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Breast Conservative Surgery Tips

Good Cosmesis In Breast Cancer Surgery!

Good Cosmesis In Breast Cancer Surgery!

Cosmesis refers to the preservation, restoration of a body part in it’s original form. Breast cosmesis is an important aspect and an endpoint of breast conserving therapy. The surgeons who carry out surgeries related to breast removal or upliftment, need to be precise in getting the other breast in exact shape to maintain symmetry. Their next priority is to make everything look good in the process.
Cosmesis plays a critical role in a woman’s physical and emotional recovery. Being fully treated and getting themselves out of danger is always the first priority but once women are out of danger, they would obviously be concerned about their looks, hence good cosmesis is a necessity.

Factors Affecting Good Cosmetic Outcome
Cosmetic outcome which follows the breast-conserving surgery is dependent on various factors like:

  • Location of the lump or tumor
  • Weight of the specimen excised upon,
  • Number of surgical procedures followed,
  • Volume of breast operated upon,
  • Length of scar
  • Adjuvant treatment in the form of chemo or radiotherapy followed after the surgery

Though the best method to assess good cosmesis in breast cancer surgery is still not clear but there are certain objective and subjective methods in combination, known to give a fairly good assessment of cosmesis.

Methods and materials involved to determine good cosmetic outcome
The general methods followed to ensure good cosmesis are Breast Retraction Assessment (BRA) and percentage Breast Retraction Assessment (pBRA). These are the objective measurements of the amount of breast retraction, determined primarily by comparing positions of nipple in relation to the sterna notch between the treated breast and contralateral breast.

The pBRA technique has been proved to have low intra and interobserver variability. Lower values of percentage Breast Retraction Assessment have been shown to correlate with improved cosmetic outcomes, hence making percentage Breast Retraction Assessment a reliable and an objective measure of cosmesis.

How is cosmetic assessment generally done?
In a particular case, evaluation of cosmesis was done before treatment, around 6-8 weeks post-treatment, 3-4 months post treatment, 6-8 months post-treatment, then every 6 months period for next 4-5 years and finally the assessment was down to yearly basis. The qualitative evaluation of cosmesis involved comparing treated breast with the untreated breast using the rating system.

The global cosmetic result, appearance of the scar made due to surgery, breast size, breast shape, colour of the skin, location of the areola and nipple and shape of the nipple and areola. All these were scored on a 4-point scale,

  • Excellent result with no difference
  • Good result with slight difference
  • Fair result with moderate difference
  • Poor result with huge difference


Physical measurements to calculate Breast Retraction Assessment and percentage

Breast Retraction Assessment were taken in a live example, while patients were in a seated position with both arms at the side of the body. Both the assessments were determined prior to the treatment as well as at the follow-up. As Percentage Breast Retraction reports retraction in terms of percentage, so it was used for analysis. On each occasion both the patients and physician reported the perceived cause of cosmesis as mainly because of radiation, surgery, unknown or no significant change.

3274 people found this helpful

Breast Cancer - How Surgery Can Be Of Help?

Breast Cancer - How Surgery Can Be Of Help?

With the recent rise in number of breast cancer cases, it is important that we should get the examination done on a regular basis as a preventive measure. Even if someone is suffering from it, it is important that we should make an effort and learn about it. 

Screening for Breast Cancer: 

Screening can be done in 3 ways 

  1. Self Breast Examination: Done every month after menstrual periods are over 
  2. Clinical Breast Examination: If you have a doubt on self breast examination, you should go to a surgeon for further checkup. 
  3. Mammography, Ultrasound or MRI of breast: Surgeon may order any of these If you have breast cancer then a surgery will be part of your treatment. 

Based on the condition, surgery will be carried out due to any of the following reasons: 

  1. To remove the cancerous tissues from the breast 
  2. To check whether the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes below the arm 
  3. To reconstruct the breast once the cancer is removed 
  4. To treat symptoms of cancer that has progressed to an advanced stage 

Breast cancer surgery may be classified into two types:

  1. Mastectomy: Mastectomy involves removing the entire breast; tissues in the adjoining region may also be removed. Arm pit nodes if involved are also removed. A double mastectomy is a rare procedure where both the breasts are removed for cancer in both breasts. 
  2. Breast-conserving surgery: In this surgery, only part of the breast affected by cancer are removed. The area of the breast that is to be removed will depend on the severity of the cancer. Some healthy tissues surrounding the cancer is also removed in this surgery. Usually, if a woman is in the initial stages of cancer then she may opt for the latter as it entails removing parts of the breast. She may also need medical treatment and/ or radiation therapy along with surgery. 
  3. Breast Reconstruction: This is nowadays important aspect of breast cancer treatment. Once the mastectomy procedure is completed, you can opt for a breast reconstruction surgery to rebuild the area. You may opt for this procedure at the time of breast cancer removal or at a later stage. If you are considering breast reconstruction surgery then you should discuss it with your surgeon. Surgery is sometimes not used to treat cancer, but in slowing the progression of cancer or even reducing its symptoms.

It is important you talk to your surgeon before the procedure to understand the goal of the surgery. One important thing is that early treatment and recent advances in breast cancer treatment can definitely make your life normal or extend it by many years. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

1859 people found this helpful

What You Need To Know About Breast Cancer Surgery?

What You Need To Know About Breast Cancer Surgery?

With the recent number of breast cancer cases on the rise, it is important that we should get the examination done on a regular basis as a preventive measure. Even if someone is suffering from it, it is important that we should make an effort and learn about.

If you have breast cancer then a surgery will be part of your treatment. Based on the condition, surgery will be carried out due to any of the following reasons:
1. To remove the cancerous tissues from the breast
2. To reconstruct the breast once the cancer is removed
3. To check whether the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes below the arm
4. To treat symptoms of cancer that has progressed to an advanced stage

Breast cancer surgery may be classified into two types
1. Mastectomy: Mastectomy involves removing the entire breast; tissues in the adjoining region may also be removed. A double mastectomy is a procedure where both the breasts are removed.
2. Breast-conserving surgery: In this surgery, only parts of the breast affected by cancer are removed. The area of the breast that is to be removed will depend on the severity of the cancer. Some healthy tissues may also be removed in this surgery.

Usually, if a woman is in the initial stages of cancer then she may opt for the latter as it entails removing parts of the breast. They may also undergo radiation therapy along with these surgeries.
For checking if the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes below the arm, the lymph nodes are removed from the body. Once they are removed, they are studied under a microscope to check if it has spread, if yes then the extent of their damage. This procedure is carried out along with the surgery to remove the cancer.

Once the mastectomy procedure is completed, you can opt for a breast reconstruction surgery to rebuild the area. You may opt for this procedure at the time of breast cancer removal or at a later stage. If you are considering breast reconstruction surgery then you should discuss it with your surgeon.

Surgery is sometimes not used to treat cancer, but in slowing the progression of cancer or even reducing its symptoms.It is important you talk to your surgeon before the procedure to understand the goal of the surgery.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2570 people found this helpful

Know More About Breast Cancer Surgery!

Know More About Breast Cancer Surgery!

With the recent number of breast cancer cases on the rise, it is important that we should get the examination done on a regular basis as a preventive measure. Even if someone is suffering from it, it is important that we should make an effort and learn about.

If you have breast cancer then a surgery will be part of your treatment. Based on the condition, surgery will be carried out due to any of the following reasons:
1. To remove the cancerous tissues from the breast
2. To reconstruct the breast once the cancer is removed
3. To check whether the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes below the arm
4. To treat symptoms of cancer that has progressed to an advanced stage

Breast cancer surgery may be classified into two types-
1. Mastectomy: Mastectomy involves removing the entire breast; tissues in the adjoining region may also be removed. A double mastectomy is a procedure where both the breasts are removed.
2. Breast-conserving surgery: In this surgery, only parts of the breast affected by cancer are removed. The area of the breast that is to be removed will depend on the severity of the cancer. Some healthy tissues may also be removed in this surgery.

Usually, if a woman is in the initial stages of cancer then she may opt for the latter as it entails removing parts of the breast. They may also undergo radiation therapy along with these surgeries.
For checking if the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes below the arm, the lymph nodes are removed from the body. Once they are removed, they are studied under a microscope to check if it has spread, if yes then the extent of their damage. This procedure is carried out along with the surgery to remove the cancer.

Once the mastectomy procedure is completed, you can opt for a breast reconstruction surgery to rebuild the area. You may opt for this procedure at the time of breast cancer removal or at a later stage. If you are considering breast reconstruction surgery then you should discuss it with your surgeon.

Surgery is sometimes not used to treat cancer, but in slowing the progression of cancer or even reducing its symptoms.It is important you talk to your surgeon before the procedure to understand the goal of the surgery.

1903 people found this helpful

All About Conservative Cardiology

All About Conservative Cardiology

The heart is the most important among the vital organs within the human body. The functioning of all the other vital organs also depends on this and thus cardiology is a mightily important subject as it deals in all the problems and abnormalities of the heart.

What is conservative cardiology?
Cardiology is classified primarily into two disciplines, namely invasive and conservative. As the name implies, conservative cardiology is about taking the minimum steps to get the most out of this discipline without the involvement of major surgeries or other procedures. This is done to minimize risks, quicken healing time and be less painful to the patient.

How conservative cardiology works?
Conservative cardiology isn't just a procedure to resolve a certain issue, but a whole type of approach towards resolving cardiac problems. All parts, from diagnostic to therapy have a different approach compared to invasive cardiology. Let's take a look at those parts.

Diagnostic methods
Some of the diagnostic methods may be similar to invasive cardiology as this is usually the first step in finding the problems with your heart. These are mostly non invasive body and heart examinations. Most of these exams will use:

  • A high resolution, state-of-the-art 4D ultrasound scanner
  • A CAT scanner with contrast agent to find blockages.

Although invasive cardiology uses the same technology now in most cases, there are other invasive methods to detect blockages. One example of this is the cardiac catheter, which has to be physically inserted into the body for detection of problems.

Therapy for conservative cardiology
Therapy is the actual area where invasive and conservative methods stand out from each other. Conservative cardiology espouses the approach of minimum surgery. It doesn't even follow surgeries like angioplasty which is minimally invasive. Some of the techniques that Conservative cardiology relies upon are:

  1. Medications
  2. Lifestyle changes
  3. Physiotherapy and exercising
  4. Constant maintenance
  5. Changes in nutrition to control and lessen risks
  6. Reducing stress and other contributing factors of heart disease.

Conservative cardiology takes a more of a preventative approach, the moment a problem is diagnosed. It tries to minimize or at least keep the problem in check by instituting smaller changes. Exercise regimens, relaxation routines, diet changes are all a part of this. However the most important weapons are medications which reduce the imminent danger of cardiac arrests or other cardiac problems. These smaller changes along with medications ensure that the larger problems, for which surgeries may be required, never arise in the first place. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can ask a free question.

8618 people found this helpful

Conservative Cardiology - How Does It Work?

Conservative Cardiology - How Does It Work?

The heart is the most important among the vital organs within the human body. The functioning of all the other vital organs also depends on this and thus cardiology is a mightily important subject as it deals in all the problems and abnormalities of the heart.

What is conservative cardiology?
Cardiology is classified primarily into two disciplines, namely invasive and conservative. As the name implies, conservative cardiology is about taking the minimum steps to get the most out of this discipline without the involvement of major surgeries or other procedures. This is done to minimize risks, quicken healing time and be less painful to the patient.

How conservative cardiology works?
Conservative cardiology isn't just a procedure to resolve a certain issue, but a whole type of approach towards resolving cardiac problems. All parts, from diagnostic to therapy have a different approach compared to invasive cardiology. Let's take a look at those parts.

Diagnostic methods
Some of the diagnostic methods may be similar to invasive cardiology as this is usually the first step in finding the problems with your heart. These are mostly non invasive body and heart examinations. Most of these exams will use:

  • A high resolution, state-of-the-art 4D ultrasound scanner
  • A CAT scanner with contrast agent to find blockages.

Although invasive cardiology uses the same technology now in most cases, there are other invasive methods to detect blockages. One example of this is the cardiac catheter, which has to be physically inserted into the body for detection of problems.

Therapy for conservative cardiology
Therapy is the actual area where invasive and conservative methods stand out from each other. Conservative cardiology espouses the approach of minimum surgery. It doesn't even follow surgeries like angioplasty which is minimally invasive. Some of the techniques that Conservative cardiology relies upon are:

  1. Medications
  2. Lifestyle changes
  3. Physiotherapy and exercising
  4. Constant maintenance
  5. Changes in nutrition to control and lessen risks
  6. Reducing stress and other contributing factors of heart disease.

Conservative cardiology takes a more of a preventative approach, the moment a problem is diagnosed. It tries to minimize or at least keep the problem in check by instituting smaller changes. Exercise regimens, relaxation routines, diet changes are all a part of this. However the most important weapons are medications which reduce the imminent danger of cardiac arrests or other cardiac problems. These smaller changes along with medications ensure that the larger problems, for which surgeries may be required, never arise in the first place.

5220 people found this helpful

Conservative Cardiology - Know Procedure Of It!

Conservative Cardiology - Know Procedure Of It!

The heart is the most important among the vital organs within the human body. The functioning of all the other vital organs also depends on this and thus cardiology is a mightily important subject as it deals in all the problems and abnormalities of the heart.

What is conservative cardiology?
Cardiology is classified primarily into two disciplines, namely invasive and conservative. As the name implies, conservative cardiology is about taking the minimum steps to get the most out of this discipline without the involvement of major surgeries or other procedures. This is done to minimize risks, quicken healing time and be less painful to the patient.

How conservative cardiology works?
Conservative cardiology isn't just a procedure to resolve a certain issue, but a whole type of approach towards resolving cardiac problems. All parts, from diagnostic to therapy have a different approach compared to invasive cardiology. Let's take a look at those parts.

Diagnostic methods
Some of the diagnostic methods may be similar to invasive cardiology as this is usually the first step in finding the problems with your heart. These are mostly non-invasive body and heart examinations. Most of these exams will use:

  • A high resolution, state-of-the-art 4D ultrasound scanner
  • A CAT scanner with contrast agent to find blockages.

Although invasive cardiology uses the same technology now in most cases, there are other invasive methods to detect blockages. One example of this is the cardiac catheter, which has to be physically inserted into the body for detection of problems.

Therapy for conservative cardiology
Therapy is the actual area where invasive and conservative methods stand out from each other. Conservative cardiology espouses the approach of minimum surgery. It doesn't even follow surgeries like angioplasty which is minimally invasive. Some of the techniques that Conservative cardiology relies upon are:

  1. Medications
  2. Lifestyle changes
  3. Physiotherapy and exercising
  4. Constant maintenance
  5. Changes in nutrition to control and lessen risks
  6. Reducing stress and other contributing factors of heart disease.

Conservative cardiology takes a more of a preventative approach, the moment a problem is diagnosed. It tries to minimize or at least keep the problem in check by instituting smaller changes. Exercise regimens, relaxation routines, diet changes are all a part of this. However, the most important weapons are medications which reduce the imminent danger of cardiac arrests or other cardiac problems. These smaller changes along with medications ensure that the larger problems, for which surgeries may be required, never arise in the first place.

5118 people found this helpful

Things To Consider Before Having Breast Augmentation Surgery

Things To Consider Before Having Breast Augmentation Surgery

What is the real reason behind the surgery?

The decision to have breast augmented surgery should be a woman’s alone. Friend’s advice or pressure from your partner should not play a role in this. Since this is a complicated procedure, getting the surgery done with external pressure can lead to disappointment.

How expensive are these surgeries?

Breast augmentation surgeries are slightly expensive compared to other plastic surgeries. However, the price of the surgery varies depending on the procedure chosen and the doctor who is performing it. It makes sense to consider a clinic which fits the budget and has a very good reputation of its own. Planning your finance well in advance should be one of the top priorities of a woman.

The Risks-

While most breast augmentation surgeries are harmless, there are potential complications that go with it. Bruising and swelling are common risks that are involved with this procedure. This might even last for a week. If surgeries go wrong there is a potential risk in getting a second surgery to set things right. The candidate might have to take antibiotics and pain medication for quite a few weeks till things become normal.

Think about a realistic size-

There is this general notion that breast augmentation surgeries do not give a natural look to a woman. To ensure that one gets a natural look, it is very important to choose the right size of the implant. While it remains a personal choice, the appropriate breast size makes a woman more attractive.

Set the expectation right-

Most breast augmentation surgeries give people a positive outlook towards life. They feel more confident and happier than before. Having said this, there are chances of potential changes in the physiological and physical front. Before the surgery, a detailed discussion with the doctor is recommended.

Where should you have the surgery from?

While there are many places that offer cheap implant options, money should not be the only consideration. A surgery as important as this should have various parameters weighed such as the experience of a doctor, the success rate of the doctor, talking to people who have undergone the same procedure from the same facility etc.

Is a night stay at the clinic mandatory?

A night stay at the clinic is not mandatory. While some clinics emphasize for a night stay so that the patient can be kept under observation, some prefer that their candidates go home and heal at the privacy of their homes.

Pregnancy-

If a person is planning to get pregnant after the surgery, there is a potential risk of breastfeeding. While most women do not face this, there are considerable ones who come across this problem. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Cosmetic/Plastic Surgeon.

4422 people found this helpful

Know More About Breast Augmentation Surgery

Know More About Breast Augmentation Surgery

Breast Augmentation is the most popular plastic surgery procedure performed worldwide.

Breast augmentation can enhance your appearance and your self-confidence, enlarging your breasts and making them more proportional with the rest of your body. Breast augmentation can also be used to correct differences in the size of your breasts or sagging breasts, which can occur after pregnancy and breastfeeding.

Preoperative Planning

There are many choices and options in breast augmentation, which require careful planning to individualize what are the best options for you. All of these choices have advantages and disadvantages, which you should understand before you make a decision with your surgeon.

Breast augmentation does not correct severely drooping breasts. If you want your breasts to look fuller and to be lifted due to sagging, a breast lift may be required in conjunction with breast augmentation. Breast lifting can often be done at the same time as your augmentation or may require a separate operation. Your plastic surgeon will assist you in making this decision.

Most patients choose silicone implants rather than saline implants because they have a more natural look and feel. Modern silicone implants are substantially different from the old type of silicone implants used in the 1970s and 80s. Another advantage of the cohesive gel silicone implants is that they are made in a variety of round and tear-drop shapes, which means it is easier to choose an implant to achieve the breast shape that you desire.

Safety Profile
Misinformation emerged about silicone in the late 80's and early 90's. The effects of silicone implants have since been studied extensively these claims were made, looking at 100,000s of women with breast implants. In June 1999, The Institute of Medicine at the National Academy of Sciences in the U.S.A. released a report, which confirmed that there is no increased risk of the development of cancer, immunologic or neurological problems associated with the use of silicone breast implants, which had been claimed in the late 80's. Patients with implants can breastfeed normally as there is no effect on breast milk.


Surgery
Breast augmentation surgery requires a general anaesthetic, with the operation taking 1-2 hours, and is usually performed as a day-stay or overnight-stay procedure.

Implants are placed either behind the breast tissue or under the pectoralis muscle on the chest wall. Breast implants placed underneath the muscle have a more natural shape, a lower chance of capsular contracture (hardening) of the implant, and it is easier for mammography. There is also a choice of incision - in the crease under the breast, under the areola or in the armpit, all of which have advantages and disadvantages, which you should discuss with your surgeon.

Recovery
Following the surgery, it is important to have restricted light activities, with no lifting or heavy duties for 7-10 days. Most patients may drive again and return to work within 7 days after the surgery. Heavy activities and sport should not be undertaken for 3-4 weeks following the surgery. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.

2783 people found this helpful

Male Breast Surgery

Male Breast Surgery

One of the most common cosmetic procedures performed in the world today is that of breast augmentation or reduction. This is a fairly common surgery wherein depending on the requirement of the patients; the breasts are either made bigger with the help of implants or reduced in size by excising fat and tissue. Although a majority of these patients are female, there are an increasing number of male patients, who opt for male breast surgery as well.

The need for male breast surgery-

The requirement for male breast surgery arises due to the occurrence of Gynecomastia or the development of male breasts. In this condition, fat and glandular tissues are stored within the male chest in the pattern of female breasts, thus giving it a feminine look. This is a common occurrence among men and can be a cause of social embarrassment for the man as well as affecting his self-esteem. Some of the causes for gynecomastia or male breasts would be –

  1. Excessive Weight Gain.

  2. Hormonal changes within the body where testosterone levels drop due to conditions such as ‘Hypogonadism’ (in men, the inability of the testicle’s to function correctly) and estrogen levels increase.

  3. Medications used to treat other disorders such as certain anti -depressants, cancer medication, and anti-anxiety medications among others.

  4. Excess consumption of alcohol and certain drugs.

  5. Hyperthyroidism (excess thyroid secretion by the thyroid gland).

It isn’t always just fat!

While many people tend to blame male breasts due to the accumulation of fat, this may not be the case always. Even skinny or people with an athletic build may notice misshapen chest that has more of a feminine appearance and thus would like to correct that. This is obviously caused by hormonal factors and genetics of body shape as well rather than just being obese or overweight.

Types of Male Breast Surgery-

Male breast surgery revolves around breast reduction and contouring to give it a more flat and toned look. This can be achieved in either of these ways:

  1. LiposuctionThis is a fairly common procedure and is minimally invasive; meant to suck out the fat through a small opening on the skin. With the help of liposuction, doctors can easily contour your chest to have a more masculine look by removing the excess fat. This procedure is a very popular one as it takes less time to recover and also isn’t invasive. However, this is used as an option for male breast surgery when the problem isn’t acute.

  2. Surgery to remove excess tissues and fat – If the male breasts have excessive glandular tissue and the problem is acute, a more extensive form of surgery wherein the glandular tissue is excised may be required. However, this is also not very invasive and you can get back to your regular routine within a few days after surgery.

3072 people found this helpful
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