increased social isolation.
Mood swings very often.
Buying suicide materials.
Preoccupation with death.
While anyone can become suicidal, there are certain risk factors that make suicide more likely:
Previous suicide attempts.
Recent losses like loss of a relationship or job.
Cultural and religious beliefs supporting suicide.
Access to means of suicide.
How to help a depressed person?
Let the person know if you've noticed a change in their behaviour.
Spend time talking with the person about their experiences and let them know that you're there to listen without being judgmental.
Suggest the person see a doctor or health professional and/or help them to make an appointment.
Offer to go with the person to the doctor or health professional.
Help the person to find information about depression and anxiety from a website or library.
Encourage the person to try to get enough sleep, exercise and eat healthy food.
Discourage the person from using alcohol or other drugs to feel better.
Encourage friends and family members to invite the person out and keep in touch, but don't pressure the person to participate in activities.
Encourage the person to face their fears with support from their doctor/psychologist.
Remember that your loved one's depression isn't anyone's fault. You can't fix the person's depression — but your support and understanding can help.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Benign prostatic hyperplasia or BPH is a condition where the prostate gland gets enlarged. This is mostly common in men who are ageing. When the prostate gland gets enlarged, the flow of urine through the urethra gets blocked, and hence, several problems related to urination may occur. BPH occurs as a result of hormonal imbalance. If untreated, BPH can lead to severe bladder and urinary health conditions.
There are several symptoms and signs of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Here are 7 common symptoms:
So you see that benign prostatic hyperplasia involves the enlargement of the prostate gland, and results in several problems related to urination and different symptoms. Hence, immediate treatment is advisable. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Sex is not only a physical need, sex is a great way to emotionally bond and get closer to your partner as well. Any dissatisfaction in the bedroom can affect other aspects of your life, and can lead to fights, squabbles and general unhappiness. The inability to orgasm can become a major bone of contention. There can be various reasons behind the inability to climax. Some of the common ones are detailed below:
1. Lack of stimulation
Studies show that only 25% of women reach climax during sexual intercourse. The remaining 75% of women require more stimulation, like fingers or even toys and tongues to reach orgasm. Amongst this is a subset of 10-15% of women who never reach orgasm. Thus, a large number of women require extra stimulation to achieve climax during sex. You must talk to your partner about putting in some extra effort and providing the extra stimulation you need to achieve climax.
Many men and women over-think their actions in bed. From their expressions to how they are reacting and how they are making their partner feel - everything is under constant scrutiny and revision. This leads to a lot of stress, which can hinder your ability to reach orgasm. You need to relax in the bedroom, because whatever you do will feel good in some way or another. Your anxieties can also distract you from what is going on, which means you don't get the chance to fully experience the pleasures of sex. If it helps, speak to your partner about your anxieties and tell them what you are stressing about during sex.
3. Differences between men and women
Men are visual creatures. This means that what they see turns them on. A woman's orgasm, on the other hand, happens in her head. Thus, men and women have different roots to their stimulation. Lack of an orgasm might mean either of these needs isn't being fulfilled. A great way to work around this and make sex more fun is to include a lot of foreplay in your love-making session. You can do this by trying out role-playing or using sex toys. Make sure to take it slow for a great build-up to your orgasm.
4. Performance issues
Porn has an impact on your sex life. It can increase your expectations to a considerable extent, which may not be fulfilled, thus hampering your experience in the bedroom. A lot of people become so focused on reproducing that experience that they forget that its real life. The focus on performance overwhelms their actual experience of sex, which results in an inability to reach orgasm. Try to accept the fact that you don't really have to perform for your partner. Your partner appreciates you for what you are, despite everything.
5. Mental blocks
A problem in the relationship, certain health conditions like depression, past trauma and negative social conditioning can all have negative impacts on your ability to orgasm. Talk to your partner about past trauma if you have any, and what your triggers are. Consider speaking to a sex therapist as mental health issues should never be neglected. Depression hits the libido hard, and the problem is only compounded by antidepressants. Negative social conditioning can only be helped by therapy, so try to reach out to a mental health professional. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Sexologist.