Critical Care Procedures
Nosebleed (Epistaxis) Treatment
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Treatment
Cysts Removal Procedure
Treatment Of Learning Disorders
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Treatment Of Childhood Diabetes
Kidney Stones Treatment
Diabetic Diet Counseling
Egg Donation Procedure
Ear Micro Surgery
Earlobe Repairs Procedure
Earlobe Repair Procedure
Earlobe Correction Procedure
Hearing Aid Fitting
Treatment Of Erectile Dysfunction
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Cholangiocarcinoma (Bile duct cancer), like any other cancer, leaves a person physically, mentally and emotionally drained. It has been mostly found to affect people above 60 years of age. The signs and symptoms associated are so common that very few people consult a physician. A delayed diagnosis implies delayed treatment. This goes on to aggravate and complicate the situation further. One needs to be a little alert. Any symptoms, no matter how common, should not be taken lightly. Look for the early signs and symptoms and bile duct cancer can be fully cured.
Signs and symptoms associated with Cholangiocarcinoma:
Bile duct cancer can be Extrahepatic (occurs in the duct outside the liver) or Intrahepatic (cancer develops within the smaller ducts inside the liver). It must be noted that Intrahepatic Bile duct cancer and Liver cancer are different.
- Bile duct cancer results in blocking the bile duct. This blockage severely effects the secretion of bilirubin and bile from the liver. Thus, the secretions (bile and bilirubin) which are supposed to flow into the intestine move back into the bloodstream. An elevated level of bilirubin in the blood gives rise to a condition, known as Jaundice (a condition resulting in yellowing of the eyes and the skin). The problem lies in the fact that many other factors can equally contribute to Jaundice. Consulting a physician at the earliest is the best resort.
- A sudden or drastic weight loss and loss of appetite is an alarming sign of Cholangiocarcinoma.
- Excessive itching can be an indication of something as big as bile duct cancer. Itching can be an outcome of the increased bilirubin (blood) reaching the skin.
- At an advanced stage of Cholangiocarcinoma, a patient may experience severe abdominal pain.
- At times, the tumour in the bile duct might exert immense pressure on the nearby organs. This can give rise to an enlarged abdominal mass. Bloated feeling is also very common amongst the patients.
- An unusual change in the colour of the stool and urine should not be neglected. The elevated bilirubin level from the intestine is usually eliminated out of the system through the urine. Thus the stool appears lighter and the urine a shade darker.
- A cholangiocarcinoma patient can, at times feel nauseated. Fever is also a common but an extremely important indication.
Bile duct cancer or cholangiocarcinoma can lead to many other complications. Click below to know every minute detail associated with Cholangiocarcinoma.
Lung cancer is also known as pulmonary carcinoma or cancer of the lung. It occurs when DNA mutations develop in the cells/ tissues of the lungs leading up to uncontrolled growth in the tissues of the lung. By far, it is known to be the most common cancer in Asia.
1. Type: lung cancers can present as one of the following types:
- Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC): Most common type of lung cancer and constitutes nearly 85% of all lung cancers. The sub-types of NSCLC are as follows:
- Large cell carcinoma
- Squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) (Epidermoid)
- Adenocarcinoma – accounts for majority of the NSCLC.
- Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC): It is also known as oat meal cancer and tends to spread (metastasize) quickly. This constitutes about 15% of the lung cancers.
- Mesothelioma: It is a rare cancer that develops in the mesothelial cells of the pleural or peritoneal surfaces. It usually arises in the pleural membrane lining the lungs, known as pleural mesothelioma. One that arises from the peritoneum is called the peritoneal mesothelioma and the one that arises from the pericardium is known as pericardial mesothelioma. Lastly, it can also arise from the tunica vaginalis known as testicular mesothelioma. People working with or prior exposure to asbestos are mostly at risk of developing mesothelioma. The latency period between time of exposure and development of mesothelioma can be somewhere between 20 to 40 years. Maximum of the patients who develop mesothelioma are men.
2. Gender: It affects the male populace predominantly. It is more common in men than in women and in those of lower economic status. However, the incidence of lung cancer, in women too, is on the rise of late.
3. Etiology: Cigarette/ Tobacco smoking remains the most important cause of lung cancer accounting for 85 – 90% of the cases. Incidence/ risk is proportionate to the number of cigarettes smoked irrespective of the age. Also, environmental toxins including smoke from burning black tar, exhaust gases from automobiles etc. too contribute actively to various lung diseases including cancer. People working in asbestos manufacturing factories who are exposed to asbestos dust are also likely to get lung cancer. Tuberculosis too is an additive risk factor. Again, people who have received ionizing radiation especially to treat Hodgkin Lymphoma or other malignancies also run the risk of developing lung cancer. Above-mentioned causes apart, genetic factors may also play a role.
4. Features: Lung cancer clinically presents in the following ways mainly.Signs & symptoms of malignant mesothelioma are as enumerated below
1. Difficult/ labored breathing (Dyspnea)
2. Chest pain
3. Palpable chest wall mass
4. Discordant chest wall expansion
5. Weight loss (Cachexia)
6. Loss of appetite (Anorexia)
7. Night sweats
Signs & symptoms of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are as enumerated below. Majority of patients are symptomatic at diagnosis
8. Chronic cough
9. Difficult/ labored breathing (Dyspnea)
10. Chest pain
11. Blood stained sputum (Hemoptysis)
13. Weight loss (Cachexia)
14. Loss of appetite (Anorexia)
16. Bone pain
17. Pleural or pericardial effusion
18. Superior vena cava syndrome
19. Brachial plexopathy
20. Neurologic pain
21. Hypercalcemia of malignancy
Signs & symptoms of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) are as enumerated below
Symptoms as per the points 8 – 18 depicted above for NSCLC are applicable for SCLC as well. Additionally, patients suffering from SCLC may have:
23. Horner syndrome
5. Screening: is generally recommended for asymptomatic/ symptomatic populations as surveillance for high risk individuals – who are either current or former smokers (quit smoking within the last 15 years), have at least a 30 pack year smoking history and those who do not have any prior history of lung cancer. The goal of screening, as usual, is to be able to detect & diagnose lung cancer at an early stage which is potentially curable. It is mostly radiologic with a low dose helical computed tomography (CT) scan being more effective in detecting early stage lung cancer than a chest radiograph can.
6. Diagnosis: Abnormal blood test results may be indicative of malignancy, but a follow up imaging/ biopsy is always the gold standard for accurate diagnosis. Following are the diagnostics employed mainly:
- Blood: Hb may be low, TLC, ESR and polymorphs increased. Adenocarcinomas are likely to express thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) or carcinoembyonic antigen (CEA). On the other hand, mesotheliomas are likely to express Wilms Tumor -1 (WT-1) protein and Calretinin.
- Imaging: Thoracoscopy, Bronchoscopy, X-Ray, CT Scan etc all. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) / CT scan and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan help detect metastasis, if any.
- Biopsy: It clinches the histologic diagnosis, and the nature of the disease.
7. Treatment: Conventional treatment includes surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy as contextually appropriate. Simultaneously, an adjunctive or integrative naturopathic treatment with suitable complementary & alternative medicines (CAM) too can help improve clinical outcomes and facilitate recovery as would be feasible contextually.
8. Prognosis: preventive measures, earlier diagnosis and right early treatment is key for an effective therapeutic management & better prognosis. Like most other cancers, the chances of cure for an early stage lung cancer are more. The cure/ recovery chances are influenced by the grade, stage of cancer, recurrence and the patient’s general health & vitality etc all. The primary determinant of prognosis in NSCLC is the stage at which the cancer is diagnosed. For non-metastatic cancers, however, it is the nodal status that determines the stage and hence the prognosis.
9. Prevention: rightly said, prevention is always a better choice. Cigarette smoking is to be avoided by all means as it is the single major cause of lung cancer. Even exposure to cigarette smoke (passive or secondhand) is also an established cause of lung cancer and is known to increase the risk of lung cancer in non-smokers as well. Preventing exposure to secondhand smoke can be helpful in decreasing the incidence and mortality from primary lung cancers. Above-mentioned apart, other important risk factors such as exposure to ionizing radiation, environmental carcinogens like smoke from burning black tar, exhaust gases from automobiles, outdoor air pollution, and occupational exposure to asbestos, arsenic, beryllium, nickel, cadmium, chromium etc all too are known to increase the risk for lung cancer and mortality thereof. In fact, cigarette smoking is known to potentiate the effect and hence the lung cancer risk of many of the above-mentioned carcinogens, multi-fold, in smokers. Thus, either eliminating or reducing the exposure to the above-mentioned carcinogens can lead to a decrease in the risk of lung cancer and incidences thereof. Furthermore, randomized clinical trials indicate that high intensity smokers (only) who take supplementation of beta-carotene have an increased risk/ incidence of lung cancer. Vitamin E supplementation, on the other hand, does not affect the risk of lung cancer as indicated by the trials. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor.
Hello sir. Almost last 14 years I have been sufferings common cold problem. But mucus don't exit by nose. And it's always touch in throat all season anytime. But sometimes when common cold becoming over and that time cough exit only by the nose and stop touching at throat. Moreover.my left nose sometimes fell blocked specially in summer season. please sir give me little advise. Thanking Hareswar Das Guwahati.
Hello doctor. I don't know whether I'm right or wrong. 7 years competed to my married life in this April. But in that 7 years. Starting 5 years had lots of problems in relation due to family, due to financial and lot of responsibilities in his shoulders. So we live separately I'm in my home for my studies and he in his job place. He comes once a week or month to see me. Afterwards I complete my diploma. I got job. So he take me with him to his job place. But we live for 1 week then again separate then after 1 year he come back and try to contact me. So I thought may be it's new beginning. He changes a lot, so we decided to go somewhere for 3 4 days. So on that days when I go bath he check my mobiles and social chats. So I too ask him his mobile. So when I check it he throughly chatting with his office girls and in his other history and all when check it all porn sites. I totally get upset. I scold him his colleagues. He say sorry he promised again not do all that. From that situations and now we have 14 months baby. He is good now. But the problems is that I never forget that incident of girls and his watching that kind of videos. I always doubting him that he again like that and I also fight regarding past. He change a lot for me but I cannot able till now. Always have doubt in him.
I have got married in 2012. I am waiting to get I kid in medical test the problem was found out that I got pcod. Rest all normal. Please let me know some home remedies to get rid from pcod.
Is it good to consume Fenugreek whole for cure of diabetes With it be helpful to take Karela juice (a spoon) everyday in morning for diabetes control Shall it be taken whole year in every season.
I am diagnosed for tinnitus and ear meunière disease. It is causing vet Vertigo nausea. Vomiting etc. Please prescribe best medicine for it and oblige.
Is it good to consume FENUGREEK Whole to treat diabetes. Can Karela juice in morning is beneficial for Diabetic. Can these both be taken entire year (summer and winter)
I have a small chest pain for some weeks and a cough problem also. Can you please suggest what should be done?
I am suffering from dry cough for the last 2 Weeks and I have chest pain whenever I cough hard. Can you suggest what should be done.
I am suffering from vertigo since last 20+ days. It improved a little gradually over 15 days but with a lot of sleep requirement. As it improved, I tried to get back to my daily routine of exercise (light exercise only) with 7-8 hrs sleep. Within 3 days, vertigo has again increased. I have consulted an ENT and Neuro already and both said nothing to worry. But recurrence is making me worried. What should I do?
What are the symptoms of asthma and give me medicine name so I purchase them and take for better health.
I feel really lonely. I lost my concentration and l always thinking negatively. I can't change my thoughts. Daily I lost my sleep .My mind thinking continuously about some other thoughts and I can't sleep. Please help me to sleep.
I am asthma patient from childhood. I am now 54 years old and now when I get an attack my heart feels as though it is having a spasm. Could this be the onset of a heart problem? What should I do?
Are you experiencing unintentional loss of urine lately? This is an indication of a condition known as urinary incontinence in women. The condition usually arises from pregnancy, childbirth and menopause. In many cases, overactive and weak bladder muscles, and nerve damage may also cause urinary incontinence. This is a common problem in women, which is treatable. There are several types of this condition such as stress incontinence, urge incontinence, functional incontinence, mixed incontinence, transient incontinence and mixed incontinence.
Management of Urinary Incontinence
There are several ways and methods which you can apply to manage urinary incontinence. They are as follows:
- Pelvic floor exercises: Pelvic floor muscles help in holding urine and when these muscles get weakened due to pregnancy or because of being overweight, leakage occurs. You have to carry out several exercises for improving the symptoms. Doing this exercise on a regular basis will prevent leakage and stop the existing leakage. These exercises are useful when you have a sudden urge for urination, and they involve the relaxation and contraction of the pelvic floor muscles.
- Less liquid consumption: Leakages are more likely to occur when the bladder is full and drinking any kind of liquid will make you feel like urinating. You must limit your consumption of alcohol and caffeine as these cause the urine to increase.
- Bathroom schedule: In case you have to visit the bathroom too often or frequently, you must try to increase the time between bathroom visits. You have to practice bladder training along with pelvic floor exercises. Slowly, you will be able to reduce your bathroom visits.
- Wearable devices: You can use wearable devices for placing support in the vagina as these prevent leakage. You may be fitted with a silicon device known as a pessary. Tampons can be used for the prevention of leaks as well. Tampons are recommended for women who leak during activities such as running. For preventing shock syndrome, the tampon should be changed every six hours.
- Weight loss: Obesity and extra weight cause urinary incontinence as these put extra pressure on the bladder or the urethra, which is the tube which starts from the bladder. This is associated with stress incontinence and leaks due to sneezing, coughing, lifting or laughing. Heavier women are more likely to face this problem and weight loss can help in managing the same.
In case you are experiencing urinary incontinence, you must consult a doctor and discuss your problems. A doctor will provide you the best remedies for dealing with the stressful condition.