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Dr. Sanjiv Saxena - Nephrologist, Delhi

Dr. Sanjiv Saxena

88 (14 ratings)
DNB (Nephrology), MD, MBBS

Nephrologist, Delhi

33 Years Experience  ·  800 - 1000 at clinic  ·  ₹300 online
Dr. Sanjiv Saxena 88% (14 ratings) DNB (Nephrology), MD, MBBS Nephrologist, Delhi
33 Years Experience  ·  800 - 1000 at clinic  ·  ₹300 online
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I believe in health care that is based on a personal commitment to meet patient needs with compassion and care....more
I believe in health care that is based on a personal commitment to meet patient needs with compassion and care.
More about Dr. Sanjiv Saxena
Based in Delhi, Dr. Sanjiv Saxena is a very renowned and successful Nephrology/Renal specialist. If you are having kindey related problems, this is the best doctor to resort to. You can avail his treatment and services at his clinics Pushpawati Singhania Research Institute or Noble Medicare, Janakpuri, at consecutive timings. You may also contact him via call, text or video call. All of these clinics are based in Delhi. He has completed his nephrology education thoroughly. He has completed his MBBS from All India Institute of Medical Sciences in 1984, MD from the same college in 1987 and DNB (Nephrology) again from the very same college in 1990. The services and treatment measures provided by him include kidney dialysis treatment, kidney transplant treatment and planning, kidney stones treatment, lithotripsy process and many more. His goal is to extent informative knowledge and information to his patients in order to keep them well informed so that they get the right diagnosis and treatment at the right time. He aims at making the atmosphere of his clinic calm and comfortable to make the patients feel less scared of the treatment procedures.

Info

Education
DNB (Nephrology) - All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi - 1990
MD - All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi - 1987
MBBS - All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi - 1984
Languages spoken
English
Hindi

Location

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Pushpawati Singhania Research Institute

Press Enclave Marg, Sheikh Sarai IIDelhi Get Directions
  4.4  (14 ratings)
1000 at clinic
...more

Noble Medicare

C-2B/62A, JanakpuriDelhi Get Directions
  4.4  (14 ratings)
800 at clinic
...more
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Ulcer In Urinary Bladder - How They Can Be Treated?

DNB (Nephrology), MD, MBBS
Nephrologist, Delhi
Ulcer In Urinary Bladder - How They Can Be Treated?

Hunner's ulcers, simply put are painful ulcers in your urinary bladder. These ulcers are inextricably linked to another disorder called the painful bladder syndrome or intestinal cystitis. They occur in 10 to 15 percent of people with interstitia cystitis. These, in fact, are red patches or lesions on the bladder wall which can stiffen tissue and cause reduced bladder capacity. Hunner’s ulcers bleed, ooze pus and can be of different sizes. The ulcers in the bladder can be extremely painful and uncomfortable.

These are called Hunner’s ulcers because they were first described by Dr. Guy LeRoy Hunner, a Johns Hopkins gynecologist, in 1915. Since Hunner’s ulcers are seen only in people with intestinal cystitis, it’s important to know more about this painful life-altering bladder disorder before we can even understand how to deal with them.

Interstitial cystitis (IC)
IC is also called painful bladder syndrome. Another important thing to know about IC is that it strikes more women than men. IC is a chronic disorder and there’s no cure for it. It causes recurring bouts of pain and pressure in the urinary bladder and the pelvic area. This is often accompanied by an urgent and frequent need to urinate. Sufferers may have to rush to the ‘loo’ as much as 40, 50, or 60 times a day.

Diagnosis
Hunner's ulcers can only be accurately diagnosed by doing a cytoscopy which involves inserting a fibre-optic tube through the urethra to look at the bladder wall closely. During this procedure, a tissue sample from the bladder wall is usually also taken to rule out bladder cancer. Cytoscopy is usually done with hydrodistention under local anesthesia. This involves filling the bladder with a liquid for stretching it to provide a closer view of the bladder wall. Usually, a urologist performs this surgery along with a gynaecologist. IC and also Hunner’s ulcers are both a diagnosis of exclusion. This means that they’re diagnosed only after a number of other conditions have been ruled out.

Hence, the urologist will first take your thorough medical history, followed by a physical exam and a pelvic exam for women patients and perform tests for ruling out infection, and other disorders like bladder stones and cancer, kidney disease, multiple sclerosis, endometriosis, sexually transmitted diseases amongst others. Only after these tests are inconclusive or uncertain and if there is blood in urine, will the urologist go for cystoscopy.

Treatment
There's no cure for IC, but Hunner’s ulcers can be cured by burning them off the bladder wall. Called fulguration, the process uses electricity or laser to burn the ulcers on the bladder wall. Resection is also used in which skin from around the Hunner’s ulcer is cut for removing both the ulcer and the inflamed tissue around it. The problem is that ulcers may recur in the same location.
So, managing IC becomes critical. Your doctor can try to treat the patient with one treatment or with a combination of treatment depending on the condition of the patient.

Pain medicines are the first line of treatment to manage Hunner’s ulcers and IC both, and many patients do go in for this. Patients also find relief by modifying their diet to remove foods and drinks like caffeinated beverages- tea, coffee, colas etc. Sodas, artificial sugars and fruit juices, especially Cranberry juice can trigger intense pain and discomfort, so these are usually contraindicated. Another important aspect is patient education about normal bladder function and tips on self-care and behavioural modifications like stress control to manage Hunner’s ulcers.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2000 people found this helpful

Chronic Nephritis - How To Cope With It?

DNB (Nephrology), MD, MBBS
Nephrologist, Delhi
Chronic Nephritis - How To Cope With It?

Chronic nephritis is a type of Glomerulonephritis (GN). In this condition, irritation takes place in the Glomeruli, which are parts in your kidneys comprising tiny blood vessels. These knots of vessels filter your blood and remove excess fluids from the body. In case your glomeruli are harmed, your kidneys will quit working properly and you can suffer from kidney failure. It is a very serious illness that can be life threatening and requires immediate medical intervention.

The condition is also called nephritis. There can be both acute and chronic nephritis. The chronic type of GN can take several years to develop with almost no obvious symptoms. This can cause irreversible harm to your kidneys and also prompt complete kidney failure.

Causes and risks:
A hereditary condition can once in a while cause chronic nephritis. It happens in young men with poor vision and poor hearing. Persistent and untreated conditions may also bring about chronic nephritis. A history of cancer in the family may likewise put you at danger. Having acute nephritis may make you more prone to build up chronic nephritis later on. Being exposed to some hydrocarbon solvents may build the danger of chronic nephritis. Chronic nephritis does not generally have a clear-cut cause. About 25% of individuals with this condition have no history of kidney diseases.

Symptoms:
A few symptoms of chronic nephritis include:

  1. Blood or abundance protein in your urine
  2. Hypertension
  3. Swelling in lower legs
  4. Continuous urination during evenings
  5. Bubbly or frothy urine (from abundance protein)
  6. Stomach pain
  7. Continuous nosebleeds


Treatment:
Depending upon the symptoms of the problem, the treatment might be distinctive. Some of the ways it can be dealt with are:

  • Controlling hypertension, particularly if that is the hidden cause for the problem. Circulatory strain might be difficult to control when your kidneys are not working properly. If so, your specialist may prescribe pulse medicines, including angiotensin-changing over catalyst inhibitors. Some of these medicines include Captopril, Lisinopril and Perindopril.
  • Your specialist may likewise recommend angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). Some of these may include Losartan, Irbesartan and Valsartan.
  • Another technique to reduce immune-triggered aggravation is plasmapheresis. This procedure expels the liquid part of the blood (plasma) and replaces it with intravenous (IV) liquids or donated plasma (without any antibodies).

For chronic GN, you will have to decrease the level of protein, salt and potassium in your diet. Also, you should observe the amount of fluid you drink. Calcium supplements might be suggested and you may need to take diuretics to lessen swelling. Not surprisingly, check with your general physician or kidney specialist for rules about dietary restrictions or food. In case your condition worsens and causes kidney failure, you may need dialysis. This is a technique where a machine filters your blood. In the end, you may require a kidney transplant. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Nephrologist.

2085 people found this helpful

Urine Colour - What It Says About Your Health?

DNB (Nephrology), MD, MBBS
Nephrologist, Delhi
Urine Colour - What It Says About Your Health?

Changes in the colour of your urine can reveal important information about your health. If your urine takes on a hue beyond what's normal, it can be indicative of something wrong with your health. In general, the normal urine colour varies from pale yellow to deep yellowish-brown, which is a result of a chemical pigment in the urine called urochrome.

1. Red or Pink

  • When your kidneys, urethra, bladder or any other urinary tract organ gets infected or inflamed, blood cells get leaked into the urine, giving it a red hue. The causes behind the presence of blood can be urinary tract infections, kidney cysts, kidney stones, enlarged prostate and even cancer. Taking blood thinners can also cause you to have blood in your urine.
  • Certain foods like blackberries, rhubarb and beets can cause your urine to turn pink.
  • The use of certain medications like a particular class of antibiotic used in the treatment of tuberculosis can turn your urine red. Likewise, a drug used to numb discomfort in the urinary tract can cause a red/pink discoloration of your urine.

2. Blue or Green

  • The consumption of coloured food dyes containing green or blue pigments can cause you to pass urine of such hues.
  • Certain anti-depressant and anti-inflammatory medications can turn your urine green/blue.
  • A very rare medical condition called familial benign hypercalcemia (fbh), characterised by high levels of calcium in thE blood and low levels of the mineral in the urine can cause your urine to turn blue.
  • Green urine can also occur if your urinary tract gets infected by the pseudomonas bacteria.

3. Dark Brown

  • Having large amounts of these foods - aloe, rhubarb (a type of leafy green) and broad beans can cause you to pass dark brown urine.
  • Certain anti-malarial drugs, laxatives and muscle relaxants can darken the colour of your urine as well.
  • Dark brown urine can also be caused by disorders of the kidney or liver as well as infections of the urinary tract.
  • Injury of the muscle as a result of excessive training can result in dark brown urine.

4. Orange

  • Problems with the bile duct (the duct through which bile from the gall bladder and liver passes before entering the duodenum) or liver along with the passing of light coloured stools can result in orange urine.
  • A cause of orange urine may also be dehydration as fluids bring about an increase in the concentration of compounds present in the urine.

5. White

  • The presence of calcium or phosphate sediments in the urine can give it a white hue.
  • White urine can also be a result of funguria infection (a form of fungal urinary infection wherein the fungus produces white sediments) or a bacterial infection. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can ask a free question.
2984 people found this helpful

Kidney Disease? 9 Things You Must Do!

DNB (Nephrology), MD, MBBS
Nephrologist, Delhi
Kidney Disease? 9 Things You Must Do!

The medical term for protein leak in urine is commonly known as Nephrosis and if the leakage is too much it is termed as Nephrotic Syndrome. Such a situation can lead to kidney failure, if not treated on time can be highly dangerous. There can be a number of causes for this condition and it is detected by carrying out a urine test. The treatment for Nephrosis is a long-term process and is done mainly to prevent kidney failure.

The treatment for Nephrosis aims at controlling the protein leak and prevent kidney failure. It is very important for people who are new to kidney disease that they know about these below mentioned nine things, in order to stay strong.

9 Important things you must be aware of kidney disease:

  1. The feeling of helplessness due to the occurrence of kidney disease can be overcome by educating yourself. Individuals should learn everything about kidney disease and can gain vital information even from the Internet.
  2. It is very obligatory that the advice of the doctor must be followed by an individual suffering from kidney disease. It is not indispensable that the kidney disease always leads to failure of kidney and to prevent it from damage, it is necessary to comply with the orders of the Doctor.
  3. It is very important that you stick to a diet, which would keep you healthy and protect your kidneys from any further damage. You should be careful about everything you eat, and you can gain assistance on your diet from a renal dietitian.
  4. When you suffer from Chronic Kidney Disease, the blood value becomes very important to gauge the condition of your disease and whether it is getting worse or stable. From time to time, the healthcare provider would check your urine and blood, and he would also monitor your blood pressure and blood sugar.
  5. You can take help from the support group and accept their assistance. Your family is your best support system at the time of need, thus involving them is very important.
  6. You must make sure that you are getting the required care you need, and you need to educate yourself by communicating as well as asking questions.
  7. You will feel much better by being active, so do things that make you happy. You can exercise regularly but after taking advice from your doctor. Your main focus must be to keep yourself healthy.
  8. A positive attitude is anytime helpful in healing a disease. You can listen to music that entertains your mind and helps you stay positive.
  9. It is not difficult to stay healthy even with kidney disease, as the positive feeling would eventually help you face your problems. You must plan ahead and be ready for kidney transplant without getting worried.

Most importantly, it is important that you spread awareness and help people tackle the situation without any difficulty. If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult a Nephrologist.

2063 people found this helpful

3 Causes of Acute Kidney Failure!

DNB (Nephrology), MD, MBBS
Nephrologist, Delhi
3 Causes of Acute Kidney Failure!

You're said to suffer from the problem of acute kidney failure if your kidneys suddenly stop working and lose their ability to eliminate waste materials including excess fluids and salts from the blood. The condition usually develops quickly over a few days or even a few hours. When this happens, waste materials accumulate in your blood, disrupting the chemical balance of your bloodstream.

So, what causes this problem?

Acute kidney failure can occur because of any one of these reasons:

1. A drop or slowdown of blood flow to the kidneys - Adequate blood circulation to the kidneys is of great importance as without it the kidneys may end malfunctioning. If blood flow to the kidney is hampered, a part of or the entire kidney may die. You may suffer from acute kidney failure if blood flow to the kidneys gets impaired due to conditions like

  • Heavy blood loss
  • Sepsis (body's inflammatory reaction to an infection, which can bring about organ failure, tissue damage, and death)
  • Injury
  • Use of certain drugs
  • Dehydration
  • Burns
  • Heart disease

2. Urinary obstructions - A sudden blockage that hampers your kidney's ability to eliminate urine can also bring about acute kidney failure. When this happens, it leads to a build up of toxins in the body, causing an overload of the kidneys. Conditions that bring about this urinary obstruction include:

3. Disease within the kidneys - Even instances of clotting within the blood vessels of the kidneys can lead to acute kidney failure. This is because if the movement of blood cells within the blood vessels gets hampered, kidneys are not able to filter out toxins from the body. The conditions and diseases that may cause clotting, and subsequently damage to the kidneys include:

  • Scleroderma (an autoimmune disease that affects connective tissues and skin)
  • Build-up of cholesterol deposits
  • Glomerulonephritis (an inflammatory condition of the kidney's ball-shaped structures called glomeruli)
  • Hemolytic uremic syndrome (a condition that occurs due to untimely death of red blood cells)
  • Lupus (a disorder of the body's immune system that brings about damage to the body's own organs and tissues). If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a nephrologist.
1893 people found this helpful

Frequent Urination - Can it be a Sign of Kidney Disease?

DNB (Nephrology), MD, MBBS
Nephrologist, Delhi
Frequent Urination - Can it be a Sign of Kidney Disease?

Polycystic kidney disease is a disorder that is inherited; it is characterized by development of cysts in the kidneys. These cysts are round sacs that contain a water like fluid. Initially, the size of the cysts are small, they tend to increase in size after the fluid accumulation. This disorder can also cause cysts to develop in the liver and other parts of the body.

Symptoms and Complications
The most common symptoms of this disorder are back pain, headache, high blood pressure and kidney failure. It can also lead to formation of stones in the kidney, presence of blood in the urine and an urge to urinate frequently. It also make your kidney prone to various bacterial infections.

Causes
The disease is caused because of the presence of defective genes in the body, implying that this disorder is primarily hereditary. In some cases, the disease is caused by a genetic mutation. Based on the causes, it is classified into two types:

  1. Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease: This disorder causes the symptoms to appear immediately after birth, although the symptoms are delayed until adolescence. This disorder only occurs when both the parents carry the defective gene which is passed to the offspring.
  2. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: This disorder usually tends to occur only after the age of 30. Unlike the previous type, here only one parent needs to carry the defective gene that is passed on to the offspring.

Treatment
The treatment of polycystic kidney disease generally involves dealing with the following signs:

  1. PainChronic pain, usually in the sides of the body or the back, is a common symptom of this disorder. You can opt for pain reliving medication such as ibuprofen. If the cysts are large, then surgery is required to ease the pain.
  2. High blood pressure: High blood pressure is best controlled by a following a healthy diet and lifestyle. High blood pressure can damage the kidneys severely. Medications may also be required to control blood pressure, if it rises abnormally.
2239 people found this helpful

Common Symptoms of Kidney Stones

DNB (Nephrology), MD, MBBS
Nephrologist, Delhi
Common Symptoms of Kidney Stones

As we all are aware that waste products in the blood are passed through urine. This filtering process is done by the kidneys as it separates the waste products including minerals and salts, which have to be passed out through urine. Many times, these minerals and salts get stuck in your urinary tract and over a long period, this forms kidney stones. They can vary in size from a ping pong ball to the size of a sugar crystal. They are not noticed till the time they cause a blockage. Sometimes, they cause immense pain if they start breaking or are pushed into the ureters (narrow ducts which lead to the bladder).

Symptoms of kidney stones:
1. Immense pain in the groin, belly and back.
2. Pain while urinating and urination occurring frequently.
3. Blood found in the urine (haematuria).
4. Vomiting and nausea.
5. Feeling extremely restless and not being able to lie still.

Kidney stones can also cause a kidney infection. Signs of kidney infection include:
Kidney stones can also cause infection in the kidneys as they block the passage of urine to the bladder by blocking the ureters. This leads to build up of the waste product which can result in an infection. Some of the symptoms of kidney infections could be:

1. Feeling chilly and shivering on your skin.
2. High temperature of 100.4 F (38C) or more.
3. A feeling of fatigue or weakness.
4. Immense diarrhea
5. Bad smelling and cloudy urine.

Types of Kidney stones:
1. Struvite stones: It contains ammonia and magnesium. It is usually quite large and horn- shaped.
2. Uric acid stones: Brown, smooth and softer than other kinds of kidney stones.
3. Cystine stones: They are yellow and don’t look like stones. They usually resemble crystal.
4. Calcium stones: It is composed of calcium.

What causes kidney stones?
Kidney stones can occur due to several factors. It usually forms when urine generally contains crystal substances like uric acid, calcium and oxalate. Your urine might not be able to dilute these substances resulting in the perfect environment for the formation of kidney stones. In case you are showing any of the symptoms mentioned above, you should visit you doctor immediately before the problem can worsen.

If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult the doctor and ask a free question.

2172 people found this helpful

New to Kidney Disease? Nine Things You Should Do

DNB (Nephrology), MD, MBBS
Nephrologist, Delhi
New to Kidney Disease? Nine Things You Should Do

The medical term used for kidney disease is Nephrosis and it is seldom also known as the nephritic syndrome. There are a lot of likely causes for this condition and it is detected by carrying out urine test. The treatment for Nephrosis is a long term treatment and done mainly to prevent kidney failure. The kidney disease is very painful and occurs in people of all age groups. It is very important for people who are new to kidney disease that they know about the nine things they should do to stay strong.

Important information on kidney disease:

  1. The feeling of helplessness on occurrence of kidney disease can be overcome by educating yourself. Individuals should learn everything about kidney disease and can gain vital information even from the Internet.
  2. It is very obligatory that the advice of the doctor be followed by an individual suffering from Kidney disease. It is not indispensable that the kidney disease always leads to failure of kidney and to keep your kidney healthy and stay away from any damage, it is necessary to comply with the orders of the Doctor.
  3. It is very important that you stick to a diet, which would keep you healthy and protect your kidneys from any further damage. You should be mindful on everything you eat and you can gain assistance on your diet from a renal dietitian.
  4. When you suffer from chronic kidney disease, the blood values become very important to gauge the condition of your disease and whether it is getting worse or stable. From time to time, the healthcare provider would check your urine and blood regularly and he would also monitor your blood pressure and blood sugar.
  5. You can ask help from the support group and accept their assistance. Your family is your best support system in times of need and so involving them is very important.
  6. You must make sure that you are getting the proper care you need and you need to educate yourself by communicating as well as asking questions.
  7. You can feel much better by being active, so do things that make you happy. You can exercise regularly, but after taking advice from your doctor. Your main focus must be to keep your heart healthy.
  8. A positive attitude is anytime helpful in healing a disease. You can listen to music that entertains your mind and helps you stay positive.
  9. It is not difficult to stay healthy even with kidney disease, as a positive feeling would eventually help face the kidney disease. You must plan ahead and be ready for kidney transplant without getting worried.

Most importantly, spread awareness and help people tackle the situation without any difficulty.

4009 people found this helpful

3 Causes of Acute Kidney Failure

DNB (Nephrology), MD, MBBS
Nephrologist, Delhi
3 Causes of Acute Kidney Failure

You're said to suffer from the problem of acute kidney failure if your kidneys suddenly stop working and lose their ability to eliminate waste materials including excess fluids and salts from the blood. The condition usually develops quickly over a few days or even a few hours. When this happens, waste materials accumulate in your blood, disrupting the chemical balance of your bloodstream.

So, what causes this problem?

Acute kidney failure can occur because of any one of these reasons:

1. A drop or slowdown of blood flow to the kidneys - Adequate blood circulation to the kidneys is of great importance as without it the kidneys may end malfunctioning. If blood flow to the kidney is hampered, a part of or the entire kidney may die. You may suffer from acute kidney failure if blood flow to the kidneys gets impaired due to conditions like

  • Heavy blood loss
  • Sepsis (body's inflammatory reaction to an infection, which can bring about organ failure, tissue damage, and death)
  • Injury
  • Use of certain drugs
  • Dehydration
  • Burns
  • Heart disease

2. Urinary obstructions - A sudden blockage that hampers your kidney's ability to eliminate urine can also bring about acute kidney failure. When this happens, it leads to a build up of toxins in the body, causing an overload of the kidneys. Conditions that bring about this urinary obstruction include:

  • Cervical cancer
  • Colon cancer
  • Bladder cancer
  • Kidney stones
  • Enlarged prostate
  • Prostate cancer

3. Disease within the kidneys - Even instances of clotting within the blood vessels of the kidneys can lead to acute kidney failure. This is because if the movement of blood cells within the blood vessels gets hampered, kidneys are not able to filter out toxins from the body. The conditions and diseases that may cause clotting, and subsequently damage to the kidneys include:

  • Scleroderma (an autoimmune disease that affects connective tissues and skin)
  • Build-up of cholesterol deposits
  • Glomerulonephritis (an inflammatory condition of the kidney's ball-shaped structures called glomeruli)
  • Hemolytic uremic syndrome (a condition that occurs due to untimely death of red blood cells)
  • Lupus (a disorder of the body's immune system that brings about damage to the body's own organs and tissues)

'Consult'.

Related Tip: The Ideal Diet after a Kidney Transplant

3725 people found this helpful

When Do Kidneys Need Dialysis?

DNB (Nephrology), MD, MBBS
Nephrologist, Delhi
When Do Kidneys Need Dialysis?

Kidneys are a pair of organs that are located on either side of the spine, each about a size of a fist. The kidneys help in purifying blood by removing toxins, waste materials and excess fluids from the human body. Disorders and dysfunctions of the kidney can lead to severe and often fatal consequences. When the kidneys stop functioning as they are supposed to, dialysis is performed to resume normal functioning in the body.

Dialysis is a type of treatment, which filters and purifies the blood with the aid of a machine. It is an artificial way of purifying blood. There are two types of dialysis, namely hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Hemodialysis, the most common form of dialysis, which involves using a manmade kidney called a hemodialyzer, which removes toxins and waste materials from blood.

Peritoneal Dialysis, on the other hand, is a type of treatment which involves implanting a catheter in the stomach. During the procedure, a fluid called dialysate flows into the abdomen that absorbs all the waste material, which is consequently drained out of the body.

You may need a dialysis if:

- Your kidneys are dysfunctional
- When waste materials and toxins start to accumulate in the body
- In an event of an injury or accident to the kidney such as internal lacerations (wound caused by the tearing of a tissue)
- If the creatinine (a type of a chemical waste product) level falls to 10-12 cc/minute
- In an event where the kidneys aren't able to work properly leading to accumulation of toxins, irregular amounts of chemicals in the body and other dysfunctions

Weakening of the abdominal muscles and weight gain are some of the risks involved in dialysis. Dialysis is a temporary treatment and serves to function till the time the actual kidneys get repaired. In chronic cases of kidney disease, kidney transplant may perhaps be the last resort.

'Consult'.

Related Tip: 4 Types of Kidney Stones and Their Common Symptoms

4121 people found this helpful
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