What are Different Types of Bariatric Surgeries?
Bariatric Surgery is one of the most popular options for obese people looking for a way to control their weight. To get bariatric surgery, one has to qualify for certain criteria like BMI (Body Mass Index), associated comorbidities like Diabetes, Hypertension, sleep apnea, infertility, hypercholesterolemia etc. There are many kinds of bariatric surgeries or weight loss surgeries, different surgeries work differently in order to give the desired effect, which is why it is important to understand these surgeries thoroughly.
Weight loss surgeries are divided into different categories like -
● Restrictive surgeries: Some bariatric surgeries are focused on limiting the amount of food that can be stored in the stomach. This allows a person to eat less than they used to, because of the limited capacity of the stomach. Sleeve gastrectomy, Adjustable gastric banding, Gastric imbrication, Gastric balloon surgery are examples of restrictive procedures. In sleeve gastrectomy, the stomach is divided into two halves first, then one half of the stomach is completely removed. The remaining part of the stomach is formed into a tube-like structure. This tube-like structure cannot hold enough food and restricts excessive food intake. It also limits the secretion of an appetite hormone called Ghrelin which limits the desire of a person to eat.
● Malabsorptive procedures: In this procedure, a large segment of the small intestine is bypassed i.e the food is not allowed to enter a large segment of the small intestine and hence malabsorption will be there. Duodenal switch is a malabsorbtive surgery.
To Summarize: The weight loss procedures that suit our Indian population are the Roux en Y gastric bypass and the sleeve gastrectomy. We do not come across any sign of malnutrition in patients who have undergone these procedures. For successful outcomes, vitamin, calcium and protein supplements are required.
There are certain myths about bariatric surgery --- life will never be normal after the surgery, pregnancy is a problem after this surgery, one will never be able to eat after this surgery, marriage is a problem after this surgery etc. All these are incorrect as one live a better life after the surgery as one has shed the extra kilos, one is cured of existing problems like diabetes, high cholesterol, hypertension, obesity induced infertility and sleep apnea extra. IN FACT, the quality of life is phenomenal after this surgery. CHOICE of surgery depends on the existing BMI, existing associated problems and results of the investigations that are done prior to the surgery. Your surgeon is the best to decide the right procedure for you. As the procedure which your friend has undergone might not be good for you. Choice of procedure and proper follow up are the key points for a successful surgical outcome.
● Combination of restrictive and Malabsorptive surgeries: In these procedures, the surgery is done on the stomach as well as the small intestine. It involves creating a small stomach pouch which is attached to the small intestine, thus bypassing a small segment of the small intestine to get the desired effect if the person has diabetes associated. The rest of the stomach produces important digestive juices and is also connected to the intestine so that it can transfer these digestive juices in it. As a part of the stomach and few centimetres of the small intestine are bypassed i.e food does not enter this part, the surgery is called the gastric bypass. The Roux en Y gastric bypass and the Mini Gastric bypass surgeries are examples of these combination procedures.