What is In- Vitro Fertilization?
In Vitro fertilization (IVF) is a process of fertilization where an egg is combined with sperm outside the body, in vitro ("in glass"). This process involves stimulating a woman's ovulatory process, removing an ovum or ova from the woman's ovaries and fertilizing them with sperms in a liquid in the laboratory. The fertilized egg (zygote) undergoes embryo culture for 2–6 days, and is then transferred to the same or another woman's uterus, to establish a successful pregnancy.The success rate depends on various factors such as maternal age.
Cause of infertility
Ways to increase the success rate of In-Vitro Fertilization:
Have you given birth to a newborn of late? Or, are you expecting to be a new mother in a couple of months? Whatever the trigger you surely know how motherhood brings about a huge lot of changes within and without. Motherhood, as a gratifying experience gradually works on our view of the world. It significantly shapes perspectives of people closely related to us. Such changes are internal and go way deeper in deciding the kind of parenthood you are ready for. The more obvious changes are however not satisfying. Many women find it strenuous to accept how their body changes every passing week. There are other disadvantageous health issues an expecting woman is known to face.
From headaches, to hormonal imbalances, to back pain and fatigue; they face it all. Reportedly, the most prevalent yet distressing problem among pregnant women is that of hypertension. Causal factors leading to hypertension could be many; it is necessary to get diagnosed before your condition is too acute to tackle.
How can you regulate hypertension to keep healthy while pregnant?
If you want to have a safe pregnancy by curtailing all sorts of complications, then you have to promptly respond to warning bells. There are certain warning symptoms that should not be neglected at all as that might put your pregnancy in danger.
This kind of situation cannot be ignored as that often leads to serious issues like placental abruption or miscarriage. In this case, you are definitely in need of the assistance of any expert midwife.
Swollen face or hands
Slightly swollen face or hands in pregnancy are normal, but if you observe excessive puffiness, especially on your feet and ankles, then it is a warning sign as it might lead to toxaemia or PIH. Therefore, consulting a doctor is very much needed in this regard.
Round-ligament pain is quite normal, and you do not have to worry about the same. But if the pain is accompanied by bleeding, then the danger of miscarriage might come into being, and thus you should be very much alert about the same.
Itching is common during pregnancy mostly due to stretching of the skin. Your skin also becomes dry. But if it continues for long, then you should check the same with your doctor for avoiding liver disorder.
Exposure to flu and cold viruses increases during pregnancy, as a result of which fever occurs. But if the fever lasts for more than 48 hours, then viral conditions can be expected, which are pretty dangerous.
Normal pain in pregnancy is alright, but excessive pain might indicate bladder or kidney infections, preterm labour, miscarriage or cyst. All these conditions should be essentially avoided to ensure a healthy
Gushing of fluid
If you are not in labour, but are feeling wet constantly, then it is better to see a doctor. There might be a great possibility of breaking of water, and this is quite dangerous in the advanced stage of pregnancy.
Less movement of baby Experiencing baby kicking is quite natural during pregnancy, and if stops suddenly, then there is something wrong. Kicking patterns should be followed and then only you will be able to realize whether the baby is normal or not.
If you are facing any of the above symptoms, then immediately visit your doctor.
Vaginal bleeding is something that most women experience between their periods when they are not due for a menstrual cycle. It is considered as an abnormal occurrence when you bleed before you are expecting your menstrual period, or after you are done with your monthly cycle. It is usually characterised by bouts of spots where a thick brown reddish discharge may be experienced. Also, this kind of bleeding is considered abnormal if it occurs during pregnancy or menopause.
Here are a few causes of abnormal vaginal bleeding:
- Hormones: An imbalance in the hormones like the estrogen and progesterone can lead to abnormal vaginal bleeding. These are the hormones that help in the regulation of the monthly menstrual cycles. An imbalance can occur due to side effects caused by birth control pills that may not suit the individual, a contraceptive patch, or even contraceptive implants and injections. Further, an intrauterine device may also be the cause of this kind of bleeding. The hormonal balance can also get affected due to internal ailments like a dysfunctional thyroid gland and ovaries.
- Pregnancy and Delivery: Some amount of spotting is considered normal in the first trimester of one's pregnancy. Yet, severe bleeding and persistent spotting must be reported to the gynaecologist immediately. Women also bleed for a while after the delivery of the baby, in the post-partum period. This may also happen when an abortion takes place as the uterus may not have come back to its original size and due to remaining foetal tissues within. Complications during the pregnancy like an ectopic pregnancy or a miscarriage can also lead to such kind of bleeding. An ectopic pregnancy is one where the egg gets implanted in the fallopian tube instead of entering and implanting itself in the uterus.
- Fibroids: Uterine fibroids are usually considered as non-malignant and non-cancerous growths within the uterus. These are common in many women who have gone through childbirth. These fibroids can also cause some amount of bleeding and spotting.
- Infections: When there is an infection in the reproductive organs like the ovaries and uterus of the patient, there may be some amount of bleeding. An infection in this area can also cause inflammation, which is one of the primary causes of abnormal bleeding. This can also occur due to a sexually transmitted disease or STD, as well as painful intercourse and sexual abuse which can lead to scarring as well.
- Cancer: One of the least common causes includes cervical, ovarian and other forms of cancer.
What is Prenatal care?
It is crucial for a woman who is on her way to becoming a mother to pay special attention to her health. Health care offered to a pregnant woman is also known as prenatal care or antenatal care. It is a very important phase in a woman's life, so go for regular prenatal checkups as they go a long way in reducing risks of complications during pregnancy and child birth. This, in turn, increases the chances of giving birth to a healthy baby.
Contrary to popular belief, prenatal care does not begin when a woman is told that she is pregnant. Prenatal care should ideally be started at least three months before you try to conceive a child. This prepares your body and mind for the changes that pregnancy will bring. Some healthy habits to follow during this period include:
Once your pregnancy is confirmed, you will need to visit the doctor regularly for checkups.
Prenatal checkups are meant to keep an eye on your health and the health of your baby. In most cases, you will be asked to come in every month for the first two trimesters and every two weeks during the seventh and eighth month of your pregnancy. During the ninth month, your doctor may want to see you once a week until the delivery. In cases where a pregnancy is considered high risk because of existing medical conditions, the age of the mother or any other factors, the doctor may ask a for more frequent checkups.
A prenatal checkup involves a physical examination, tests, screenings and dietary consultations. Some of the common tests include blood tests to check for HIV, the mother’s blood type and anemia. Your blood pressure will also be monitored. When it comes to the baby’s health, determining the rate at which the baby is growing and heart rate are most important. In the later stages of your pregnancy, the position of the baby will also be noted. It is important to not skip these checkups even if you are feeling fine.
Keep your doctor informed about any changes you may notice in your health. Do not take any medication without consulting your doctor even if it is for something as simple as a cold. Do not feel shy about talking to your doctor and ask him or her anything you would like to about your pregnancy and childbirth.
Pregnancy is one of the most exciting and anxious phase in a woman’s life. There is definitely an information overload from all sources i.e. family, friends, medical team, books, Internet, etc., that is dumped on the mother-to-be. The idea is to prepare her for the delivery. What needs to be borne in mind though is that each delivery is unique and there are no two women who have had the exact same experience.
However, it is good for the mother to know what to expect so that she is mentally prepared and not totally caught unawares when the actual scenes unfold. The following are the sequence of events that she should be aware of and watch out for:
Some common problems you may expect include injury or tearing of the vagina or cervix, need for episiotomy, vomiting, passing of motion, anesthetic complications, etc. However, what would remain etched in the mother’s memory would be the first sight of the baby.
One of the most common queries faced by doctors dealing with pregnancies is related to the risks associated with having sex during the gestation and post partum periods. Such doubts arise from both genuine concern and also from several superstitions and myths. As a matter of fact, having sex during pregnancy is perfectly normal and safe. However, keeping in mind the changes the woman is going through there are a few specific do's and don'ts you need to follow while having sex during pregnancy.
1. Be aware
Pay attention to the doctor's evaluation of the expecting mother's condition. Many pregnancy risks can be predicted at an early stage. Abstain in case of predictions pointing to a risky gestation period and/ or delivery. Get yourself tested regularly, so that there is no possibility of transmitting infections to the expecting mother.
2. Enjoy foreplay
Pregnancy normally results in increased sensation in the erotogenic zones. Foreplay is a great way to relieve a woman's tension and she will enjoy your touch more than ever.
3. Pay attention to your partner's needs and reactions.
4. Women have to go through a lot during pregnancy like fatigue all the time, along with sudden nausea and extreme mood swings. So, paying more attention to your partner's needs and reactions will help make the act more enjoyable for both of you.
1. Don't go for multiple partners
Multiple partners increase the risk of infections. It is not advisable to have sex with multiple partners during this time.
2. Don't Use sex toys
Use of sex toys during pregnancy is discouraged as it increases the risk of infections.
3. Don't Try risky positions and maneuvers
Please keep your desires for exotic positions in check. Risque behavior can lead to injuries.
4. Don't Keep yourself ahead of her
It is perfect idiocy to keep your desires ahead of the needs and desires of the love of your life. By putting yourself ahead of her you will not negatively affect her mental health.
5. Do not mix drugs with intimacy
Use of intoxicants during her pregnancy to enhance your senses will put the healthy growth and delivery of the child in jeopardy. A number of birth defects in children are the results of substance use during pregnancy.
Gestational trophoblastic disease is a rare condition. It only happens when trophoblast cells abnormally grow inside the uterus. Also, this only happens after conception. These cells surround the egg which has been fertilized in the uterus. It is also worth note that the trophoblast cells usually connect the fertilized eggs to the uterus' walls and also form a part of the placenta. It is only when there is a tumor that this disease is diagnosed. There are many forms of gestational trophoblastic disease. Here they are:
It is worth note that most of these diseases have different stages. The stage of how far cancer has developed can be found out using the following techniques.
Testing for cancer
1. Chest X-ray
This is simply an X-ray of the chest.
An MRI is an abbreviation of magnetic resonance imaging. It makes use of a form of a magnet which transfers radio waves to a computer to find out what is going on within your body.
3. CT scan
This is similar to an X-ray except that more detailed and larger pictures inside the body can be taken and the scan has a slightly different procedure.
There are several ways to treat it depending on how far cancer has spread into the body. Here they are:
Surgery is usually done while the mole is still non-cancerous. The chances of the mole becoming cancerous are increased by pregnancy. Therefore, it is crucial that you do not become pregnant until the surgery is complete.
This is a less-ideal option but has to be taken if the mole has become cancerous.
Premature labor is also known as preterm labor. This is the term given when the body gets ready for early delivery in the pregnancy. Labor is considered to be premature if it starts almost three weeks prior to the due date. Premature labor usually leads to early birth, but now this can be delayed with medical help. It is better that the baby grows inside you because there are fewer chances of problems after birth.
Risk of Preterm Labor:
Some of the things which can increase the risk of a preterm labor are:
- Being underweight or overweight before pregnancy
- Poor prenatal care
- Use of alcohol and drugs during pregnancy
- Health conditions such as preeclampsia, infections, diabetes, high blood pressure and clotting disorders
- Pregnant with a bay with birth defects
- Getting pregnant through vitro fertilization
- Pregnant with multiples like twins and triplets
- Becoming pregnant soon after having a baby
Symptoms of preterm labor:
Warning signs should be heeded to stop the stop premature labor, as acting quickly can help. Consult your doctor or midwife immediately in case you have the following:
- Backache, especially in the lower back. Backache can be a constant feature or might keep coming in intervals, but does not change with a change in position.
- Contractions that take place in each 10 minutes
- A leaking feeling in the vagina or fluid leakage from the vagina
- Cramps in the lower abdomen very similar to menstrual cramps. These usually give a feeling of gas pains and come with a diarrhea
- Symptoms of flu-like vomiting, nausea and diarrhea. Must to see a doctor if the liquids cannot be tolerated for more than 8 hours
- The pressure in the vagina or pelvis increases
- Vaginal discharge increases
- There might be light bleeding from the vagina
Ways to check for Contractions
To spot and early labor one must be sure to check for the contractions. Contractions can be checked by the following:
- When the fingertips are placed on the abdomen and the uterus feels too soft or tight then these are contractions.
- Contractions if felt, should be timed and the starting time of these should be noted.
- Contractions should be stopped by changing the position and drinking some water or by walking around
- Doctor or midwife should be contacted if the contractions occur every 10 minutes and the symptoms worsen
Sometime women might experience false labor also known as Braxton Hicks contractions. These are not so strong, are erratic and stop on moving around.
Hypertension or high blood pressure is common in pregnant women, even in those who have no previous history of high blood pressure. This leads to complications in about 6% to 10% of all pregnancies around the world. High blood pressure may develop before or after conception and as such needs special medical attention.
Hypertension prevents sufficient flow of blood to the placenta and this inhibits the normal growth of the fetus. This could result in low birth weight of the child. However, if diagnosed in time and treated properly, hypertension does not affect the child's health too much. There are various types of hypertension during pregnancies, such as:
1. Gestational hypertension
This type of hypertension is developed about 20 weeks after conception. There is no abnormality in urine or any signs of other organ damage (as is common with hypertension during pregnancy) but the condition can worsen and complicate very quickly. Pregnant women below the age of 20 and above the age of 40 are often diagnosed with high levels of blood pressure. Women who have heart or kidney conditions before pregnancy and women carrying more than one child are also likely to develop gestational hypertension.
2. Chronic hypertension
Chronic hypertension is high blood pressure which develops around 20 weeks before conception and does not normalize within 12 weeks after childbirth. The patient may also have been suffering from high blood pressure for a long time but the complications appear only during pregnancy because high blood pressure rarely exhibits symptoms without an associated condition.
3. Chronic hypertension superimposed with Preeclampsia
Women who have hypertension before pregnancy may develop even higher blood pressure levels during pregnancy. This leads to several health disorders like frequent headaches, fatigue and depression. Sometimes, protein is found in the urine.
Preeclampsia is often a serious complication of gestational pregnancy and affects about 5% to 7% of all pregnancies globally. Gestational pregnancy does not always develop into preeclampsia but it needs to be diagnosed and treated in time to avoid the complication. Women who have conceived for the first time or have a history of hypertension in the family are at a greater risk of preeclampsia. The symptoms of the condition are throbbing headaches, blurred vision, nausea and vomiting, pain in the upper abdominal region and shortness of breath.