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Patient With Shortness Of Breath - Types Of Cardiomyopathy And Management!

Written and reviewed by
Dr. Manish Mittal 87% (10 ratings)
DNB Cardiology, DNB MEDICINE, MBBS
Cardiologist, Ghaziabad  •  18 years experience
Patient With Shortness Of Breath - Types Of Cardiomyopathy And Management!

Our heart is one of the most important organs that must be kept healthy and fit so that we can lead a good lifestyle, however, unfortunately many people still suffer from heart problems. And, one such heart problem is Cardiomyopathy.

What is Cardiomyopathy?

Cardiomyopathy is a disease of the heart muscles that makes it very difficult for the heart muscles to pump blood to the rest of the body. Since the muscles are unable to pump blood effectively, it can lead to heart failure. It is a very serious condition and may require extensive treatment to fully recover from the disorder. 

Different types of Cardiomyopathy

Now we will be discussing about the different types of Cardiomyopathy that can affect an individual.

  1. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy - In this case, the heart muscles becomes abnormally thickened, particularly affecting the muscle of your heart's main pumping chamber (left ventricle). The thickened heart muscle can make it harder for the heart to work properly. Most affected people have a family history of the disease.
  2. Dilated Cardiomyopathy - In this case, the muscles enlarge and become weak, therefore they cannot pump the blood. These weak muscles over a period of time become absolutely ineffective and can cause heart failure.
  3. Restrictive Cardiomyopathy -   In this type, the heart muscle becomes rigid and less elastic, so it is unable to relax and can't expand and fill with blood between heartbeats.Which eventually does not allow the blood to flow properly.
  4. Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia - In this rare type of cardiomyopathy, the muscle in the lower right heart chamber (right ventricle) is replaced by scar tissue, which can lead to heart rhythm problems. It's often caused by genetic mutations. This condition can cause a sudden cardiac arrest or heart failure as well.

Symptoms 

Patient may be asymptomatic in the early stages of cardiomyopathy. But as the condition advances, signs and symptoms usually appear, including:

  • Breathlessness with exertion or even at rest
  • Swelling of the legs, ankles and feet
  • Bloating of the abdomen due to fluid buildup
  • Cough while lying down
  • Fatigue
  • Heartbeats that feel rapid, pounding or fluttering
  • Chest discomfort or pressuretreated
  • Dizziness, lightheadedness and fainting

Signs and symptoms tend to get worse unless treated.

Complications 

Cardiomyopathy can lead to other heart conditions, including:

  • Heart failure. Untreated, heart failure can be life-threatening.
  • Blood clots.  Blood clots might form in your heart and may enter your bloodstream, then they can block the blood flow to other organs, including your heart and brain.
  • Valve problems. The heart valves might not close properly. This can lead to a backward flow of blood.
  • Cardiac arrest and sudden death.Cardiomyopathy can lead to abnormal heart rhythms which can result in fainting or, in some cases, sudden death.

Treatment 

It can include medications, surgically implanted devices or, in severe cases, a heart transplant, depends on which type of cardiomyopathy you have and how serious it is.

Prevention

You can help reduce your chance of cardiomyopathy and other types of heart disease by living a heart-healthy lifestyle and making lifestyle choices such as:

So here are some of the most common types of Cardiomyopathy. These types can affect people of any age group if they lead an unhealthy lifestyle. Cardiomyopathy is a very serious condition and any person  suffering from it should be diagnosed early and given medical treatment as soon as possible. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

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