I am Dr. Nishith Chandra, Director, Interventional Cardiologist at Fortis Escorts Heart Institute, New Delhi, India. I am at this institute from last 22 years. Today I will discuss about the differences between cardiac arrest, heart failure and heart attack. Are these heart failure, heart attack, heart and cardiac arrest, they are same thing? No they are not the same thing. They denote totally different meanings. So what do you we mean by heart failure.
Heart failure means that heart is failing in its duty to pump enough blood. Heart is still beating, heart has not stopped, heart is beating. Then how do a person recognize heart failure. The most common symptom of heart failure is breathlessness, intense weakness and sometimes just spin. So this is heart failure. Heart does not stop during heart failure. Heart continues to beat but weak beating inefficiently.
Then the second term comes which is heart attack. What is heart attack? Heart attack is when the there is a blockage of one of the three arteries of the coronary arteries of the heart, then the person gets a heart attack and this is recognized by severe chest pain, severe excruciating chest pain which may or may not be complete with sweating, breathlessness, intense weakness or sense feeling of impending doom. So this is called heart attack. This is different from heart failure.
What is cardiac arrest? Cardiac arrest means when the heart suddenly stops. In both heart failure and heart attack, the heart continues to beat, but only in cardiac arrest the heart count stop suddenly. So this is the most dangerous of the all three situations so when the cardiac arrest occurs the person loses its consciousness because there is no blood supply to the brain and we have to resistant the person immediately.
What you can do at that time if you find somebody collapsing? Immediately start CPR, what we call cardio pulmonary resuscitation. For learning CPR you may contact us at Fortis Escorts Heart Institute or you can join your consult your nearest heart hospital. So if you learn, if you have learned CPR then you can revive the patient from cardiac arrest.
So now you have learned that these three terms cardiac arrest is different, cardiac heart failure is different and heart attack are different and these should be treated separately.
So if you need to consult me you can consult me either through www.lybrate.com or you can meet me personally at Fortis Escorts Heart Institute, New Delhi which is there in Okhla or at my personal clinic at sector 93 A, Expressway Noida.read more
I am Dr. Nitish Chandra. I am a director incubational cardiologist at Fortis Escort Heart Institute, New Delhi. I have been working here for the last 22 years. Today I would like to give a very simple tip after the heart attack that how much they should exercise.
This is a very common myth that after the heart attack patients should not exercise but after the heart attack treatment is over and the patient goes home, he should start exercising. Here, the patient says that, “We don’t have time; we are busy.” So the tip is that they should follow the Rule of 4. This rule means that they should exercise for at least 4 days in a week. During every day, they should exercise for 40 minutes and during that time they should cover a distance of 4 Kilometers. So this is what I the Rule of 4. The Rule of 4 means 4 times a week for 40 minutes each covering a distance of 4 kilometers. If a person does this much of exercise, then he can keep his heart healthy. So, you people should not have this excuse that “I don’t have time.” If you follow the Rule of 4, you can keep your heart healthy.
If you have any further queries or questions regarding heart and heart related illnesses, you can contact me on lybrate.com.read more
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Menopause brings about a lot of changes in a woman's body. It not only signifies the end of her fertility and child bearing days but is a sign of growing age and the body progressing in a new direction of aches, pains and vulnerability. While some of these are natural, others can prove to be dangerous as it significantly increases the risk of heart disease (unlike common myths, women do get heart attacks). The risk factor is also goes up if the woman suffers from diabetes, obesity and high blood pressure. One of the widely known but well ignored fact remains that women with a sedentary lifestyle increase their risk and vulnerability to all of these diseases. A family history in heart disease can also turn into a risk factor when menopause sets in.
The natural age of menopause is considered to be around 50 and when a woman reaches this age, the estrogen levels in her body experience a sharp drop. This hormone is partly responsible in maintaining heart health in women. Other factors that are triggered during menopause include changes in body fat distribution from a gynoid to an android pattern, reduced glucose tolerance, abnormal plasma lipids, increased blood pressure, increased sympathetic tone, endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation.
A healthy lifestyle never comes by accident, only by choice. And this is an essential key in controlling diseases that come as a side effect of menopause too. Here are some thing you can do:
- Walk / Exercise: This isn't a 5-day week practice. You need to exercise throughout the week in order to maintain heart health. It helps your heart to pump blood through your body and also reduces risks to other diseases like high blood pressure and cholesterol. One key benefit is that it helps keeps the weight off - that should be good reason to walk an extra mile.
- Choose a healthy diet: Most people mistake a diet to be about not eating the things you really like. A good diet can be made very tasty and can also be portioned in such a way that it leaves less room for craving. As always avoid the junk, deep fries and extra helping of cheese.
- Hormonal therapy: There has been contradicting evidence on hormonal replacement therapy for estrogen can lower the risk of heart disease. Some women continue to be advised this treatment based on their particular case history, especially for women who undergo surgical menopause (when the uterus and other reproductive organs many have to be removed due to life threatening conditions like cancer).
A heart transplant is an operation in which a failing, diseased heart is replaced with a healthier, donor heart. Heart transplant is a treatment that's usually reserved for people who have tried medications or other surgeries, but their conditions haven't sufficiently improved.
While a heart transplant is a major operation, your chance of survival is good, with appropriate follow-up care.
When faced with a decision about having a heart transplant, know what to expect of the heart transplant process, the surgery itself, potential risks and follow-up care.
Why it's done
Heart transplants are performed when other treatments for heart problems haven't worked, leading to heart failure. In adults, heart failure can be caused by several conditions, including:
- A weakening of the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy)
- Coronary artery disease
- Heart valve disease
- A heart problem you're born with (congenital heart defect)
- Dangerous recurring abnormal heart rhythms (ventricular arrhythmias) not controlled by other treatments
- Failure of a previous heart transplant
- In children, heart failure is most often caused by either a congenital heart defect or a cardiomyopathy.
Another organ transplant may be performed at the same time as a heart transplant (multiorgan transplant) in people with certain conditions at select medical centers. Multiorgan transplants include:
- Heart-kidney transplant. This procedure may be an option for some people with kidney failure in addition to heart failure.
- Heart-liver transplant. This procedure may be an option for people with certain liver and heart conditions.
- Heart-lung transplant. Rarely, doctors may suggest this procedure for some people with severe lung and heart diseases, if the conditions aren't able to be treated by only a heart transplant or lung transplant.
Factors that may affect your eligibility for a heart transplant
A heart transplant isn't the right treatment for everyone. Certain factors may mean you're not a good candidate for a heart transplant. While each case is considered individually by a transplant center, a heart transplant may not be appropriate if you:
- Are an advanced age that would interfere with the ability to recover from transplant surgery
- Have another medical condition that could shorten your life, regardless of receiving a donor heart, such as a serious kidney, liver or lung disease
- Have an active infection
- Have a recent personal medical history of cancer
- Are unwilling or unable to make lifestyle changes necessary to keep your donor heart healthy, such as not drinking alcohol or not smoking
What happens after the transplant?
Most people leave hospital within about four weeks of the operation, but depending on your condition, you may need to stay in hospital for longer.
In the first few months after your surgery you will need to spend a lot of time visiting the hospital – you might even need to stay near the transplant centre. Your transplant team will talk to you about practical arrangements for after your surgery.
Although you will be weak after the operation, recovery can be very quick. It is important to build up your level of activity gradually. You should avoid activities involving lifting and pushing until your breastbone is fully healed, which can take up to three or four months.
Once you feel fit and able, you can start doing things like light vacuuming or light gardening.
Male, 56 years old TMT - mildy positive Hypertensive and diabetic metformin 500 mg Ramipril 2.5 mg rosuvastatin + aspirin Metoprolol succinate 25 mg Have not gone through angiography what action should take further for my better health, as I am on medication since 10 months.
A heart attack does not always have obvious symptoms, such as pain in your chest, shortness of breath and cold sweats. In fact, a heart attack can actually happen without a person knowing it. This condition is known as a ‘silent heart attack’, medically known as ‘silent ischemia’, occurring due to the shortage of oxygen supply to the heart muscle. The causes of a silent heart attack are similar to that of a heart attack.
- Conditions like:
- Lack of exercise
- Age, usually above 65
- Consumption of tobacco or smoking
- High consumption of alcohol
A silent cardiac arrest makes one more vulnerable to another heart attack that could be fatal. Diagnosis: The only method to diagnose if you had a silent heart attack is through imaging tests, such as echocardiogram, electrocardiogram, Holter Monitoring or others. These tests can show certain changes which might be indicative of a heart attack. An analysis of one’s overall health and the symptoms can aid in deciding whether few more tests are required.
How would you prevent a silent heart attack?
1. Get your cholesterol and blood pressure count tested regularly.
2. Refrain from smoking.
3. Get your VO2 max checked regularly.
4. Live a healthy lifestyle: Refrain from smoking and excessive alcohol consumption; exercise daily, eat healthy.
5. Control high blood pressure, cholesterol, and diabetes
6. Be aware of your body and call on a doctor if you feel there’s anything which is bothering you.
In addition to pumping blood to various organs, the heart also has its own blood supply, through which it receives its oxygen and nutrient supply. In patients with coronary artery disease and atherosclerosis, there is a narrowing of the blood vessels which reduces the amount of blood flow to the target organs, including the heart.
When this happens in the heart, there is chest pain due to overexertion of the heart muscles. There could be two patterns to this chest pain. With regular exertion like exercise, there would be chest pain, and most patients are familiar with this pattern.
This is known as angina pectoris or stable angina. In some people or in some instances, chest pain occurs which is sudden and not of a predictable pattern. It could be related to extreme exertion or stress. This is known as unstable angina and can lead to heart attack and be life-threatening.
Stable angina or angina pectoris has a stable, predictable pattern which most patients get familiar with over a period of time and learn to manage. Read on to know more about the signs and symptoms and management techniques.
Signs and symptoms: Stable angina usually occurs after a round of physical exertion. The patient feels a feeling of tightness in the chest which feels like the chest being squeezed. The pain can gradually spread to the shoulder, arms and even the neck. The pain can also be induced by eating, exposure to cold, emotional stress. It lasts for about 15 minutes and is relieved by rest and sublingual nitroglycerin. The pain intensity does not change with position or coughing. In addition, the patient may also experience shortness of breath, fatigue, profuse sweating, nausea, and dizziness.
The patient may be able to detect signs on further testing including ECG, echocardiography and stress testing. Features like cardiomegaly, altered ejection fraction would be detected based on the severity of the disease.
Treatment: Immediate treatment to relieve the pain includes resting and sublingual nitroglycerin. On an ongoing basis, the treatment would include 3 approaches – lifestyle changes, medications, and surgery.
- Lifestyle changes: Regular exercise, smoking cessation, reduced fat intake, reduced alcohol consumption, weight loss, and stress management are some lifestyle changes to be made to improve symptoms.
- Medications: A number of medications would be used depending on patient’s symptoms. Aspirin to prevent clotting, medications to control blood pressure and cholesterol and diabetes.
- Surgery: In patients with advanced coronary artery disease, revascularization methods may be required, which includes angioplasty and coronary bypass.
In a person with known risk factors, it is advisable to have regular checkups so that the disease progression can be controlled and symptoms managed with minimal intervention.
With the increasing prevalence of diabetes, it is being considered as the next big epidemic – completely related to lifestyle. India has become the diabetes capital of the world with increasing prevalence. The age of onset of diabetes is reducing, with children having diabetes and requiring insulin. The complications arising out of diabetes are also more – there is no bodily system which is not affected by diabetes. For someone who is diabetic, keeping blood sugars under check is the constant challenge. Uncontrolled blood sugars can lead to transient complications including loss of consciousness and fatigue and long-term complications including neuropathy and retinopathy.
What is CGMS:
Continuous glucose monitoring system is an FDA approved device. This device has a sensor that is placed either in the belly area or on the arm. These sensors identify the sugar levels in the body fluid and send it to a wireless which is worn by the monitor patient as a belt. Readings can be obtained at regular intervals, ranging from every 5 to 15 minutes.
CGMS measures blood sugar levels every 15 mins, that is 96 times a day The data can be downloaded into a persona device – smartphone, tablet, or laptop and used for further analysis. It does not replace the need for routine monitoring, but helps improve vigilance with a constant monitoring. It can help detect trends and patterns and helps the doctor identify periods of the day when the sugars are too high or too low. The amount of insulin or antidiabetic medication required can be adjusted based on sugar levels. The exercise regimen can be defined including the type, time, and duration of workout. Meal planning can be customized to suit body needs in a better manner. Night-time sugar lows which often go undetected can be monitored with the alarm Highs or low between meals (especially with snacking) can be tracked Determine treatment efficacy. The biggest advantage of CGM devices is that they provide information on what is happening to your blood glucose level every few minutes.
CGMS measures blood sugar levels every 15 mins, that is 96 times a day. The newest devices display glucose readings on a screen so you can see – in real time - whether glucose levels are rising or falling. Some systems also contain an alarm to let you know when your glucose reaches high or low levels. Some devices are able to display graphs revealing glucose levels collected over a certain number of hours on its display screen. The data collected on all devices can be uploaded to a computer for graphing and further important trend analysis.
Whom is it for?
If you think this is a great way to constantly watch your sugars, it is not required. The following people would benefit from this. People with insulin pump usage Those who have frequent fluctuations in sugar level, which is not clearly explained Those who are not aware of low sugars, and may have problems with fatigue or loss of consciousness Gestational diabetes.
Continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMS) may not make life with diabetes any easier. But they can definitely improve health, if you can deal with the hassle and expense. So how do you know if such a system is right for you? You can easily and discreetly view your current glucose values continuously throughout the day, without having to do a finger stick. It’s easy and discreet. The monitors have “trend arrows” that show you if your level is rising or falling quickly, so you can prevent highs and lows.
Continuous glucose monitoring can help “identify fluctuations and trends that would otherwise go unnoticed with standard HbA1c tests and intermittent fingerstick measurements. The device can capture dangerously low overnight blood sugar levels which often go undetected, reveal high blood sugar levels between meals, show early morning spikes in blood sugar, evaluate how diet and exercise affect blood sugars, and provide up to a 72-hour complete review of the effects of changes made to your therapy by your health-care team.
If you are a dedicated investigator, you can use CGMS to understand what’s happening with your blood sugar levels. In case you have a concern or query you can always heal & get answers to your questions!
Most people spend extremely busy lives, which do not allow them close to enough time to exercise and stay fit, but has more than enough stress. This is made worse by bad diets. Both these factors together lead to high blood pressure levels. While knowing that one has high blood pressure is not going to lead to much cheer at all, being told that it is linked to heart disease is going to make one feel worse. But, what exactly is the link?
High BP and Heart Disease
When a person has high blood pressure, it means that the heart has no option, but to work harder to make sure that blood circulates around the body. As such, the heart becomes stiff. Apart from that, the arteries, which carry fresh blood filled with oxygen, are gradually damaged. This is because the inner linings get damaged. So when you suffer from high blood pressure, heart attacks, strokes, heart failures and atherosclerosis are not uncommon.
As a result of having a high blood pressure, the muscles of the heart begin to weaken over time. Heart failure is what eventually happens. When it does happen, there is a fluid which starts filling up the body. A heart check-up may show an irregular heartbeat rate. Many people who are not familiar with the heart feel that a heart attack is the same as a heart failure. However, this is not the case. A heart attack can lead to immediate death, while heart failure implies improper pumping of blood.
A continuous excess pressure on the heart often results in an enlarged left heart. The left ventricle, which is a part of the heart, expands and this means some very serious things including the prospect of a heart failure, a heart attack or even a sudden and lethal cardiac arrest.
However, this is not the only side of things when it comes to heart disease. Coronary artery disease is a possible result of high blood pressure as well. This means that chest pain and heart attacks can occur due to this. Along with these two, an irregular heart rhythm, which is medically known as arrhythmia, can develop.
The health of a person means that even a part or aspect of him or her being abnormal can cause some far-reaching effects and high blood pressure leading to heart disease is a good example of it. So, it is best to make sure that one’s blood pressure levels are kept in an acceptable range!
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Are you experiencing irregular and fluctuating heartbeats? Is your heartbeat too fast or too slow? If yes, then it signifies that you are suffering from arrhythmias or abnormal heart rhythms. This is a disorder which affects the heart rate or heart rhythm and the heartbeat becomes irregular.
Causes of abnormal heart rhythms
Arrhythmias occurs due to problems with the electrical conduction system of the heart. In this case, abnormal signals might occur; the electrical signals might get blocked or slowed down, or the electric signals may travel in different paths throughout the heart. Abnormal heartbeats are commonly caused by the following:
- Abnormal potassium levels in the body
- Heart attacks or due to a damaged heart muscle, owing to a previous heart attack
- Inborn heart diseases
- Cases of an enlarged heart and heart failure
- Overreaction of the thyroid gland
- Several other substances or medicines may lead to arrhythmias, such as alcohol, stimulant drugs, caffeine, nicotine, and antidepressant medicines or blood pressure medicines.
Diagnosis of abnormal heart rhythms
For the diagnosis of arrhythmias, your doctor will use a stethoscope to listen to your heartbeat. Several health monitoring devices are used to detect abnormal heart rhythms. These include the Holter monitor and the event monitor, or a loop recorder.
Other diagnosis tests which are required to be carried out include coronary angiography, ECG or electrocardiogram, and an echocardiogram. A test known as an electrophysiology can be undertaken for getting a closer look at the electrical system of the heart.
Treatment for abnormal heart rhythms
When a case of arrhythmias is severe, urgent treatment is required for restoring the heart’s rhythm to normal. The different forms of treatment are as follows:
- Electrical shock therapy such as defibrillation or cardioversion
- Implanting of a heart pacemaker for a short term
- Certain medications which are given through the veins or orally
- A group of medicines known as anti-arrhythmic drugs is used for the prevention of recurrence of the condition and to keep the heart rate from fluctuating continually.
- Cardiac ablation may be carried out for destroying some areas in the heart from where the rhythm problems are caused.
- An implantable cardiac defibrillator is used in people who are at a risk of facing cardiac death.
In case you experience abnormal heart rhythm, you must consult a doctor immediately. You should only start taking medicines and follow a treatment after it has been recommended by a doctor. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
For most people, putting on weight is easy, but losing excess weight can be quite a struggle. Obesity is one of the most common lifestyle ailments today and can trigger a number of health problems, including diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. It also affects your emotional health and self-confidence.
Patience and perseverance are crucial when it comes to weight loss. Natural remedies can be very helpful in losing and regulating weight, as they not only an alternative to strong medicines, but also promotes lifestyle that includes a healthy diet and regular exercise.
Here are a few natural remedies and preparations that can help you achieve a healthy body weight.
- Lemon infused water: Water infused with lemon juice and a spoon of honey on an empty stomach can help detox the body and boost metabolism. The lemon acid slows down the digestion process and helps the body to absorb nutrients that can regulate your blood sugar level and can keep you satiated for a long time after a meal. In addition to this, lemon water also helps stimulate liver functioning and aids in the removal of waste from the body.
- Physical exercise: Physical activity or exercise is the best way to keep yourself fit and reduce obesity. Physical activity can be in form of dancing, brisk walking, exercises, etc. anything that you like. However, you must do it daily and for at least 30 - 40 mins. Beginners can start from 15 to 20 mins in the initial phase and can gradually increase the time period.
- Ginger: Ginger is rich in chemicals that control the oxidation of fatty acids and regulates cholesterol metabolism. Thus, it suppresses fat accumulation and regulates cholesterol levels in the body. It also helps cleanse the colon thus, aiding in the digestion process. Ginger also increases the body heat and blood flow that helps the body burn fat faster.
- Eat right: Including lots of greens and fruits in your daily diet, will surely help you in maintaining healthy body weight. Foods especially, like tomatoes and carrots are great for weight reduction.
- Green tea: Drinking green tea daily is another way to reduce and manage your weight, as the caffeine and flavonoids present in it help in elevating the metabolic rate of the body also improves the insulin activity in the body.
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor.
Cholesterol is a type of fatty acid that is produced by the liver. The body uses cholesterol to perform various activities such as synthesizing of hormones, bile acid and vitamin D. The natural approach of balancing cholesterol is not only to curb the cholesterol amount, but also to strictly control diet so that the secretion of cholesterol can be curtailed.
Here are a few natural tips that can help to lower cholesterol and restore normal body function of the body:
- Coriander: Coriander is considered to be one of the best herbal diuretic agents. It can revitalize the kidneys and help them perform better in terms of excretion of waste. The kidney, therefore, can flush the excess cholesterol from the body. Coriander can be consumed along with food on a daily basis.
- Garlic: Garlic again has been known to mankind for centuries and is extremely beneficial for people suffering from high cholesterol. Two cloves of garlic on a daily basis can completely neutralize the effect of high cholesterol in the blood. Apart from freeing up arteries, garlic has multiple other health benefits.
- Orange juice: Drinking Orange juice is an excellent way of reducing blood cholesterol level as it contains vitamin C, folate and flavonoids. Further, as per a study published by American Journal of Clinical Nutrition it is found that 750 ml of orange juice daily can help increase HDL, which is the good cholesterol in the body and it also reduces the LDL/ HDL ratio in people.
- Holy basil or tulsi: Holy basil is another popular and traditional Indian hub that is extensively used to treat high cholesterol in the bloodstream. They can eliminate excess cholesterol through the kidneys. It is used for preparing multiple medicines. It is a proven medicinal herb that is very efficient in dealing with excess cholesterol in the blood. They have the ability to disintegrate cholesterol from the body. 2-3 leaves of tulsi can be consumed on a daily basis. Consult an expert & get answers to your questions!