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Rickettsial Infection Tips

Ear Infections!

Dr. Ramakanth Reddy 92% (153 ratings)
MBBS, Diploma In Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Ear Infections!

Ear Infections

Middle-ear infections (otitis media) are inflammation or infections located in the middle ear space. Ear infections can occur as a result of a cold or upper respiratory infection, or may occur in isolation in the presence of chronic middle ear fluid.

Risks

While children or adults may develop an ear infection, the following are some of the factors that may increase a person’s risk of developing ear infections:

  • Being around someone who smokes

  • Family history of ear infections

  • A weak immune system

  • Spending time in a day care setting

  • Having a cold or upper respiratory infection

  • Being bottle-fed while lying on his or her back

  • Chronic fluid within the middle ear

Causes

Middle-ear infections are usually a result of dysfunction of the eustachian tube, a canal that links the middle ear with the throat area. The eustachian tube helps to equalize the pressure between the outer ear and the middle ear.

When this tube is not working properly, it prevents normal pressure equalization, causing a buildup of fluid behind the eardrum. Additionally, it can be a source of bacteria to enter the middle ear. When this fluid cannot drain, it allows for the growth of bacteria and viruses in the ear that can lead to an ear infection. The following are some of the reasons that the eustachian tube may not work properly:

  • A cold or allergy, which can lead to swelling and congestion of the lining of the nose, throat and eustachian tube (this swelling prevents the normal drainage of fluids from the ear)

  • Smoke exposure

  • Young age (the eustachian tube of young children is underdeveloped and does not work as efficiently as adults’)

  • A malformation of the eustachian tube

  • Enlarged and chronically inflamed adenoids

Types of Middle-Ear Infections

Different types of otitis media include the following:

  • Acute otitis media. This middle-ear infection occurs abruptly, causing swelling and redness. Fluid and mucus become trapped inside the ear, causing the child to have a fever and ear pain.

  • Otitis media with effusion. Fluid (effusion) and mucus continue to accumulate in the middle ear after an initial infection subsides. The child may experience a feeling of fullness in the ear, and it may affect his or her hearing, or cause no symptoms.

  • Chronic otitis media with effusion. Fluid remains in the middle ear for a prolonged period or returns again and again, even though there is no infection. May result in difficulty fighting new infection and may affect a person’s hearing.

Symptoms

The following are the most common symptoms of an ear infection. However, each child may experience symptoms differently.

  • Fever, especially in infants and younger children

  • Fluid draining from ear canals

  • Loss of balance

  • Hearing difficulties

  • Ear pain

It may be more difficult to detect an ear infection in young children who have not learned to speak yet. Symptoms in children and nonverbal individuals may include:

  • Unusual irritability

  • Difficulty sleeping or staying asleep

  • Tugging or pulling at one or both ears

The symptoms of ear infections may resemble other conditions or medical problems. Always consult your child's health care provider for a diagnosis.

Diagnosing Ear Infections

In addition to a complete medical history and physical examination, your child's health care provider will inspect the outer ear(s) and eardrum(s) using an otoscope. The otoscope is a lighted instrument that allows the health care provider to see inside the ear. A pneumatic otoscope blows a puff of air into the ear to test eardrum movement.

Tympanometry is a test that can be performed in most health care providers’ offices to help determine how the middle ear is functioning. It does not test hearing, but it helps to detect any changes in pressure in the middle ear. This is a difficult test to perform in younger children because the child needs to remain still and not cry, talk or move.

A hearing test may be performed for children who have frequent ear infections.

Treatment

Specific treatment for ear infections will be determined by your health care provider based on the following:

  • Age, overall health and medical history

  • Extent of the condition

  • Tolerance for specific medications, procedures or therapies

  • Expectations for the course of the condition

  • Your opinion or preference

Treatment may include:

  • Antibiotics by mouth or eardrops

  • Medication for pain and fever

  • Observation

  • A combination of the above

If fluid remains in the ear(s) for longer than three months and the infection continues to reoccur even with the use of antibiotics, your health care provider may suggest that small tubes be placed in the ear(s). This surgical procedure, called myringotomy and tympanostomy tube placement, involves making a small opening in the eardrum to drain the fluid and relieve the pressure from the middle ear. A small tube is placed in the opening of the eardrum to ventilate the middle ear and prevent fluid from accumulating. The child's hearing is restored after the fluid is drained. The tubes usually fall out on their own after six to 12 months.

Your surgeon may also recommend the removal of the adenoids (lymph tissue located in the space above the soft roof of the mouth, also called the nasopharynx) if they are infected or enlarged. Removal of the adenoids has shown to help some people with chronic ear infections.

Treatment will depend on the type of ear infection. Consult your health care provider regarding treatment options.

Effects of an Ear Infection

In addition to the symptoms of ear infections listed above, untreated ear infections can result in any or all of the following:

  • Infection in other parts of the head

  • Scarring or perforation of the eardrum

  • Permanent hearing loss

  • Problems with speech and language development (children)

4 people found this helpful

Vaginal infection

Dr. Varinder Singh Chandhok 88% (1936 ratings)
General Physician (AM)
Alternative Medicine Specialist, Chandigarh

It is a common condition, and causes discomfort in post-pubertal and adult women, whether sexually active or not.
Though the condition will affect around one third of women during their lifetimes, there are steps you can take to prevent having an itchy, fishy smelling vagina.

Prevent vaginal infections:

- wipe from front to back after a bowel movement. Pat yourself dry after passing urine. Use unscented, uncoloured, double-layered toilet paper.

- wash your genital area once a day with plain water or use a mild, unperfumed soap to wash the genital area. Rinse well with a hand-held shower head and dry the area thoroughly with a soft towel or a cool air hairdryer before getting dressed. Don? t use bubble baths, vaginal deodorants or talc, or douches.

- use sanitary towels, rather than tampons, or change tampons every 4 hours. Do not forget to remove tampons.

- eat a well-balanced diet, which includes dahi, curd, yoghurt. Follow a healthy lifestyle, since a healthy person fights infection more effectively.

- when taking antibiotics, take probiotics, such as yakult, or increase your intake of live yoghurt.

- if you are overweight, get into shape, as being overweight might cause repeated yeast infections.

- wear cotton underwear. Cotton absorbs moisture. Yeast thrives in a warm, damp atmosphere. Let your body breathe. Avoid tight-fitting jeans, lycra shorts and tights. Wear loose clothing and sleep without any undergarments at night.

- do not use any chemicals, such as douches, spermicides
19 people found this helpful

Various Infections and Their Causes

Dr. Ashutosh Kumar 90% (238 ratings)
MD - General Medicine, DTM & H
Internal Medicine Specialist, Motihari
Various Infections and Their Causes

There are many organisms that live in our bodies and on the surface of the skin. These are usually harmless and do not cause any damage. But there are many organisms like viruses, fungi and bacteria that can cause infectious disorders known as infections. There are many kinds of infections that can affect the various parts of the body. These are generally caused by various things starting from contaminated food, to transmission from an infected person and more. Read on to know more about the kind of infections and their causes.

  • Common Symptoms: The various kinds of infections usually have common symptoms including fever due the start of the immune system's fight against the infecting organism, as well as cough, cold, chills, fatigue, loss of appetite, loose motions and pain. All these symptoms point at the presence of an infection.
  • Types: As mentioned earlier, infections can be of various types. Starting from viral infections that come with the change of seasons with allergy like symptoms, to STDs or sexually transmitted disease that are contagious and can spread with sexual contact, or even throat, stomach and other kinds of infections that can occur due to ingestion of contaminated food, insect bites and much more; there are several types of infections that can afflict the various parts of the body.
  • Indirect Contact: There are many surfaces like sinks, faucets, keyboards, tables, door knobs and more, which can carry and pass on infections through contact. This is especially true for public places including public toilets which are the number one cause of UTI or urinary tract infection.
  • Insect Bites: Fleas, tick, lice and even mosquitoes are all carriers of germs because they fly from one contaminated place to another, feasting on dirty and contaminated elements. A bite from one such insect can cause infections. Also, if we ingest food on which house flies and mosquitoes have been sitting, then we are risk of contracting infections.
  • Food Contamination: Continuing from the point above, food and water contamination can lead to the travel of disease causing germs into your system which can spread infection. This can also happen when you eat old food that has not been stored under proper conditions, as there may be fungi or mould growing on it.
  • Direct Contact: One of the causes of infection includes direct causes like contact with an infected person or animal. Coughing or sneezing on someone, getting bitten by an animal, or even mother to unborn child - there are many infections that can be spread in this manner.

Getting vaccinated on time can help in preventing many infections. This is especially important if you are travelling to various countries.

3261 people found this helpful

Know More About Ear Infections!

Dr. Vineet Jain 85% (53 ratings)
DNB (ENT)
ENT Specialist, Kota
Know More About Ear Infections!

The most common ear infections happen because of bacterial or viral growth in the middle ear, the part which lies just behind the ear drum. Middle-ear infections can be very painful and children are most commonly reported in children. Most of these infections are caused by the blockage of the Eustachian tube, which connects the ear and the throat, causing the build-up of fluids and swelling. Here is a guide to the most common forms of ear infections and their symptoms, ranging from the acute to the chronic.

Acute infections have intense symptoms but can be cured with time and treatment. They generally last for shorter durations.

In Chronic cases of infections, the patient complains of recurrent symptoms multiple times. Chronic ear infections have the potential of causing permanent damage to the ear.

Symptoms reported by most patients with Ear infections:

1. Pain in the ear (Mild to severe): This is caused due to increased pressure owing to the blockage of the Eustachian tube. Collection of fluid inside the ear would increase the intensity of pain in most cases. Children will keep tugging at their ear and most likely be cranky.
2. Redness and swelling: Both of these are inevitable accompanying symptoms in case of any infection in the body.
3. Oozing of the fluids: The blockage leads to the fluid being released from the ear which can be watery, thick yellow or mixed with blood depending on the severity and type of infection.
4. Fever

5. Difficulty in sleeping.
6. In some cases when the infection spreads, difficulty in balancing the body is experienced as body balance is maintained by ears.
7. The patient might also experience increased irritability.
8. Ear infections can also cause a hearing problem if the condition continues to go untreated.

Ear infections should be promptly dealt with to prevent long-term damages. So here is what should be done when you have ear pain symptoms.

1. Consult an ENT who will prescribe pain medication as the first line of treatment.
2. After the necessary tests are done, antibiotics are prescribed in most cases by the doctor. Other medications for palliative treatment (to ease the symptoms) are administered. However in a few rare cases, the infection might be because of non-bacterial causes in which antibiotics might not cure the state.
3. In case the problem keeps recurring, one must visit the doctor again and get further tests and treatment done.

As prevention is always better than cure, care should be taken to avoid all chances of carrying the infection to your ear. Maintain cleanliness in and around, especially in the case of children. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Ent Specialist.

2696 people found this helpful

Pyorrhea(gums infection)

Dr. Souvagya Ranjan Kar 90% (536 ratings)
BDS
Dentist, Cuttack
Pyorrhea(gums infection) are felt with bad breath and tooth mobility.
49 people found this helpful

Loneliness and infections

Dr. Neeraj Kumar Singh 90% (142 ratings)
MD - Internal Medicine, CCMD(Diabetology), PG Course in Diabetology, ADVANCED CERTIFICATE COURSE IN DIABETES
Diabetologist, Dehradun
According to new study, national academy of sciences, suggests that loneliness can alter the immune system cells in a way that there is increases in incidence of illness.
1 person found this helpful

Prevent ear infections during cold

Dr. Rajeev Nangia 87% (613 ratings)
MBBS, MS - ENT
ENT Specialist, Delhi
Prevent ear infections during cold
Avoid nose blowing with force when you are having severe cold.

Monsoon And Infection!

Dr. Ravindra Dargainya 86% (46 ratings)
MBBS, DDV
Dermatologist, Mumbai
Monsoon And Infection!

One of the side-effects of monsoon, besides waterlogging, is the health hazard the rain brings with it - cases of vector-borne, fungal, allergies and parasitic infections. The worse hits are the children, who are susceptible to viral and skin infections after getting wet.

We should avoid getting drenched and should always carry an umbrella. Even when we are drenched, we must immediately follow preventive measures because if left untreated, it can leave permanent scars on the skin. In case of a skin infection, use an anti-fungal powder to avoid any further infection. Always keep your skin dry. Don't wear wet clothes. Also, wet shoes should be changed instantly. These small precautions go a long way in having a healthy and infection-free skin.

2 people found this helpful

Throat Infections!

Dr. Vishwas Madhav Thakur 90% (916 ratings)
MBBS, AFIH, PGDMLS, MD-HRM, MD-HM
General Physician, Gurgaon
Throat Infections!

When you encounter with severe throat pain and infection, it can disturb your routine heavily.
One needs a complete the antibiotic as advised by your doctor in complete dose and complete duration, half-hearted treatment and treatment taken by on own google search will definitely cause harm and produce bacterial resistance which becomes more difficult to treat therefore if the throat infection appears to be severe, it is better to consult a doctor in time because chronic throat infections can lead to issues related to heart valves and the matter becomes more serious when the heart valves get established infection secondary to the throat infection.

3 people found this helpful

Fungal Infections

Dr. Jatin Sharma 90% (21 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Dermatology, Fellowship In Dermatosurgery
Dermatologist, Zirakpur
Fungal Infections

During this weather fungal infections has become a very common problem.
Here are few do' s and donts:

1. Keep affected area dry including skin folds
2. Do not share cloths as these infections are communicable
3. Iron your undergarments by turning them inside out.

4. Avoid walking bare foot especially in public toilets, pools or sports changing rooms.
5. Avoid wearing tight fitting clothes. 
6. Don't buy over the counter medicines from chemist shop. 
7. Visit your dermatologist as soon as possible as it is fast spreading and totally treatable.
 

4 people found this helpful
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