I want to talk about kidney diseases as more and more people are getting scared of the same. I know it is becoming every relevant today. Kidney diseases can be prevented to the great extent. There is no need to be scared about it. But certain things have to be followed. People come to me and say about trace proteinuria. Now trace is very little protein in urine and they think it is abnormal. Trace proteinuria is as good as normal protein urea. Kidney does excrete in the normal people a small amount of protein about 200 mg in 24 hours. Now people come for red cells in the urine. Now 1-2 cells in urine are normal. We have to be very careful about hypertension.
It should be avoidable at the great extent. And we must maintain our BP at around 120/80 mm. Because hypertension can cause kidney damage. It also causes heart damage, affects the eyes but it is controllable. Now about diabetes, we must maintain our blood sugar level. And HbA1c should be at 6% because diabetes is as like as hypertension can also damage the eyes, heart diseases, and kidney damage. Diabetes also causes the problem with the liver. Causes non-alcoholic hepatitis. And the great contributor to all these diseases is overweight. Obesity should be avoided. Rather than getting worried about kidney disease, follow the rules like controlling your weight, eat healthily.
Take a balanced diet. Indulge in exercises. Exercise is very important as it lowers the blood pressure, blood sugar, keep cholesterol at the check. It also causes the problem of mental well-being. Avoid stress. Exercises are the very important part in preventing kidney diseases. Instead of worrying about kidney disease, let's talk about prevention. And even if kidney disease develops as of today, there is a lot which can be done to reverse it. An immunological disease can also develop. We have IgA nephropathy, FSGS, systemic lupus which is very common in young females. Now immunological disease can be picked up early and treated regularly if we have medical check-ups.
Now if the patient comes up with the symptoms like swelling of the feet, raised blood pressure or swelling of the face, now that is the time when it is late. So, my emphasis is on a regular check-up. Every person should get a check-up once a year before 40. And after 40, once in 6 months or 9 months should get checked-up because in medical check-up, you can detect almost all diseases. And detailed investigation can be done if something has been detected as an abnormality of anything. And that is how you keep diseases under check. Now if you detect any disease like diabetes, kidney disease, hypertension at an early stage than the results of the treatment is much better.
A lot of treatment available like for immunological. So, there is no scope for fear. Things depend on how we look at our health and how we prevent ourselves from getting any serious diseases. Stones in the kidney. I am seeing more and more obese people and sedentary people are more likely to develop renal calculi. We advise them to drink a lot of fluids, so many of the stones can be passed. We also must know that all rise in blood in urea, not an indicator of chronic renal failure. There are lot of indications like dehydration, gastroenteritis, especially in young children, where you can have temporarily renal damage which is reversible by hydration and medication.
A lot of things can be done at early stages to prevent kidney diseases. Smoking is completely not allowed. Stress, alcohol must be avoided. If we go for a regular medical check-up, and to see the kidney stage, urine is normal or if there is some abnormality at the early stage, you can reverse. Even if it is slightly late, today we have a lot of medications, dietary changes which must be performed and lifestyle modification. People in India are very careless about their lifestyle. They put on weight and they don't do regular exercises. Overeating, smoking, should be avoided for better health.
Thank you very much.