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Pregnancy Tips

Pre-Eclampsia - Why It Require Urgent Treatment During Pregnancy?

Dr. Gitanjali 97% (2344 ratings)
MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Pre-Eclampsia -  Why It Require Urgent Treatment During Pregnancy?

Pre-eclampsia may affect some women during the second half of their pregnancies or after they deliver the baby. Ladies suffering from pre-eclampsia show symptoms like hypertension, problems in retaining fluids (oedema) and large amount of protein in their urine (proteinuria). If it is not treated in time, it can cause a lot of complexities during the pregnancy and even after the delivery. Pre-eclampsia increases the risk of harmful effects for both the mother and the baby. The real reason for pre-eclampsia is still unknown, but it is believed that it is thought to occur when there is an issue with the placenta (the organ that connections the child's blood supply to the mother's). Pre-eclampsia in pregnant women often goes undiagnosed.

Women may present with headache, visual disturbance, pain in upper tummy, nausea, vomiting and rapidly progressive oedema. Complications of placental insufficiency can lead to IUGR(Intrauterine growth restriction), placental abruption and in severe cases, if left untreated, intrauterine death. It may affect women`s kidney, liver, cardiovascular, brain and blood clotting systems in severe cases. 

Complications: As pre-eclampsia develops further, it can create complications in retaining liquid (oedema). Oedema is responsible for causing sudden swelling of the feet, lower legs, face and hands during pregnancy. It occurs in the lower parts of the body, for example, the feet and lower legs and increases gradually during the day. In case the swelling is sudden, and affects the face and hands, it could be a result of pre-eclampsia.

Risks: There are a few factors that could increase your risk of falling prey to pre-eclampsia. This might require immediate treatment. These are:

  • If it is your first pregnancy, pre-eclampsia will probably happen during your first than the ones that will happen later.
  • It has been 10 years since you were last pregnant.
  • You have a family history of the condition. For instance, your mom or sisters have had pre-eclampsia.
  • You had pre-eclampsia in a past pregnancy. There is an around 20% chance that you will experience the condition again in later pregnancies.
  • You are in your teens or are more than 40 years of age.
  • You have a current medicinal issue like diabetes, kidney problems, headaches or hypertension.
  • You were obese towards the beginning of your pregnancy (your body mass index was 30 or more).
  • You are expecting multiple babies like twins or triplets (this spots more strain on the placenta).


The main indication of pre-eclampsia in the unborn baby is slow and stunted growth. This is brought about by poor blood supply through the placenta to the child. The developing child gets less oxygen and less supplements than it is supposed to. This can affect the growth and development of the child. This is called 'intra-uterine growth restriction, or 'intra-uterine growth impediment'.

Treatment: Bringing down the blood pressure and dealing with the symptoms in a proper manner can help in managing pre-eclampsia. Delivering the baby is the best way to treat pre-eclampsia. If it is confirmed that you do have pre-eclampsia, you'll be asked to stay in the hospital until your baby is delivered.

1 person found this helpful

7 Symptoms Of Ectopic Pregnancy!

Dr. Vandana Gupta 85% (10 ratings)
MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Delhi
7 Symptoms Of Ectopic Pregnancy!

In a normal pregnancy, the egg that the ovaries release enters the fallopian tube. If a sperm fertilises it, the fertilised egg attaches itself inside the uterus. However, sometimes the fertilised egg can attach itself outside the uterus. This condition is called ectopic pregnancy.

Ectopic pregnancy can be detected in the first few weeks of the pregnancy itself. If your doctor does discover ectopic pregnancy, you would need immediate medical attention. Ectopic pregnancies can be sad and scary. The survival rate of the baby is extremely low, and you may need some time to get over your loss. Fortunately, one ectopic pregnancy doesn't mean you can never conceive again. Many women who lost their first baby to ectopic pregnancy have been able to have a healthy and normal pregnancy the second time around.

The causes of ectopic pregnancy include:

  1. An inflammation or infection of the fallopian tube can lead it to become entirely or partially blocked.
  2. Scar tissue from a surgery or an infection of the fallopian tube may also hinder the movement of the fertilised egg.
  3. Surgery in the tubes or pelvic areas in the past might cause adhesions.
  4. Birth defects or abnormal growths can cause anomalies in the shape of the tube.

These causes are usually followed by certain risk factors, such as:

  • Age (The age group of 35-44 especially)
  • An ectopic pregnancy in the past
  • Previous abdominal or pelvic surgery
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease
  • Several prompted abortions
  • Conceiving with an intrauterine device in place
  • Smoking
  • Endometriosis (growth of uterus lining tissues outside the uterus).
  • Fertility treatments.

The signs and symptoms of ectopic pregnancy include:

  1. Minimal vaginal bleeding
  2. Vomiting and nausea with pain
  3. Pain in the lower abdomen
  4. Sharp cramps in the abdomen
  5. Localised pain (Pain concentrated on one side of your body)
  6. Pain in your neck, rectum or shoulder
  7. Rupture of the fallopian tubes can cause fainting due to the bleeding and pain

The treatment of ectopic pregnancy can be any one of the following:

  1. If the pregnancy has not progressed too far, methotrexate will be administered. This absorbs the pregnancy tissue and can save the fallopian tubes.
  2. The tubes may be removed if they have ruptured or stretched, and have started bleeding.
  3. Laparoscopic surgery (operations performed by making minor incisions) may be performed to remove or repair the tubes and recover the ectopic pregnancy.
1 person found this helpful

Recurrent Pregnancy Loss - What are the Tests Conducted?

Dr. Smriti Uppal 89% (406 ratings)
DNB (Obstetrics and Gynecology), DGO, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Recurrent Pregnancy Loss - What are the Tests Conducted?

Recurrent pregnancy loss is termed as the occurrence of three or more miscarriages. Recently, the American Society for Reproductive Medicine has altered the definition and limited the number of miscarriages to two. A pregnancy loss can only be termed so if the pregnancy is clinically recognized and is ends involuntarily before 20 weeks. The pregnancy loss must be identified by a registered doctor to term it as pregnancy loss.

What are the major causes of Recurrent Pregnancy Loss?
There could be a lot of reasons behind recurrent pregnancy loss. Most of the pregnancy failure happens from reasons such as abnormalities of the genes, chromosomes and other random events. It is estimated that close to 15 percent of the pregnancies end up in miscarriages. While 30-60 percent of the pregnancies expire within the first 12 weeks, fifty percent of the women are believed to be not aware of the pregnancy in the first place. The risk of miscarriage, however, is less than 50 percent.

An advanced maternity age is another crucial factor towards recurrent 2pregnancy loss. The risk of miscarriage dramatically increases among these women owing to their poor quality of egg, abnormalities in the chromosome etc. At a time, it has been observed that either the father or the mother might have irregularities in the gene leading to early miscarriage.

An abnormality in the uterus might also be a reason for a miscarriage. Poor blood supply and inflammation of the uterus are two of the topmost reason for miscarriages among many women. While some women born with a defective uterus, some develop uterus anomalies due to lifestyle and unhealthy life practices.

Last but not the least, a woman’s immune system might also play a pivotal role towards a miscarriage. Certain hormonal irregularities, diabetes and thyroid diseases might lead to a miscarriage. Then there are the environmental factors such as stress, occupational factors, lifestyle practices etc that contributes towards a miscarriage.

What are the tests conducted?
To evaluate the exact reason for repeated miscarriages, a doctor performs a detailed physical and surgical examination. Some other areas where a doctor sneaks into include family history, genetic history etc. A karyotype test might also be prescribed in case a doctor feels the need of doing so. The uterus cavity and the uterus are closely monitored to understand any potential lack in the anatomy. This is followed by a list of imaging tests that a doctor might prescribe. These include MRI, X-ray, hysteroscopy etc.

What are the treatment options?
The treatment options are decided based on the finding of the tests. Sometimes plain medicines along with antibiotics can cure the condition, while sometimes surgery might be required to fix any potential threat within the uterus. In any case, the probability of future pregnancy after treatment goes as high as 77 percent.
 

How To Treat Hypothyroidism During Pregnancy?

Dr. Aruna Muralidhar 92% (10 ratings)
MBBS,MD(medicine), MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology, MRCOG, FRCOG, FICM
Gynaecologist, Bangalore
How To Treat Hypothyroidism During Pregnancy?

The thyroid gland within the body plays an important role in regulating your metabolism among many other functions. This is a butterfly-shaped gland located in your neck and plays an important role within your body. However, a common condition that may afflict it is hypothyroidism or an underactive thyroid gland. It is even more of a problem if you are pregnant as it may affect your baby’s development in the womb. It has also been noticed that pregnancy in itself may cause hypothyroidism.

Symptoms of Hypothyroidism-

Pregnant women may also exhibit symptoms common to other patients who are suffering from hypothyroidism. These may include:

  1. Fatigue along with lethargy.

  2. Mild to significant weight gain.

  3. Constipation.

  4. Feeling cold with severe chills

The thyroid gland produces the T4 hormone responsible for regulating many mechanisms within the body such as metabolism. With hypothyroidism, the production of this hormone decreases or stops altogether. This is important as disruption in the production of the hormone may disrupt the normal development of your baby.

Effects of Hypothyroidism on your baby-

Hypothyroidism during pregnancy can affect your child’s developmental abilities. Many studies in this field have shown that such children tend to have learning difficulties and may even display lower IQ scores during tests. It was noticed that sometimes, hypothyroidism during pregnancy wasn’t diagnosed correctly as the pregnant mother did not show much apparent symptoms. This is also a major issue in the early diagnosis of the problem. Hence, it is absolutely imperative to test for thyroid problems early during pregnancy.

Prevention is the Best Cure-

It is thus very important that mothers be screened properly for thyroid issues even before they are pregnant and while they are pregnant. Some of the medically recommended steps that should be taken are –

  1. Screening before pregnancy as this can help to devise a solution for this condition.

  2. Women with goiter or enlarged thyroid should most certainly be screened.

  3. Women with a family history of hypothyroidism should be screened.

Treatments for Hypothyroidism During Pregnancy-

The doctors may suggest thyroid hormone replacement therapy wherein artificial T4 hormone is introduced into the body. This helps to maintain a constant rate of the thyroid hormone within the body. This can be done even before pregnancy as the developing fetus is completely dependent on the mother for its thyroid hormone until at least 12 weeks when the baby’s body can start producing it on its own. Also, the levels of this hormone should be regularly checked within the body through the TSH or the thyroid stimulating hormone tests to ensure that the levels are at a safe minimum.  

2 people found this helpful

My IVF Failed - What To Do Next ?

Dr. Richa Singh 89% (92 ratings)
MBBS, DNB - Obs & Gynae, Diploma In Reproductive Medicine (Germany), Fellowship In Laparoscopy, Fellowship in Reproductive Medicine & ART, Hysteroscopy advanced traraining training
IVF Specialist, Delhi
My IVF Failed - What To Do Next ?

Have you got your first ivf cycle failed? you must be anxious and worrying as what to do next.

Dont panic as ivf is a process of creating an embryo and implanting into the womens uterus and its sucess depends on many factors like 

1) your quality of embryo formed 
2) your endometrial lining and its receptivity 
3) whether day3 or day 5 blastocyst transfer
4) technique of embryo placement 

Many patients get disheartened when their first cycle fails and blame the centres for causing it a failure but its not so. Your chances of pregnancy depends on several factors and most importantly it depends on how the women body responds to it. As many times eggs that are collected seems good but when they are fertilised given grade c embryos i. E. Poor quality embryos which when placed find difficulty in implantation and growth and lead to negative results.

Similary when a best quality embryo is placed in a well lined endometrium but its implantation depends upon various factors such as vascularity and other immunological factors to be able to give a positive result.

So whenever your cycle fails dont just curse yourself! take appoinment with an expert infertility consultant and consult with all your reports to find out the cause of your failure and she would be the best person to guide you for your next cycle which can lead to a successful pregnancy as per your problem!

3 people found this helpful

Pre-Cum - Can It Make A Woman Pregnant?

Dr. Rahul Gupta 93% (16580 ratings)
MD-Ayurveda, Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine & Surgery (BAMS)
Sexologist, Dehradun
Pre-Cum - Can It Make A Woman Pregnant?

Precum is nothing but release or ejaculation of the fluid from the penis during sexual stimulation. Normally, it acts as a lubricant during sex. The amount of precum that a normal human body releases may vary from person to person. Suppose the body is releasing the extra amount of precum that means that the body is releasing that amount of fluid which would be considered as the normal release of fluid from the body. The main purpose of the precum is to neutralize the acidic nature of the urethra. Basically, this helps the sperm to be active inside the woman’s body. Precum may contain immobile, dead and some weak sperms as well. 

Origin
It comes from Cowper’s gland Secretions and the actual ejaculation comes from testicles. Normally, when a healthy man is energized or is aroused then, he pre-ejaculates where the fluid flows through the urethra, the place where the urine passes out. It acts as a lubricant to the female partner’s vagina. It also tries to neutralize the acid which reduces the chances of pregnancy. This works as a clear method for enhancing the pregnancy.

Difference between pre-cum and sperm
The basic difference between sperm and precum is that the injection of the sperm into a woman’s body would lead to pregnancy while in case of precum, the rate of pregnancy is quite low. Pregnancy is caused only due to sperms which do not originate from the Cowper's gland. Thus, sperm and precum are way more different than each other.


Can precum make a woman pregnant?
There have been several deliberations on the issue of whether precum can make someone pregnant or not. Well, in many situations it has been found that it has the capability of making a person pregnant. But the chances are quite low as the presence of sperm in the precum is comparatively lower which would not lead to pregnancy as the content of the sperm is quite lower and sperm is considered to be imperative for pregnancy. There is quite a thin line of difference between ejaculation and precum as sometimes they might get mixed if the withdrawal method is a bit longer. Even if the withdrawal method is delayed by a few seconds, a woman can get pregnant.

 

Can it cause STDs?
Normally, people get intimidated by precum because they think that it might cause pregnancy, but instead of pregnancy, there’s a high possibility of Sexually transmitted diseases to be caused which is way more dangerous than getting pregnant. In case of precum, the chances of pregnancy are a wee bit lower than that of STDs. While for STDs, if an individual gets into contact with any of the infected precum, then there’s quite a high chance of getting in contact with any STDs.

For treatment related to such issues, please consult. 
 

2 people found this helpful

All You Need To Know About The IVF Procedure!

Dr. Ruby Sehra 92% (74 ratings)
MD / MS - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology, MBBS
IVF Specialist, Delhi
All You Need To Know About The IVF Procedure!

IVF is a useful process for people who want to become parents but have exhausted all other means of being so. However, the in-vitro fertilization method is definitely not suitable for everyone. Here are some facts you need to know about the procedure and they will help you determine whether you are suited for the program or not.

1. IVF Takes Time
Even though most clinics may not tell you this, but the IVF procedure takes a bit of time to deliver the desired results. On an average, the treatment can take anywhere between four weeks to a couple of months to produce results, depending on the patient’s ability to respond to the medicines used. The procedure involves artificially stopping the menstrual cycle of the woman. Next, the ovulation process is stimulated so that the healthy egg can be extracted from the womb. The eggs chosen are then fertilized and left to undergo embryo culture for another six days. After this, the eggs are implanted back into the mother’s body.

2. The process Can Be Stressful
IVF treatment and pregnancy can be quite a stressful period of time for the parents in question. The mother needs to be constantly monitored to check for any abnormal response to the pregnancy. Regular checkups by the doctor along with blood tests may also be suggested. However, this stress has very little chance of affecting the quality of the pregnancy. So, do not worry that overstressing yourself will lead to complications for the embryo.

3. More Than One Cycle Needed For Pregnancy
IVF treatment occurs in cycles. Each cycle involves transplanting a fertilized egg into the womb. However, pregnancy, right after completion of the first cycle, is quite rare. In fact, almost all patients need to undergo several similar cycles in order to get pregnant. So, do not be disheartened if you do not get pregnant after undergoing the very first cycle of IVF treatment.

4. IVF Is Costly
Not everyone is able to afford the high cost of IVF. Others may be able to afford the cost of undergoing a couple of cycles of the same, after which the high costs can become a burden. Only a select few can bear to carry on with the treatment until the pregnancy arises. So, consider your financial condition prior to signing on for such a treatment option.

At any rate, consult with an expert to get an even better idea about the IVF procedure and the consequent pregnancy.

6 people found this helpful

What Are The 10 Common Side Effects Of Birth Control Pills?

Dr. Smita Dwivedi 88% (416 ratings)
MBBS, DGO
Gynaecologist, Lucknow
What Are The 10 Common Side Effects Of Birth Control Pills?

A birth control pill is commonly referred to as an oral contraceptive pill. A form of hormonal contraception and is a highly effective method of birth control. Only 1% of women experience unintended pregnancy when on the pill.

Birth control pills are of two types i.e combination pills and mini pills. Combination pills contain synthetic forms of the two hormones called oestrogen and progesterone. The mini pill only contains the hormone progesterone and is called progestin.

However, the pill does have some side effects to it. These include the following:

  1. Intermenstrual spotting: Within the first three months of starting the pill, women experience vaginal bleeding between the two period cycles.
  2. Nausea: Although the symptoms subside after some time, some women till experience nausea for a while after taking the pill. If one consumes the pill with food or before going to bed, this can help lower the likelihood of feeling nauseous.
  3. Breast tenderness: The breasts might feel tender and enlarged after taking the pill. However, anyone who finds a lump in the breast or feels continuous pain needs to seek medical help.
  4. Headaches: Migraines and headaches are a very common phenomenon of the birth control pill. Different types and doses of these pills may result in different headache symptoms.
  5. Gaining weight: Experiencing certain fluid retention in the hip or breast area is very common. It also affects the fat cells of the body because of the oestrogen present in the pills.
  6. Mood swings: Those with a history of stress or depression might start to feel the same again. If one has that kind of a history and starts to feel emotional changes, she should consult a doctor immediately.
  7. Missing periods: It is a common side effect that after using the pill, one's period might get skipped. This is influenced by several factors including stress, depression or thyroid dysfunctions.
  8. Decreased libido: The sex drive can be widely affected by the birth control pill. Although many other factors could result in a decreased libido, but if it remains after having the pill and is persistent, one should seek medical help or consult a specialist.
  9. Vaginal discharge: There could be an increase or a decrease in the vaginal lubrication. Some people might experience vaginal discharge since it is very common. Changes in vaginal discharge never turn out to be harmful.
  10. Changes in the vision: Fluid retention due to the birth control pill can result in the swelling of corneas. Because of this, even contact lenses do not fit comfortably. Contact lens wearers should consult an ophthalmologist if their vision or lens tolerance is disturbed.


Although there are certain side effects to taking birth control pills; however, one should not abstain from taking them in the fear that they might cause certain side effects. These pills are a precautionary measure along with other protection methods and should be taken in case someone wants to avoid pregnancy at the time being. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

Flu In Pregnancy - How Can You Prevent It From Happening?

Dr. Rashi Sinha 90% (140 ratings)
MBBS, MS, DNB, Rcog London
Gynaecologist, Muzaffarpur
Flu In Pregnancy - How Can You Prevent It From Happening?

When you are pregnant, the need to watch your health is significantly higher. It is not just a question of your health, but of the developing baby also. This makes it extremely significant as different bacteria and viruses could affect the baby’s development and even lead to complications with pregnancy and childbirth.

The flu, short for influenza, is a mild viral infection that affects the upper airways, including the nose, throat, and sinuses. The usual symptoms include nose blockage, runny nose, sore throat, sneezing, cough, heavy headed feeling. It is caused by a virus and therefore there is no remedy for it. It has to run its course which usually takes about 7 days, and the body will fight off the infection on its own.

Symptomatic treatment including paracetamol and adequate hydration can help live through the flu. Though it is common in any weather, the winters increase the risk.

Another increased risk factor is the reduced immune levels in a pregnant woman, making them more prone to catching the flu. This could lead to complications like pneumonia which might require hospitalisation and prolonged treatment with antibiotics. The baby could also be at risk of miscarriage, low birth weight, and premature birth.

Symptoms: If you do catch the flu during your pregnancy, you will notice the following symptoms a headache, runny nose, fatigue, sore throat, shortness of breath, coughing, sudden chills or fever, diarrhoea or vomiting, and body aches, and loss of appetite.

Management: If you suspect that you could have the flu, contact the doctor immediately. Taking safe antiviral medications can help reduce the duration of the illness and reduce pain and suffering. In addition, getting plenty of rest and drinking lots of fluids can help recovery. Acetaminophen can help manage the fever, while Robitussin and guaifenesin can help manage the cough.

Prevention: If you are planning for pregnancy or are already pregnant, it makes great sense to get vaccinated for the flu. This can help prevent a flu attack and sail through pregnancy smoothly. In addition to protecting the mother, the flu vaccine also transmits the virus to the newborn, which gets immunity for up to 6 months of life. The vaccine also has a beneficial effect on the newborn.

It is safe to get the flu vaccine during pregnancy, though taking it in the early months is advisable. It is also safe during breastfeeding with no harmful effects documented. In addition, some healthy habits like regularly washing hands, eating healthy, getting adequate sleep, and keeping a safe distance from people with flu can help prevent flu attack.

While prevention is the best solution, if contracted, the flu can be managed well by seeking immediate medical attention.

1 person found this helpful

Is It Better To Freeze Eggs Or Embryos?

Dr. Richika Sahay Shukla 92% (511 ratings)
DNB (Obstetrics and Gynecology), MBBS
IVF Specialist, Delhi
Is It Better To Freeze Eggs Or Embryos?

When it comes to fertility preservation, egg freezing seems like the default option on the table. But, for some people, embryo freezing might be the way to go.

“ Many people also believe that a frozen embryo is more likely to “work”—AKA, become a pregnancy—than a frozen egg. But that’s not really a true comparison, statistically speaking. When comparing freezing eggs vs. freezing embryos, it typically requires several eggs to result in one embryo, no matter which method you choose. You can freeze many eggs, which may be fertilized later to create a few embryos; or, you can fertilize the eggs right after retrieval, and freeze the few embryos that develop. Either way, you will likely have the same number of potential chances at pregnancy.”

Egg freezing and embryo banking are similar in nature, as they both involve fertility preservation in the form of cryopreservation. However, there are several major differences between the two procedures and their results.

Egg freezing is the process of retrieving a woman’s healthy, unfertilized eggs and using cryopreservation to sustain their viability until the woman is ready to use them. On the other hand, the egg has already been fertilized via IVF treatment in the process of embryo banking. Fertilization is performed with partner or donor sperm, and is then frozen until the woman or couple is ready for conception, pregnancy, and family

1 person found this helpful
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