Generally seizures tend to last for about 2 minutes. But status epilepticus (SE) is a condition where people have continuous or sometimes rapid seizures for a period of 30 minutes and more. The literal meaning of status epilepticus is a state of seizure that is continuous. If one seizure lasts for nearly 5 minutes it is a symptom of status epilepticus and is a serious condition. Whenever status epilepticus occurs it becomes a condition which requires immediate medical supervision. The mortality rate is very high in people who suffer from this condition. Some treatments or therapies for status epilepticus emphasize on reducing it instead of trying to end the seizures completely.
There are mainly two types of status epilepticus- mainly convulsive and non-convulsive. The Convulsive type is very common and the most dangerous of the two. It includes seizures that are tonic-clonic where there is a stiffening of the muscles and the person having it loses his/her consciousness coupled with jerking movements. In non-convulsive status epilepticus a person doesn’t lose their consciousness but go into a state of epileptic twilight. There is clouded consciousness. About 25 % of people who suffer from epilepsy are prone to have SE attacks. And 15 % of these people will have one SE attack at some point or the other in their lives. Children below the age of 15 years and adults above the age of 40 years are susceptible to having a status epilepticus attack.
when treating a loved one suffering from status epilepticus it is imperative that the drug being administered is effective enough to stop the seizures from taking place and the method of delivery of the medication is reliable and easy so that the drug can easily get inside the brain and blood stream and start its work.
The different kinds of medications for status epilepticus includes intranasal, intramuscular and intrapulmonary. In the intranasal method the medications such as midazolam or diazepam can be easily administered and are easily and quickly absorbed into the body. Diazepam, especially is being further tested in laboratories for the possible treatment of cluster seizures which are very high in magnitude. In the intramuscular method the drugs can be quickly administered but the rate of absorption is a bit unreliable as it varies. This method also poses a threat of complications at the site of injection. In the intrapulmonary method after the administration of the medications it gets quickly absorbed into the pulmonary capillaries which get into the heart by way of direct flow in the brain. This is a quick route. However, there aren’t any drugs available in the market as of yet that can be quickly absorbed into the lungs, and researches are trying to see if the existing ones can be modified for easy absorption into the lungs while still having their impact on seizure control.
Everyone is eligible to undergo treatment for status epilepticus however, you need to be a minimum of 2 years. Patients who are having seizures for a minimum of 5 minutes or more are diagnosed with status epilepticus and need immediate medical attention.
Children below the age of two years are not-eligible to go for treatment of status epilepticus.
After your seizures have been controlled or stopped and you have received the required treatment it is essential that you adhere to certain post-treatment guidelines in order to prevent any future seizures from occurring. In order to maintain stable conditions you should get blood cultures done from time to time. A lumbar puncture or spinal tap procedure should be carried out in order to keep in check any possibility of infections or subarachnoid haemorrhage. If you have already been diagnosed with an infection then you need to take empirical antibiotics. Anticonvulsants should be maintained regularly and adjusted from time to time depending on the serum level fluctuations. These adjusted anticonvulsants should be administered accordingly.
The time taken to recover from a status epilepticus treatment is proportional to the duration of the attack. If SE can be effectively halted in a short duration of time then it is possible that a full neurological recovery will be successful. There are high chances of causing serious cerebral damage if the seizures continuous to go on for longer durations.
The cost of treatment for Status Epilepticus including any surgery and medications ranges from about Rupees 1600- 574,000 in India. However, the direct cost of SE is about Rupees 19,000.
If patients adhere strictly to the guidelines and regularly take their medications on time their epileptic condition can be stabilized and a possible status epilepticus can be prevented.
Everyone should know their fertility status before planning for pregnancy. These days couples are planning to start a family at a later date. Hence is the importance of getting a fertility check done.
For males the gold standard investigation is semen analysis. If semen analysis is within normal limits then no further investigations are needed for male partner.
In case of female partner- serum. Amh or anti mullerian hormone estimation is of prime importance. Amh levels give a fair idea about the fertility status. If levels are borderline or low then delaying family is not advisable. Unmarried girls can go for fertility preservation with egg freezing. Married couples should not delay conception & take help of a specialist if they are facing problems in conceiving.The othet test for female fertility is ultrasound to check for antral follicles. These give a fair idea about fertility status too.
In case a male or female gave undergone any surgery which can impact their fertility them help should be seeked earlier.
What is a pre-diabetic state and what is a diabetic state?
When blood glucose levels (blood sugar level) go above than normal level, but it’s not so high enough to be considered as diabetes than it is considered as a pre-diabetic state whereas diabetes is considered when the blood glucose levels are too high.
Who is prone to become diabetic from a pre-diabetic state?
Certain ethnic groups are more likely pre-diabetic due to their lifestyles, such as African-Americans, ASIAN group, Hispanic Americans, Native Americans, and Asian Americans, and they are at highest risk of developing diabetes. The pre-diabetic state can be prevented from becoming a diabetic state by making following changes in lifestyle:
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Depression is an illness which has a direct impact on the brain. People feel that it’s just feeling down but it is more than that. It is a serious illness caused by changes in brain chemistry. There are other factors also that contribute to the onset of depression, including
Changes in hormone levels,
Difficult life circumstances.
Any of the above mentioned factors or combination can precipitate changes in brain chemistry and may lead to depression. Depression is a serious and a very common condition these days which may lead to suicide in extreme cases.
Signs of Depression:
Loss of pleasure in virtually all activities,
Feeling of fatigue or lack of energy,
Difficulty with concentration or memory,
An increase or decrease in appetite, with a corresponding change in weight.
Thoughts of suicide Depression & Suicide.
A major cause of suicide is mental illness, very commonly depression. People feeling suicidal are overwhelmed by painful emotions and see death as the only way out, losing sight of the fact that suicide is a permanent solution to a temporary state. Most people who succeed with living feel glad that they resist and are alive today. Suicidal thoughts may be fleeting or more frequent, passive or active. People who are in depress state often start preparing for death, such as giving away possessions or acquiring a gun and these are cause of great concern and should be taken very seriously.
How to judge if suicide is a possibility?
There may be some warning signs, though hard to predict but can be an area of concern:
Being depressed or signs of some mental disorders.
Talking about the loss of interest in living or not to be around.
Increased social isolation.
Mood swings very often.
Buying suicide materials.
Preoccupation with death.
While anyone can become suicidal, there are certain risk factors that make suicide more likely:
Previous suicide attempts.
Recent losses like loss of a relationship or job.
Cultural and religious beliefs supporting suicide.
Access to means of suicide.
How to help a depressed person?
Let the person know if you've noticed a change in their behaviour.
Spend time talking with the person about their experiences and let them know that you're there to listen without being judgmental.
Suggest the person see a doctor or health professional and/or help them to make an appointment.
Offer to go with the person to the doctor or health professional.
Help the person to find information about depression and anxiety from a website or library.
Encourage the person to try to get enough sleep, exercise and eat healthy food.
Discourage the person from using alcohol or other drugs to feel better.
Encourage friends and family members to invite the person out and keep in touch, but don't pressure the person to participate in activities.
Encourage the person to face their fears with support from their doctor/psychologist.
Remember that your loved one's depression isn't anyone's fault. You can't fix the person's depression — but your support and understanding can help.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
What is Heart Attack like state?
If the heart muscle does not have enough blood, it dies and a heart attack like state occurs.
Symptoms of Heart Attack like state-
Causes of Heart Attack like state-
Complications of Heart Attack like state-
Diagnosis of Heart Attack like state-
The doctor will listen to your heart and lung sounds with a stethoscope. The following tests will be done:
Precautions & Prevention of Heart Attack like state
Treatment of Heart Attack like state
Homeopathic Treatment of Heart Attack like state-
Homeopathy can offer good support. Homeopathic remedies are used for congestive heart conditions. It is also used in palpitation with distress on exertion. These remedies are used to tone heart muscle and remove oedema. Some of the homeopathic remedies to support treatment of heart attack like state are:
Acupuncture & Acupressure Treatment of Heart Attack like state-
Acupuncture help to energize the body, maximize the absorption of nutrients, regulate elimination, control overeating, suppress the appetite, and reduce anxiety. By applying acupuncture needles at specific sites along the wrist, inside the forearm or in the leg, decreases the heart’s activity and thus its need for oxygen. All of these will help alleviate unnecessary stress on the heart, and help to strengthen it as well.
Psychotherapy Treatment of Heart Attack like state-
Psychotherapy treatment of heart attack like state involves Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). It reduces the feeling of helplessness that often accompanies anxiety disorders. CBT aims to help a client to become aware of thought distortions which cause psychological distress, and of behavioural patterns which are reinforcing it, and to correct them. It teaches people a new way of reacting to events. CBT sessions help people to learn skills on coping with stress and reducing feelings of anger and hostility.
Conventional / Allopathic Treatment of Heart Attack like state-
Allopathic treatment of heart attack like state includes vasodilators, blood thinning drugs and anti- cholesterol drugs. The doctor will first give the drugs called Nitrates, which are sorbitrate, monotrate, aspirin, angispan, isordil and ismo. These drugs dilate the vessels & thereby supply more oxygen to heart.
Surgical Treatment of Heart Attack like state-
Dietary & Herbal Treatment of Heart Attack like state-
Other Treatment of Heart Attack like state-