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Breast Conservative Surgery Tips

Good Cosmesis In Breast Cancer Surgery!

Dr.Chaitanyanand B. Koppiker 87% (60ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MS - General Surgery
Oncologist, Pune
Good Cosmesis In Breast Cancer Surgery!

Cosmesis refers to the preservation, restoration of a body part in it’s original form. Breast cosmesis is an important aspect and an endpoint of breast conserving therapy. The surgeons who carry out surgeries related to breast removal or upliftment, need to be precise in getting the other breast in exact shape to maintain symmetry. Their next priority is to make everything look good in the process.
Cosmesis plays a critical role in a woman’s physical and emotional recovery. Being fully treated and getting themselves out of danger is always the first priority but once women are out of danger, they would obviously be concerned about their looks, hence good cosmesis is a necessity.

Factors Affecting Good Cosmetic Outcome
Cosmetic outcome which follows the breast-conserving surgery is dependent on various factors like:

  • Location of the lump or tumor
  • Weight of the specimen excised upon,
  • Number of surgical procedures followed,
  • Volume of breast operated upon,
  • Length of scar
  • Adjuvant treatment in the form of chemo or radiotherapy followed after the surgery

Though the best method to assess good cosmesis in breast cancer surgery is still not clear but there are certain objective and subjective methods in combination, known to give a fairly good assessment of cosmesis.

Methods and materials involved to determine good cosmetic outcome
The general methods followed to ensure good cosmesis are Breast Retraction Assessment (BRA) and percentage Breast Retraction Assessment (pBRA). These are the objective measurements of the amount of breast retraction, determined primarily by comparing positions of nipple in relation to the sterna notch between the treated breast and contralateral breast.

The pBRA technique has been proved to have low intra and interobserver variability. Lower values of percentage Breast Retraction Assessment have been shown to correlate with improved cosmetic outcomes, hence making percentage Breast Retraction Assessment a reliable and an objective measure of cosmesis.

How is cosmetic assessment generally done?
In a particular case, evaluation of cosmesis was done before treatment, around 6-8 weeks post-treatment, 3-4 months post treatment, 6-8 months post-treatment, then every 6 months period for next 4-5 years and finally the assessment was down to yearly basis. The qualitative evaluation of cosmesis involved comparing treated breast with the untreated breast using the rating system.

The global cosmetic result, appearance of the scar made due to surgery, breast size, breast shape, colour of the skin, location of the areola and nipple and shape of the nipple and areola. All these were scored on a 4-point scale,

  • Excellent result with no difference
  • Good result with slight difference
  • Fair result with moderate difference
  • Poor result with huge difference


Physical measurements to calculate Breast Retraction Assessment and percentage

Breast Retraction Assessment were taken in a live example, while patients were in a seated position with both arms at the side of the body. Both the assessments were determined prior to the treatment as well as at the follow-up. As Percentage Breast Retraction reports retraction in terms of percentage, so it was used for analysis. On each occasion both the patients and physician reported the perceived cause of cosmesis as mainly because of radiation, surgery, unknown or no significant change.

3274 people found this helpful

Breast Cancer - How Surgery Can Be Of Help?

Dr.Prafull Arya 88% (489ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MS - General Surgery
General Surgeon, Ludhiana
Breast Cancer - How Surgery Can Be Of Help?

With the recent rise in number of breast cancer cases, it is important that we should get the examination done on a regular basis as a preventive measure. Even if someone is suffering from it, it is important that we should make an effort and learn about it. 

Screening for Breast Cancer: 

Screening can be done in 3 ways 

  1. Self Breast Examination: Done every month after menstrual periods are over 
  2. Clinical Breast Examination: If you have a doubt on self breast examination, you should go to a surgeon for further checkup. 
  3. Mammography, Ultrasound or MRI of breast: Surgeon may order any of these If you have breast cancer then a surgery will be part of your treatment. 

Based on the condition, surgery will be carried out due to any of the following reasons: 

  1. To remove the cancerous tissues from the breast 
  2. To check whether the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes below the arm 
  3. To reconstruct the breast once the cancer is removed 
  4. To treat symptoms of cancer that has progressed to an advanced stage 

Breast cancer surgery may be classified into two types:

  1. Mastectomy: Mastectomy involves removing the entire breast; tissues in the adjoining region may also be removed. Arm pit nodes if involved are also removed. A double mastectomy is a rare procedure where both the breasts are removed for cancer in both breasts. 
  2. Breast-conserving surgery: In this surgery, only part of the breast affected by cancer are removed. The area of the breast that is to be removed will depend on the severity of the cancer. Some healthy tissues surrounding the cancer is also removed in this surgery. Usually, if a woman is in the initial stages of cancer then she may opt for the latter as it entails removing parts of the breast. She may also need medical treatment and/ or radiation therapy along with surgery. 
  3. Breast Reconstruction: This is nowadays important aspect of breast cancer treatment. Once the mastectomy procedure is completed, you can opt for a breast reconstruction surgery to rebuild the area. You may opt for this procedure at the time of breast cancer removal or at a later stage. If you are considering breast reconstruction surgery then you should discuss it with your surgeon. Surgery is sometimes not used to treat cancer, but in slowing the progression of cancer or even reducing its symptoms.

It is important you talk to your surgeon before the procedure to understand the goal of the surgery. One important thing is that early treatment and recent advances in breast cancer treatment can definitely make your life normal or extend it by many years. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

1859 people found this helpful

Know More About Breast Cancer Surgery!

Dr.Harsh Garg 95% (19ratings)
MBBS, Ms - General Surgery, DNB - General Surgery
General Surgeon, Panchkula
Know More About Breast Cancer Surgery!

With the recent number of breast cancer cases on the rise, it is important that we should get the examination done on a regular basis as a preventive measure. Even if someone is suffering from it, it is important that we should make an effort and learn about.

If you have breast cancer then a surgery will be part of your treatment. Based on the condition, surgery will be carried out due to any of the following reasons:
1. To remove the cancerous tissues from the breast
2. To reconstruct the breast once the cancer is removed
3. To check whether the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes below the arm
4. To treat symptoms of cancer that has progressed to an advanced stage

Breast cancer surgery may be classified into two types-
1. Mastectomy: Mastectomy involves removing the entire breast; tissues in the adjoining region may also be removed. A double mastectomy is a procedure where both the breasts are removed.
2. Breast-conserving surgery: In this surgery, only parts of the breast affected by cancer are removed. The area of the breast that is to be removed will depend on the severity of the cancer. Some healthy tissues may also be removed in this surgery.

Usually, if a woman is in the initial stages of cancer then she may opt for the latter as it entails removing parts of the breast. They may also undergo radiation therapy along with these surgeries.
For checking if the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes below the arm, the lymph nodes are removed from the body. Once they are removed, they are studied under a microscope to check if it has spread, if yes then the extent of their damage. This procedure is carried out along with the surgery to remove the cancer.

Once the mastectomy procedure is completed, you can opt for a breast reconstruction surgery to rebuild the area. You may opt for this procedure at the time of breast cancer removal or at a later stage. If you are considering breast reconstruction surgery then you should discuss it with your surgeon.

Surgery is sometimes not used to treat cancer, but in slowing the progression of cancer or even reducing its symptoms.It is important you talk to your surgeon before the procedure to understand the goal of the surgery.

1903 people found this helpful

What You Need To Know About Breast Cancer Surgery?

Dr.Nitin Jha 89% (20ratings)
FAIS, FIAGES, MS - General Surgery, MBBS
General Surgeon, Noida
What You Need To Know About Breast Cancer Surgery?

With the recent number of breast cancer cases on the rise, it is important that we should get the examination done on a regular basis as a preventive measure. Even if someone is suffering from it, it is important that we should make an effort and learn about.

If you have breast cancer then a surgery will be part of your treatment. Based on the condition, surgery will be carried out due to any of the following reasons:
1. To remove the cancerous tissues from the breast
2. To reconstruct the breast once the cancer is removed
3. To check whether the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes below the arm
4. To treat symptoms of cancer that has progressed to an advanced stage

Breast cancer surgery may be classified into two types
1. Mastectomy: Mastectomy involves removing the entire breast; tissues in the adjoining region may also be removed. A double mastectomy is a procedure where both the breasts are removed.
2. Breast-conserving surgery: In this surgery, only parts of the breast affected by cancer are removed. The area of the breast that is to be removed will depend on the severity of the cancer. Some healthy tissues may also be removed in this surgery.

Usually, if a woman is in the initial stages of cancer then she may opt for the latter as it entails removing parts of the breast. They may also undergo radiation therapy along with these surgeries.
For checking if the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes below the arm, the lymph nodes are removed from the body. Once they are removed, they are studied under a microscope to check if it has spread, if yes then the extent of their damage. This procedure is carried out along with the surgery to remove the cancer.

Once the mastectomy procedure is completed, you can opt for a breast reconstruction surgery to rebuild the area. You may opt for this procedure at the time of breast cancer removal or at a later stage. If you are considering breast reconstruction surgery then you should discuss it with your surgeon.

Surgery is sometimes not used to treat cancer, but in slowing the progression of cancer or even reducing its symptoms.It is important you talk to your surgeon before the procedure to understand the goal of the surgery.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2570 people found this helpful

All About Conservative Cardiology

Multi Speciality Clinic
Multi Speciality, Pune
All About Conservative Cardiology

The heart is the most important among the vital organs within the human body. The functioning of all the other vital organs also depends on this and thus cardiology is a mightily important subject as it deals in all the problems and abnormalities of the heart.

What is conservative cardiology?
Cardiology is classified primarily into two disciplines, namely invasive and conservative. As the name implies, conservative cardiology is about taking the minimum steps to get the most out of this discipline without the involvement of major surgeries or other procedures. This is done to minimize risks, quicken healing time and be less painful to the patient.

How conservative cardiology works?
Conservative cardiology isn't just a procedure to resolve a certain issue, but a whole type of approach towards resolving cardiac problems. All parts, from diagnostic to therapy have a different approach compared to invasive cardiology. Let's take a look at those parts.

Diagnostic methods
Some of the diagnostic methods may be similar to invasive cardiology as this is usually the first step in finding the problems with your heart. These are mostly non invasive body and heart examinations. Most of these exams will use:

  • A high resolution, state-of-the-art 4D ultrasound scanner
  • A CAT scanner with contrast agent to find blockages.

Although invasive cardiology uses the same technology now in most cases, there are other invasive methods to detect blockages. One example of this is the cardiac catheter, which has to be physically inserted into the body for detection of problems.

Therapy for conservative cardiology
Therapy is the actual area where invasive and conservative methods stand out from each other. Conservative cardiology espouses the approach of minimum surgery. It doesn't even follow surgeries like angioplasty which is minimally invasive. Some of the techniques that Conservative cardiology relies upon are:

  1. Medications
  2. Lifestyle changes
  3. Physiotherapy and exercising
  4. Constant maintenance
  5. Changes in nutrition to control and lessen risks
  6. Reducing stress and other contributing factors of heart disease.

Conservative cardiology takes a more of a preventative approach, the moment a problem is diagnosed. It tries to minimize or at least keep the problem in check by instituting smaller changes. Exercise regimens, relaxation routines, diet changes are all a part of this. However the most important weapons are medications which reduce the imminent danger of cardiac arrests or other cardiac problems. These smaller changes along with medications ensure that the larger problems, for which surgeries may be required, never arise in the first place. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can ask a free question.

8619 people found this helpful

Breast Cancer - Know Forms Of Surgery To Tackle It!

MBBS, MS - General Surgery
Diabetic Foot Surgeon, Mumbai
Breast Cancer - Know Forms Of Surgery To Tackle It!

With the recent number of breast cancer cases on the rise, it is important that we should get the examination done on a regular basis as a preventive measure. Even if someone is suffering from it, it is important that we should make an effort and learn about.

If you have breast cancer then surgery will be part of your treatment. Based on the condition, surgery will be carried out due to any of the following reasons:
1. To remove the cancerous tissues from the breast
2. To reconstruct the breast once the cancer is removed
3. To check whether cancer has spread to the lymph nodes below the arm
4. To treat symptoms of cancer that has progressed to an advanced stage

Breast cancer surgery may be classified into two types

1. Mastectomy: Mastectomy involves removing the entire breast; tissues in the adjoining region may also be removed. A double mastectomy is a procedure where both the breasts are removed.
2. Breast-conserving surgery: In this surgery, only parts of the breast affected by cancer are removed. The area of the breast that is to be removed will depend on the severity of cancer. Some healthy tissues may also be removed in this surgery.

Usually, if a woman is in the initial stages of cancer then she may opt for the latter as it entails removing parts of the breast. They may also undergo radiation therapy along with these surgeries.
For checking if cancer has spread to the lymph nodes below the arm, the lymph nodes are removed from the body. Once they are removed, they are studied under a microscope to check if it has spread, if yes then the extent of their damage. This procedure is carried out along with the surgery to remove cancer.

Once the mastectomy procedure is completed, you can opt for breast reconstruction surgery to rebuild the area. You may opt for this procedure at the time of breast cancer removal or at a later stage. If you are considering breast reconstruction surgery then you should discuss it with your surgeon.

Surgery is sometimes not used to treat cancer, but in slowing the progression of cancer or even reducing its symptoms. It is important you talk to your surgeon before the procedure to understand the goal of the surgery.

6031 people found this helpful

Conservative Cardiology - How Does It Work?

Rlg Multi-speciality Hospital 89% (100ratings)
Multi Speciality, Navi Mumbai
Conservative Cardiology - How Does It Work?

The heart is the most important among the vital organs within the human body. The functioning of all the other vital organs also depends on this and thus cardiology is a mightily important subject as it deals in all the problems and abnormalities of the heart.

What is conservative cardiology?
Cardiology is classified primarily into two disciplines, namely invasive and conservative. As the name implies, conservative cardiology is about taking the minimum steps to get the most out of this discipline without the involvement of major surgeries or other procedures. This is done to minimize risks, quicken healing time and be less painful to the patient.

How conservative cardiology works?
Conservative cardiology isn't just a procedure to resolve a certain issue, but a whole type of approach towards resolving cardiac problems. All parts, from diagnostic to therapy have a different approach compared to invasive cardiology. Let's take a look at those parts.

Diagnostic methods
Some of the diagnostic methods may be similar to invasive cardiology as this is usually the first step in finding the problems with your heart. These are mostly non invasive body and heart examinations. Most of these exams will use:

  • A high resolution, state-of-the-art 4D ultrasound scanner
  • A CAT scanner with contrast agent to find blockages.

Although invasive cardiology uses the same technology now in most cases, there are other invasive methods to detect blockages. One example of this is the cardiac catheter, which has to be physically inserted into the body for detection of problems.

Therapy for conservative cardiology
Therapy is the actual area where invasive and conservative methods stand out from each other. Conservative cardiology espouses the approach of minimum surgery. It doesn't even follow surgeries like angioplasty which is minimally invasive. Some of the techniques that Conservative cardiology relies upon are:

  1. Medications
  2. Lifestyle changes
  3. Physiotherapy and exercising
  4. Constant maintenance
  5. Changes in nutrition to control and lessen risks
  6. Reducing stress and other contributing factors of heart disease.

Conservative cardiology takes a more of a preventative approach, the moment a problem is diagnosed. It tries to minimize or at least keep the problem in check by instituting smaller changes. Exercise regimens, relaxation routines, diet changes are all a part of this. However the most important weapons are medications which reduce the imminent danger of cardiac arrests or other cardiac problems. These smaller changes along with medications ensure that the larger problems, for which surgeries may be required, never arise in the first place.

5220 people found this helpful

Conservative Cardiology - Know Procedure Of It!

Dr.7 Orange Hospital 85% (76ratings)
Multi Speciality, Pune
Conservative Cardiology - Know Procedure Of It!

The heart is the most important among the vital organs within the human body. The functioning of all the other vital organs also depends on this and thus cardiology is a mightily important subject as it deals in all the problems and abnormalities of the heart.

What is conservative cardiology?
Cardiology is classified primarily into two disciplines, namely invasive and conservative. As the name implies, conservative cardiology is about taking the minimum steps to get the most out of this discipline without the involvement of major surgeries or other procedures. This is done to minimize risks, quicken healing time and be less painful to the patient.

How conservative cardiology works?
Conservative cardiology isn't just a procedure to resolve a certain issue, but a whole type of approach towards resolving cardiac problems. All parts, from diagnostic to therapy have a different approach compared to invasive cardiology. Let's take a look at those parts.

Diagnostic methods
Some of the diagnostic methods may be similar to invasive cardiology as this is usually the first step in finding the problems with your heart. These are mostly non-invasive body and heart examinations. Most of these exams will use:

  • A high resolution, state-of-the-art 4D ultrasound scanner
  • A CAT scanner with contrast agent to find blockages.

Although invasive cardiology uses the same technology now in most cases, there are other invasive methods to detect blockages. One example of this is the cardiac catheter, which has to be physically inserted into the body for detection of problems.

Therapy for conservative cardiology
Therapy is the actual area where invasive and conservative methods stand out from each other. Conservative cardiology espouses the approach of minimum surgery. It doesn't even follow surgeries like angioplasty which is minimally invasive. Some of the techniques that Conservative cardiology relies upon are:

  1. Medications
  2. Lifestyle changes
  3. Physiotherapy and exercising
  4. Constant maintenance
  5. Changes in nutrition to control and lessen risks
  6. Reducing stress and other contributing factors of heart disease.

Conservative cardiology takes a more of a preventative approach, the moment a problem is diagnosed. It tries to minimize or at least keep the problem in check by instituting smaller changes. Exercise regimens, relaxation routines, diet changes are all a part of this. However, the most important weapons are medications which reduce the imminent danger of cardiac arrests or other cardiac problems. These smaller changes along with medications ensure that the larger problems, for which surgeries may be required, never arise in the first place.

5118 people found this helpful

All You Need to Know about Breast Augmentation Surgery

Dr.Siddharth Prakash 92% (19ratings)
Fellowship in Cosmetic Plastic Surgery, Fellowship in Breast and Body Contouring, Rio, Brazil, DNB (Plastic Surgery) -, DNB (General Surgery) -, MS (General Surgery) - , MBBS
Cosmetic/Plastic Surgeon, Mumbai
All You Need to Know about Breast Augmentation Surgery

Breast Augmentation is the most popular plastic surgery procedure performed worldwide.

Breast augmentation can enhance your appearance and your self-confidence, enlarging your breasts and making them more proportional with the rest of your body. Breast augmentation can also be used to correct differences in the size of your breasts or sagging breasts, which can occur after pregnancy and breastfeeding.

Preoperative Planning

There are many choices and options in breast augmentation, which require careful planning to individualize what are the best options for you. All of these choices have advantages and disadvantages, which you should understand before you make a decision with your surgeon.

Breast augmentation does not correct severely drooping breasts. If you want your breasts to look fuller and to be lifted due to sagging, a breast lift may be required in conjunction with breast augmentation. Breast lifting can often be done at the same time as your augmentation or may require a separate operation. Your plastic surgeon will assist you in making this decision.

Most patients choose silicone implants rather than saline implants because they have a more natural look and feel. Modern silicone implants are substantially different from the old type of silicone implants used in the 1970s and 80s. Another advantage of the cohesive gel silicone implants is that they are made in a variety of round and tear-drop shapes, which means it is easier to choose an implant to achieve the breast shape that you desire.

Safety Profile

Misinformation emerged about silicone in the late 80's and early 90's. The effects of silicone implants have since been studied extensively these claims were made, looking at 100,000s of women with breast implants. In June 1999, The Institute of Medicine at the National Academy of Sciences in the U.S.A. released a report, which confirmed that there is no increased risk of the development of cancer, immunologic or neurological problems associated with the use of silicone breast implants, which had been claimed in the late 80's. Patients with implants can breastfeed normally as there is no effect on breast milk.


Surgery

Breast augmentation surgery requires a general anaesthetic, with the operation taking 1-2 hours, and is usually performed as a day-stay or overnight-stay procedure.

Implants are placed either behind the breast tissue or under the pectoralis muscle on the chest wall. Breast implants placed underneath the muscle have a more natural shape, a lower chance of capsular contracture (hardening) of the implant, and it is easier for mammography. There is also a choice of incision - in the crease under the breast, under the areola or in the armpit, all of which have advantages and disadvantages, which you should discuss with your surgeon.

Recovery

Following the surgery, it is important to have restricted light activities, with no lifting or heavy duties for 7-10 days. Most patients may drive again and return to work within 7 days after the surgery. Heavy activities and sport should not be undertaken for 3-4 weeks following the surgery.

'Consult'.

Related Tip: Factors You Need to Consider Before Opting for BREAST IMPLANTS?

4924 people found this helpful

Everything You Should Know About Breast Augmentation Surgery

Dr.M Rajkumar 86% (100ratings)
M.Ch (Plastic)
Cosmetic/Plastic Surgeon, Chennai
Everything You Should Know About Breast Augmentation Surgery

Over the past decade, many women have opted for Breast Augmentation Surgery. It is a surgical process to improve the aesthetics of one's breast. Apart from giving a much needed lift to the bust size, the augmented breasts can lift up your confidence. Breast Augmentation Surgery, if gone wrong, can create a havoc. The outcome of the surgery can be influenced by a number of factors. Thus, before going under the knife, some important and vital points need to be taken care of.

  1. It is advisable to avail the services of an experienced surgeon, who has a higher success rate. A lot of confusions and apprehensions may arise during course of the surgery. An experienced surgeon will ease out the tension to a great extend and guide you better.
  2. Breast Augmentation is no child's play. Do not embark on breast augmentation surgery if you are below 18 years of age. It can result in serious health complications. Surgery can wait, but health once lost, will be gone forever.
  3. Know the type of implants to be used. Saline and Silicone implants are commonly used in breast augmentation. Both the implants come with their own sets of merits and demerits.

Being softer and smoother, Silicone implants give the augmented breasts a very natural feel. The chances of scalloping (the skin around the breasts appear wavy) are negligible in case of Silicone implants. However, the Silicone implants come pre-filled. Thus, a bigger incision is needed to get it inserted. Though approved by the FDA, leakage of the silicone implants into the body has been reported. The leakage can affect the health seriously. Interference of Silicone implants with the mammogram can also pose a serious threat.

The Saline implants, on the other hand, are not pre filled. Thus, a small incision is all it takes to get the implants inserted. Once inserted, the implants are filled with saline solution. The saline implants can also leak into the body, without any serious implications. The biggest limitation of saline implants is in the fact that it gives the breasts a very hard feel. Scalloping cannot be ruled out either.

Things to take care of:

  1. Do not go for breast augmentation surgery if you are planning to start a family in 1-2 years of time. A weaning or lactating lady should also avoid the surgery.
  2. The exact location of the implant is an important factor to ponder upon. One can go for an under the muscle or over the muscle implants.
  3. One can opt for a round implant or a tear shaped implant. The biggest USP of tear shaped implant lies in the fact that it gives a very natural feel to the augmented breasts. The round implants, on the other hand, are much safer to use.
  4. Go for the surgery only when you are physically, mentally and emotionally fit and healthy.
3704 people found this helpful
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