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Overview

Kinase 10 MG Tablet

Kinase 10 MG Tablet

Manufacturer: Lark Laboratories Ltd
Medicine composition: Serratiopeptidase
Prescription vs.OTC: Prescription by Doctor required

A chemical that?s derived from the silkworm, in many countries, Kinase 10 MG Tablet is used as a diet supplement. This medicine is used to manage conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, back pain, fibromyalgia, osteoporosis, migraine and tension related headaches as well as carpal tunnel syndrome. Other conditions that involve inflammation and pain such as laryngitis, sinusitis, sore throat, infections of the ear, swelling post-surgery, thrombophlebitis (swelling of the veins along with the clotting of blood) and IBDs such as Crohn?s disease and ulcerative colitis can be treated using Kinase 10 MG Tablet. In certain cases, Kinase 10 MG Tablet is also recommended for heart disorders and atherosclerosis. Among women and nursing mothers, conditions such as fibrocystic breasts (formation of non-malignant lumps in the breasts) and pain related to breast engorgement (marked by the production of excess breast milk) can be remedied with this medicine. The benefits don?t just end here; disorders such as diabetes, asthma and conditions such as ulcers in the legs and empyema (marked by the accumulation of pus) can be treated as well.

Kinase 10 MG Tablet works by aiding protein breakdown by the body, thus reducing mucous formation and inflammation.

Pregnant women and breast-feeding mothers should avoid the use of Kinase 10 MG Tablet since its efficacy isn?t evaluated properly. If one is suffering from a bleeding disorder, the use of this medicine isn?t recommended because of a few studies that claim that Kinase 10 MG Tablet might interfere with the process of blood clotting. If any surgery is scheduled in the near future, this medicine?s use isn?t recommended for two weeks prior to the surgery.

For treating swelling on the insides of the cheek after a sinus surgery, the dosage of Kinase 10 MG Tablet is set at 10 mg, thrice daily; one prior to the surgery, then during the evening and finally thrice daily (5 days a week) following the surgery.

Inflammation
Kinase 10 MG Tablet is used to relieve swelling and pain associated with conditions like trauma, arthritis etc.
Edema
Kinase 10 MG Tablet is also sometimes used along with other medications to reduce fluid accumulation (edema) in the body.
This medicine is not recommended for use in patients who have a known history of allergy to it or any other proteolytic enzymes.
In addition to its intended effect, Kinase 10 MG Tablet may cause some unwanted effects too. In such cases, you must seek medical attention immediately. This is not an exhaustive list of side effects. Please inform your doctor if you experience any adverse reaction to the medication.
Allergic skin reaction Moderate Rare
Diarrhea Minor Rare
Anorexia Moderate Rare
Nausea Minor Rare
How long is the duration of effect?
The time for which this medicine remains effective is not clinically established.
What is the onset of action?
The time taken for this medicine to show its effect in the body is not clinically established.
Are there any pregnancy warnings?
Use of this medicine by women who are pregnant is not recommended. Your doctor may prescribe an alternate medication that is known to be safe for use.
Is it habit forming?
No habit forming tendencies were reported.
Are there any breast-feeding warnings?
Use of this medicine by women who are breastfeeding is not recommended. Your doctor may prescribe an alternate medication that is known to be safe for use.
Below is the list of medicines, which have the same composition, strength and form as Kinase 10 MG Tablet, and hence can be used as its substitute.
Emcure Pharmaceuticals Ltd
Micro Labs Ltd
Lupin Ltd
Neuron Pharma (P) Ltd
Winsome Lab Ltd
Missed Dose instructions
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for the next scheduled dose, then the missed dose can be skipped.
Overdose instructions
Contact your doctor if an overdose with Kinase 10 MG Tablet is suspected.
India
United States
Japan
Whenever you take more than one medicine, or mix it with certain foods or beverages, you're at risk of a drug interaction.
Interaction with Disease
Bleeding disorders Moderate
This medicine should be taken with caution in patients having bleeding disorders. Report any incidence of unusual bruising or bleeding to the doctor.
Interaction with Alcohol
Alcohol
Interaction with alcohol is unknown. It is advisable to consult your doctor before consumption.
Interaction with Lab Test
Lab
Information not available.
Interaction with Food
Food
Information not available.
Interaction with Medicine
Aspirin Moderate
Report the use of Aspirin or any other medicine taken for blood clotting disorders. You may require a dose adjustment and safety monitoring while taking these medicines together.

Popular Questions & Answers

Sir I am sister of duchenne muscular dystrophy which was recognized at age of 4 and he died on his 17 years of age and we have know nothing about carrier mutation now I am married and having a 1 years boy and he started walking on his 11 th month now I am worried that is DMD will continue in my family and please suggest test to know weather I am carrier r not and how I can get rid of these doubts, thanking you sir.

bachelor of physiotherapy
Physiotherapist, Delhi
Sir I am sister of duchenne muscular dystrophy which was recognized at age of 4 and he died on his 17 years of age an...
Hello, duchenne muscular dystrophy is x linked recessive disorder. Which means female can be carrier of the disease but remain unaffected from the disease & can pass on the disease to their son. Unfortunately there is no effective treatment for the condition. As far as diagnostic tests are concerned raised C kinase level in blood indicates Muscular dystrophy. Deficiency of dystrophy protein also indicates DMD. You can also go for muscle biopsy hopefully it clears you doubt.

Sir/madam, I want your valuable help to know about the effective treatment of BCR ABL Please suggest.

M.B.S.(HOMEO), MD - Homeopathy
Homeopath, Visakhapatnam
Sir/madam, I want your valuable help to know about the effective treatment of BCR ABL Please suggest.
Bcr-Abl tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKI) are the first-line therapy for most patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). More than 90% of CML cases are caused by a chromosomal abnormality that results in the formation of a so-called Philadelphia chromosome. UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF PHYSICIANS, Drugs known as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) that target BCR-ABL are the standard treatment for CML. These include: Imatinib (Gleevec) Dasatinib.

Can person sufferings from blood cancer can be cured by bone marrow transplant? If yes how it can be possible?

European Society for Medical Oncology certification, DM - Oncology, MD - General Medicine, MBBS
Oncologist, Faridabad
The term bone marrow transplant is actually a misnomer in the present context as transplant is now conducted by harvesting stem cells from the blood of the donor. So the correct and logical term now is peripheral blood stem cell transplant. This is just like a blood donation for the donor and poses no risk at all to the donor. The term blood cancer is generally used for leukemias, these can be of two types - acute and chronic. For the chronic leukemias, specially chronic myeloid leukemia, stem cell transplant is now generally not required as drugs like imatinib, dasatinib and nilotinib are extremely effective. For chronic lymphocytic leukemia too transplant is rarely done these days and is generally reserved for relatively younger patients. Even in the imatinib era transplant is an effective procedure and can cure patients with cml (chronic myeloid leukemia) who do not respond to imatinib and other tyrosine kinase inhibitors. For acute myeloid leukemias stem cell transplant is recommended for all cases except the low risk cases, after completion of chemotherapy. Risk is defined based on kind of genetic mutations in the leukemic cells for acute lymphoblastic leukemia transplant is generally done at relapse, but certain genetic mutations necessitate an earlier transplant, so does presence of or increase in minimal residual disease, which signifies cancer cells not visible to the human eye under the microscope. Procedure of stem cell transplant hla matching is done between patient and siblings. Best match is selected as a donor. Matched sibling is the most commonly used donor in blood cancers. In many cases a match is not available, for such cases matched unrelated donor, cord blood, or a partially matched donor (haploidentical donor) is sometimes selected. Donor is given growth factor injection subcutaneously to bring out the stem cells from the bone marrow to bloodstream, twice daily for 5 days. After that the stem cells are collected and stored. Patient is given high dose chemotherapy to kill cancer cells as well as his normal marrow. After chemotherapy, donor stem cells are injected into the body of patient from a vein. After approximately 11-14 days the donor cells get engrafted in the patient's marrow and start producing normal blood cells. The donor cells also kill the cancer cells and prevent cancer from coming back. Overall depending on whether the patients cancer is controlled or not before transplant the cure rate after transplant can vary from 60 % for patients who have a good control and less aggressive disease biology, to less then 20 % in patients with uncontrolled disease before transplant. Overall, approximately 40 % patients get cured with a transplant. Upto 40 % patients can develop complications, and half of these may be very severe and life threatening. This figure is more in mismatched transplants. Apart from complications, there is still a risk of relapse and these patients need close monitoring in the first few years after transplant.
15 people found this helpful

I have kinase. And I use otrivin 5-6 times a day. What should I do to have my health well?

MBBS
General Physician, Mumbai
Few tips- Avoid any triggering factor, take folic acid regularly, eat a healthy diet , always be stress free , exercise regularly

Hlo sir my mother is 49 year old ik saal phale unn ka bone marrow test huya tha jis main uhane cml ki problem thi. Than uss k badh abl/bcr and jak2 ka test huya tha jo dono negative hai so uss k badh un ka treatment chal rha hai lakin docter ne abhi tak kuch clear nai bateya k actual kya problem hai so please sir j actual main kya problem hai aur jo be problem hai uss k badh insaan kab tak survival kar sakta hai.

DNB (ENT), MBBS
ENT Specialist, Bangalore
Hi . Sorry to hear that your mother has cml. It is a type of blood cancer that starts in certain blood-forming cells of the bone marrow. Here a large number of immature cells from the bone marrow circulate in the blood cause the disease. Treatment is generally good with tki's or tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Around 60-80% of patients live beyond five years with good treatment. Of course this depends on the stage of the cancer.

Popular Health Tips

Thyroid Disorders - Everything You Wanted To Know!

MD - General Medicine, DM - Endocrinology, MBBS
Endocrinologist, Faridabad
Thyroid Disorders - Everything You Wanted To Know!

Thyroid gland is a butterfly shaped gland in the front of the neck. It encircles the windpipe or the trachea. It is about 4 cms in height and weighs about 18 gms. This gland is responsible for the secretion of thyroid hormones. Hormones are chemicals produced by special glands like thyroid, adrenals, ovaries etc. They act as messengers and are carried by the blood to the various target organs. Thyroid disorders are conditions that affect the thyroid glands. It plays an important role in regulating numerous metabolic processes throughout the body. The Thyroid gland is located below the adam’s apple wrapped around the trachea.

Thyroid disease is a common problem that can cause symptoms because of over- or under-function of the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is an essential organ for producing thyroid hormones, which maintain our body metabolism. The thyroid gland is located in the front of the neck below the Adam's apple. Thyroid disease can also sometimes lead to enlargement of the thyroid gland in the neck, which can cause symptoms that are directly related to the increase in the size of the organ (such as difficulty swallowing and discomfort in front of the neck).

Thyroxine T4 is the primary hormone developed by the Thyroid gland. A small portion of the T4 released from the gland is converted to Triiodothyronine (T3) which is the most active hormone.

Hyperthyroidism: Too much thyroid hormone results in a condition known as hyperthyroidism. Affects about 1 percent of women. It's less common in men.

Grave’s disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism.

Symptoms:

Causes:

  1. Toxic adenomas: Nodules develop in the thyroid glands and begin to secrete thyroid hormones upsetting the body's chemical balance.
  2. Subacute thyroiditis: Inflammation of the thyroid that causes the gland to leak excess hormones, resulting in temporary hyperthyroidism that lasts a few weeks but may persist for months.
  3. Pituitary gland: Malfunctions or cancerous growths in the thyroid gland. Although rare, hyperthyroidism can also develop from these causes.

Treatments for hyperthyroidism: destroy the thyroid gland or block it from producing its hormones.

  1. Antithyroid drugs: such as methimazole (Tapazole) prevent the thyroid from producing its hormones.
  2. Radioactive iodine: a large dose of it damages the thyroid gland. A pill is given by mouth. As thyroid gland takes in iodine, it also pulls in the radioactive iodine, which damages the gland.
  3. Surgery: Surgery can be performed to remove your thyroid gland.

Hypothyroidism: Inadequate production of hormones by the thyroid gland is termed as hypothyroidism. This is also called Underactive thyroid state. Hypothyroidism can make the body’s development to slow down and reduces metabolism rates. Since the body needs some amount of thyroid for energy production and drop in hormone production leads to lower energy levels.

Symptoms:

What are the causes of Hypothyroidism?

Hypothyroidism can be caused by a number of factors:

  1. Hashimoto's thyroiditis: This is the commonest cause. This is an autoimmune disorder (normally body’s defence system fight against external infections. In autoimmune disorder the defence system attacks the healthy cells of the body by mistake). In Hashimoto’s thyroiditis the immune system/defence system produces antibodies that attack the thyroid gland and destroy it.
  2. Iodine deficiency in diet: For the production of thyroid hormones iodine is very important. The body does not produce iodine normally, so it needs to be supplemented from outside. Iodine is mainly present in the food we eat. It is mainly present in shellfish, salt-water fish, eggs, dairy products. If a person does not eat iodine rich foods, he may end up with iodine deficiency leading to hypothyroidism. Currently, this causative factor is on the decline due to government initiative of table salt with iodine.
  3. Surgery: Surgery to remove thyroid gland (for e.g. thyroid cancer treatment, overactive thyroid etc.)
  4. Radiation to the neck (to treat cancer in the neck area): The thyroid gland cells are damaged due to the radiation.
  5. Treatment with radioactive iodine: This treatment is used for managing hyperthyroidism/overactive thyroid, where the thyroid gland produces excessive thyroid hormones. One of the treatment modalities is by radioactive iodine. Sometimes this radiotherapy destroys normal functioning cells which lead to hypothyroidism.
  6. Certain medicines: Certain medicines used to treat heart conditions, cancer, psychiatric conditions etc. – for e.g. amiodarone, lithium, interleukin-2, interferon-alpha.
  7. Pregnancy: Pregnancy (the reason is unclear but it has been noticed that the thyroid may get inflamed after delivery – this is called Postpartum thyroiditis.
  8. Damage to the pituitary gland: Pituitary gland is a gland which is present in the brain. It produces a hormone called TSH (Thyroxine-Stimulating hormone).The TSH tells the thyroid gland how much thyroid hormone it should make. If the levels of thyroid hormone in the blood are low, then the TSH will stimulate the thyroid gland to produce more Thyroid hormone.
  9. Hypothalamus disorders: This is an organ in the brain. This produces a hormone called TRH (Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone) which acts on the Pituitary gland to secrete TSH. So any disorder of Pituitary gland will indirectly effect the production and secretion of Thyroid hormones. These are very rare disorders.
  10. Congenital thyroid defects: Some babies are born with thyroid problems. This is due to the thyroid not being developed normally during pregnancy. Sometimes the thyroid gland does not function normal. This can be identified by screening for thyroid disorders in the first week after delivery. This is usually by a blood test using a small drop of blood from the baby’s heel.

Who are at risk of developing Hypothyroidism?

  1. Women have a higher risk of suffering from hypothyroidism than men.
  2. Older people are at increased risk.
  3. People suffering from other autoimmune diseases like Coeliac disease, Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus, Vitiligo, Pernicious anemia, Multiple sclerosis, Rheumatoid arthritis, Addison’s disease etc.
  4. People with psychiatric conditions such as bipolar disorder
  5. People with Chromosomal abnormalities like Down syndrome, Turners syndrome also have a high risk of suffering from hypothyroidism.

How to diagnose hypothyroidism?

Blood tests:

  1. TSH: This hormone is made in the pituitary gland and it stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine. If the thyroxine levels are low in the blood, the pituitary gland produces and secretes more TSH into the blood to act on the thyroid gland to produce more thyroxine. A raised TSH level indicates hypothyroidism. Other tests are not usually necessary unless a rare cause of hypothyroidism.
  2. T4: A low level of thyroxine indicates hypothyroidism.
  3. T3: these levels are generally not needed to diagnose hypothyroidism
  4. Anti-Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO antibodies) or Anti- thyroglobulin antibodies are present in 90-95% of patient with autoimmune thyroiditis.
  5. Other blood tests include Creatinine Kinase, Serum Lipids, Complete blood picture etc.
  6. Ultrasound of the neck is done if the patient presents with a thyroid swelling.

What is the treatment of hypothyroidism?

Overt hypothyroidism is treated by synthetic Thyroxin hormone which should be taken every day on an empty stomach at least 30 – 45 minutes before breakfast. The treatment is continued for the rest of the patient’s life. Regular thyroid function tests are done once every 8 weeks-12 weeks to adjust the dose of the thyroxine in the initial period of diagnosis. Once the thyroxine dose is stabilised, the tests can be done even once a year. This treatment is quite effective.

Sub-clinical hypothyroidism is only treated if the patient is a woman and is contemplating pregnancy, in patients with symptoms or if the TSH is quite high.

What are the side-effects of thyroxine medication?

There are few side effects if any. Most people tolerate these medications quite well. An important consideration before starting medication is to check if the patient has chest pain/angina. These people are started on the least available dose. If these patients are started on a higher dose they notice a worsening of their angina pains.

Side effects mainly occur if the thyroxine dose is high which leads to hyperthyroidism. The symptoms of this could be palpitations 9increased heart beat), weight loss, profuse sweating, anxiety, irritability etc.

There are some tablets which increase with thyroxine tablets. These include carbamazepine, iron supplements, calcium supplements, rifampicin, phenytoin, warfarin etc.

What are the complications of hypothyroidism?

If untreated hypothyroidism can lead to:

  • heart problems like heart attack due to increased levels of bad cholesterol like LDL, or heart failure due to fluid retention
  • obesity
  • infertility
  • joint pains
  • depression
  • A pregnant woman with hypothyroidism is at increased risk of giving birth to a baby with congenital hypothyroidism, also known as cretinism. Further, the woman may have pregnancy related complications like pre-eclampsia, premature delivery, low birth weight baby, anemia, post-partum haemorrhage (bleeding after delivery) etc.
  • Myxoedema is another complication where the patient has extremely low levels of thyroid hormone. The body temperature drops drastically making the person lose consciousness or go into a coma. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Endocrinologist.
2952 people found this helpful

Hypothyroidism: What You Need to Know About an Underactive Thyroid

MBBS, MD - Paediatrics, FRACP - Pediatrc Endocrinology, SCE, Endocrinology
Endocrinologist, Kanpur
Hypothyroidism: What You Need to Know About an Underactive Thyroid

Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland is not producing the thyroid hormones adequately. This is a fairly common condition.

What is thyroid gland?

The thyroid gland is a small butterfly-shaped gland located just below Adam’s apple. It encircles the windpipe or the trachea. It is about 4 cms in height and weighs about 18 gms. This gland is responsible for the secretion of thyroid hormones. Hormones are chemicals produced by special glands like thyroid, adrenals, ovaries etc. They act as messengers and are carried by the blood to the various target organs.

What are the hormones produced by thyroid gland and what do they do?

The thyroid hormones are of two types – T3 (Tri iodo thyronine) and T4 (Thyroxine). These hormones are mainly responsible for the body’s metabolism - a process in which food is converted into energy in the cells. They influence growth and development and regulate various bodily functions which are mentioned below:

  • Heartbeat
  • Body temperature
  • Breathing
  • Body weight
  • Metabolism of fat
  • Menstrual cycles in females
  • Functioning of Nervous system
  • Digestion
  • Burning calories etc.

What is Hypothyroidism?

Inadequate production of hormones by the thyroid gland is termed as hypothyroidism. This is also called Underactive thyroid state. Hypothyroidism can make the body’s development to slow down and reduces metabolism rates.

What are the causes of Hypothyroidism?

Hypothyroidism can be caused by a number of factors:

  1. Hashimoto's thyroiditis: This is the commonest cause. This is an autoimmune disorder (normally body’s defence system fight against external infections. In autoimmune disorder the defence system attacks the healthy cells of the body by mistake). In Hashimoto’s thyroiditis the immune system/defence system produces antibodies that attack the thyroid gland and destroy it.
  2. Iodine deficiency in diet. For the production of thyroid hormones iodine is very important. The body does not produce iodine normally, so it needs to be supplemented from outside. Iodine is mainly present in the food we eat. It is mainly present in shellfish, salt-water fish, eggs, dairy products. If a person does not eat iodine rich foods, he may end up with iodine deficiency leading to hypothyroidism. Currently, this causative factor is on the decline due to government initiative of table salt with iodine.
  3. Surgery: Surgery to remove thyroid gland (for e.g. thyroid cancer treatment, overactive thyroid etc.)
  4. Radiation to the neck (to treat cancer in the neck area): The thyroid gland cells are damaged due to the radiation.
  5. Treatment with radioactive iodine: This treatment is used for managing hyperthyroidism/overactive thyroid, where the thyroid gland produces excessive thyroid hormones. One of the treatment modalities is by radioactive iodine. Sometimes this radiotherapy destroys normal functioning cells which lead to hypothyroidism.
  6. Certain medicines: Certain medicines used to treat heart conditions, cancer, psychiatric conditions etc. – for e.g. amiodarone, lithium, interleukin-2, interferon-alpha.
  7. Pregnancy: Pregnancy (the reason is unclear but it has been noticed that the thyroid may get inflamed after delivery – this is called Postpartum thyroiditis.
  8. Damage to the pituitary gland: Pituitary gland is a gland which is present in the brain. It produces a hormone called TSH (Thyroxine-Stimulating hormone).The TSH tells the thyroid gland how much thyroid hormone it should make. If the levels of thyroid hormone in the blood are low, then the TSH will stimulate the thyroid gland to produce more Thyroid hormone.
  9. Hypothalamus disorders: This is an organ in the brain. This produces a hormone called TRH (Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone) which acts on the Pituitary gland to secrete TSH. So any disorder of Pituitary gland will indirectly effect the production and secretion of Thyroid hormones. These are very rare disorders.
  10. Congenital thyroid defects: Some babies are born with thyroid problems. This is due to the thyroid not being developed normally during pregnancy. Sometimes the thyroid gland does not function normal. This can be identified by screening for thyroid disorders in the first week after delivery. This is usually by a blood test using a small drop of blood from the baby’s heel.

What are the different types of hypothyroidism?

One classification is based on whether the defect is with the thyroid gland or not:

  1. Primary hypothyroidism: The problem is in the thyroid gland itself and thus there is reduced production /secretion of thyroid hormones.
  2. Secondary hypothyroidism: Here the problem is with the Pituitary gland or the Hypothalamus. This results in abnormal production of TSH or TRH, which indirectly leads to less production and secretion of thyroid hormones.

Another classification is based on the symptoms and levels of the thyroid hormones and TSH:

  1. Overt hypothyroidism: Here the patient is having the symptoms. Further the T3/T4 are low and TSH is high
  2. Subclinical hypothyroidism: Here patient may or may not have symptoms. The T3/T4 levels are normal but TSH is high. In this situation the patient is at an increased risk of developing overt hypothyroidism in the future especially if he has Thyroid peroxidase antibodies on testing.

Who are at risk of developing Hypothyroidism?

  1. Women have a higher risk of suffering from hypothyroidism than men.
  2. Older people are at increased risk.
  3. People suffering from other autoimmune diseases like Coeliac disease, Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus, Vitiligo, Pernicious anemia, Multiple sclerosis, Rheumatoid arthritis, Addison’s disease etc.
  4. People with psychiatric conditions such as bipolar disorder
  5. People with Chromosomal abnormalities like Down syndrome, Turners syndrome also have a high risk of suffering from hypothyroidism.

What are the symptoms of hypothyroidism?

Symptoms vary from person to person. They may also mimic other conditions and hence be difficult to diagnose. Symptoms may also develop very slowly over a span of moths-years. Some of the characteristic symptoms of this disease are:

  1. Depression
  2. Constipation
  3. Hair loss
  4. Dry hair
  5. Dryness of the skin
  6. Tiredness
  7. Body pains
  8. Fluid retention in the body
  9. Irregular menstrual cycle
  10. Increased sensitivity to cold
  11. Reduced heart rate
  12. Increase in size of the thyroid gland – called Goitre. This is due to constant stimulation of the thyroid gland by TSH.
  13. Weight gain
  14. Carpal tunnel syndrome
  15. Hoarse voice
  16. Infertility
  17. Loss of libido/sex drive
  18. Confusion or memory problems especially in the elderly

What are the symptoms to look for in a baby if you suspect hypothyroidism?

Infants suffering from congenital hypothyroidism may show no symptoms or exhibit signs of excessive drowsiness, cold hands, cold feet, constipation, hoarse cry, poor growth or absent growth, poor appetite, bloating of abdomen, puffiness of face, swollen tongue, persistent jaundice.

How to diagnose hypothyroidism?

Blood tests:

  1. TSH: This hormone is made in the pituitary gland and it stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine. If the thyroxine levels are low in the blood, the pituitary gland produces and secretes more TSH into the blood to act on the thyroid gland to produce more thyroxine. A raised TSH level indicates hypothyroidism. Other tests are not usually necessary unless a rare cause of hypothyroidism.
  2. T4: A low level of thyroxine indicates hypothyroidism.
  3. T3: these levels are generally not needed to diagnose hypothyroidism
  4. Anti-Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO antibodies) or Anti- thyroglobulin antibodies are present in 90-95% of patient with autoimmune thyroiditis.
  5. Other blood tests include Creatinine Kinase, Serum Lipids, Complete blood picture etc.
  6. Ultrasound of the neck is done if the patient presents with a thyroid swelling.

What is the treatment of hypothyroidism?

Overt hypothyroidism is treated by synthetic Thyroxin hormone which should be taken every day on an empty stomach at least 30 – 45 minutes before breakfast. The treatment is continued for the rest of the patient’s life. Regular thyroid function tests are done once every 8 weeks-12 weeks to adjust the dose of the thyroxine in the initial period of diagnosis. Once the thyroxine dose is stabilised, the tests can be done even once a year. This treatment is quite effective.

Sub-clinical hypothyroidism is only treated if the patient is a woman and is contemplating pregnancy, in patients with symptoms or if the TSH is quite high.

What are the side-effects of thyroxine medication?

There are few side effects if any. Most people tolerate these medications quite well. An important consideration before starting medication is to check if the patient has chest pain/angina. These people are started on the least available dose. If these patients are started on a higher dose they notice a worsening of their angina pains.

Side effects mainly occur if the thyroxine dose is high which leads to hyperthyroidism. The symptoms of this could be palpitations 9increased heart beat), weight loss, profuse sweating, anxiety, irritability etc.

There are some tablets which increase with thyroxine tablets. These include carbamazepine, iron supplements, calcium supplements, rifampicin, phenytoin, warfarin etc.

What are the complications of hypothyroidism?

If untreated hypothyroidism can lead to:

  • heart problems like heart attack due to increased levels of bad cholesterol like LDL, or heart failure due to fluid retention
  • obesity
  • infertility
  • joint pains
  • depression
  • A pregnant woman with hypothyroidism is at increased risk of giving birth to a baby with congenital hypothyroidism, also known as cretinism. Further, the woman may have pregnancy related complications like pre-eclampsia, premature delivery, low birth weight baby, anemia, post-partum haemorrhage (bleeding after delivery) etc.
  • Myxoedema is another complication where the patient has extremely low levels of thyroid hormone. The body temperature drops drastically making the person lose consciousness or go into a coma. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Endocrinologist.
3381 people found this helpful

Know Everything About Hypothyroidism

MBBS, MRCGP ( UK), Diploma in Diabetes (UK), DFSRH (UK), DRCOG (UK), CCT (UK)
Endocrinologist, Hyderabad
Know Everything About Hypothyroidism

Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland is not producing the thyroid hormones adequately. This is a fairly common condition.

What is thyroid gland?

The thyroid gland is a small butterfly-shaped gland located just below Adam’s apple. It encircles the windpipe or the trachea. It is about 4 cms in height and weighs about 18 gms. This gland is responsible for the secretion of thyroid hormones. Hormones are chemicals produced by special glands like thyroid, adrenals, ovaries etc. They act as messengers and are carried by the blood to the various target organs.

What are the hormones produced by thyroid gland and what do they do?

The thyroid hormones are of two types – T3 (Tri iodo thyronine) and T4 (Thyroxine). These hormones are mainly responsible for the body’s metabolism - a process in which food is converted into energy in the cells. They influence growth and development and regulate various bodily functions which are mentioned below:

  • Heartbeat
  • Body temperature
  • Breathing
  • Body weight
  • Metabolism of fat
  • Menstrual cycles in females
  • Functioning of Nervous system
  • Digestion
  • Burning calories etc.

What is Hypothyroidism?

Inadequate production of hormones by the thyroid gland is termed as hypothyroidism. This is also called Underactive thyroid state. Hypothyroidism can make the body’s development to slow down and reduces metabolism rates.

What are the causes of Hypothyroidism?

Hypothyroidism can be caused by a number of factors:

  1. Hashimoto's thyroiditis: This is the commonest cause. This is an autoimmune disorder (normally body’s defence system fight against external infections. In autoimmune disorder the defence system attacks the healthy cells of the body by mistake). In Hashimoto’s thyroiditis the immune system/defence system produces antibodies that attack the thyroid gland and destroy it.
  2. Iodine deficiency in diet. For the production of thyroid hormones iodine is very important. The body does not produce iodine normally, so it needs to be supplemented from outside. Iodine is mainly present in the food we eat. It is mainly present in shellfish, salt-water fish, eggs, dairy products. If a person does not eat iodine rich foods, he may end up with iodine deficiency leading to hypothyroidism. Currently, this causative factor is on the decline due to government initiative of table salt with iodine.
  3. Surgery: Surgery to remove thyroid gland (for e.g. thyroid cancer treatment, overactive thyroid etc.)
  4. Radiation to the neck (to treat cancer in the neck area): The thyroid gland cells are damaged due to the radiation.
  5. Treatment with radioactive iodine: This treatment is used for managing hyperthyroidism/overactive thyroid, where the thyroid gland produces excessive thyroid hormones. One of the treatment modalities is by radioactive iodine. Sometimes this radiotherapy destroys normal functioning cells which lead to hypothyroidism.
  6. Certain medicines: Certain medicines used to treat heart conditions, cancer, psychiatric conditions etc. – for e.g. amiodarone, lithium, interleukin-2, interferon-alpha.
  7. Pregnancy: Pregnancy (the reason is unclear but it has been noticed that the thyroid may get inflamed after delivery – this is called Postpartum thyroiditis.
  8. Damage to the pituitary gland: Pituitary gland is a gland which is present in the brain. It produces a hormone called TSH (Thyroxine-Stimulating hormone).The TSH tells the thyroid gland how much thyroid hormone it should make. If the levels of thyroid hormone in the blood are low, then the TSH will stimulate the thyroid gland to produce more Thyroid hormone.
  9. Hypothalamus disorders: This is an organ in the brain. This produces a hormone called TRH (Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone) which acts on the Pituitary gland to secrete TSH. So any disorder of Pituitary gland will indirectly effect the production and secretion of Thyroid hormones. These are very rare disorders.
  10. Congenital thyroid defects: Some babies are born with thyroid problems. This is due to the thyroid not being developed normally during pregnancy. Sometimes the thyroid gland does not function normal. This can be identified by screening for thyroid disorders in the first week after delivery. This is usually by a blood test using a small drop of blood from the baby’s heel.

What are the different types of hypothyroidism?

One classification is based on whether the defect is with the thyroid gland or not:

  1. Primary hypothyroidism: The problem is in the thyroid gland itself and thus there is reduced production /secretion of thyroid hormones.
  2. Secondary hypothyroidism: Here the problem is with the Pituitary gland or the Hypothalamus. This results in abnormal production of TSH or TRH, which indirectly leads to less production and secretion of thyroid hormones.

Another classification is based on the symptoms and levels of the thyroid hormones and TSH:

  1. Overt hypothyroidism: Here the patient is having the symptoms. Further the T3/T4 are low and TSH is high
  2. Subclinical hypothyroidism: Here patient may or may not have symptoms. The T3/T4 levels are normal but TSH is high. In this situation the patient is at an increased risk of developing overt hypothyroidism in the future especially if he has Thyroid peroxidase antibodies on testing.

Who are at risk of developing Hypothyroidism?

  1. Women have a higher risk of suffering from hypothyroidism than men.
  2. Older people are at increased risk.
  3. People suffering from other autoimmune diseases like Coeliac disease, Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus, Vitiligo, Pernicious anemia, Multiple sclerosis, Rheumatoid arthritis, Addison’s disease etc.
  4. People with psychiatric conditions such as bipolar disorder
  5. People with Chromosomal abnormalities like Down syndrome, Turners syndrome also have a high risk of suffering from hypothyroidism.

What are the symptoms of hypothyroidism?

Symptoms vary from person to person. They may also mimic other conditions and hence be difficult to diagnose. Symptoms may also develop very slowly over a span of moths-years. Some of the characteristic symptoms of this disease are:

  1. Depression
  2. Constipation
  3. Hair loss
  4. Dry hair
  5. Dryness of the skin
  6. Tiredness
  7. Body pains
  8. Fluid retention in the body
  9. Irregular menstrual cycles
  10. Increased sensitivity to cold
  11. Reduced heart rate
  12. Increase in size of the thyroid gland – called Goitre. This is due to constant stimulation of the thyroid gland by TSH.
  13. Weight gain
  14. Carpal tunnel syndrome
  15. Hoarse voice
  16. Infertility
  17. Loss of libido/sex drive
  18. Confusion or memory problems especially in the elderly

What are the symptoms to look for in a baby if you suspect hypothyroidism?

Infants suffering from congenital hypothyroidism may show no symptoms or exhibit signs of excessive drowsiness, cold hands, cold feet, constipation, hoarse cry, poor growth or absent growth, poor appetite, bloating of abdomen, puffiness of face, swollen tongue, persistent jaundice.

How to diagnose hypothyroidism?

Blood tests:

  1. TSH: This hormone is made in the pituitary gland and it stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine. If the thyroxine levels are low in the blood, the pituitary gland produces and secretes more TSH into the blood to act on the thyroid gland to produce more thyroxine. A raised TSH level indicates hypothyroidism. Other tests are not usually necessary unless a rare cause of hypothyroidism.
  2. T4: A low level of thyroxine indicates hypothyroidism.
  3. T3: these levels are generally not needed to diagnose hypothyroidism
  4. Anti-Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO antibodies) or Anti- thyroglobulin antibodies are present in 90-95% of patient with autoimmune thyroiditis.
  5. Other blood tests include Creatinine Kinase, Serum Lipids, Complete blood picture etc.
  6. Ultrasound of the neck is done if the patient presents with a thyroid swelling.

What is the treatment of hypothyroidism?

Overt hypothyroidism is treated by synthetic Thyroxin hormone which should be taken every day on an empty stomach at least 30 – 45 minutes before breakfast. The treatment is continued for the rest of the patient’s life. Regular thyroid function tests are done once every 8 weeks-12 weeks to adjust the dose of the thyroxine in the initial period of diagnosis. Once the thyroxine dose is stabilised, the tests can be done even once a year. This treatment is quite effective.

Sub-clinical hypothyroidism is only treated if the patient is a woman and is contemplating pregnancy, in patients with symptoms or if the TSH is quite high.

What are the side-effects of thyroxine medication?

There are few side effects if any. Most people tolerate these medications quite well. An important consideration before starting medication is to check if the patient has chest pain/angina. These people are started on the least available dose. If these patients are started on a higher dose they notice a worsening of their angina pains.

Side effects mainly occur if the thyroxine dose is high which leads to hyperthyroidism. The symptoms of this could be palpitations 9increased heart beat), weight loss, profuse sweating, anxiety, irritability etc.

There are some tablets which increase with thyroxine tablets. These include carbamazepine, iron supplements, calcium supplements, rifampicin, phenytoin, warfarin etc.

What are the complications of hypothyroidism?

If untreated hypothyroidism can lead to:

  • Heart problems like heart attack due to increased levels of bad cholesterol like LDL, or heart failure due to fluid retention
  • Obesity
  • Infertility
  • Joint pains
  • Depression
  • A pregnant woman with hypothyroidism is at increased risk of giving birth to a baby with congenital hypothyroidism, also known as cretinism. Further, the woman may have pregnancy related complications like pre-eclampsia, premature delivery, low birth weight baby, anemia, post-partum haemorrhage (bleeding after delivery) etc.
  • Myxoedema is another complication where the patient has extremely low levels of thyroid hormone. The body temperature drops drastically making the person lose consciousness or go into a coma. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an endocrinologist.
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What Are the Predictors for Pregnancy Induced Hypertension?

MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Mumbai
What Are the Predictors for Pregnancy Induced Hypertension?

Pregnancy is a thrilling time period for every woman, but at times things can go wrong and turn out to be scary due to certain complications. Pregnancy Induced Hypertension or Preeclampsia is a high blood pressure disorder of pregnancy. It is a major problem that occurs in women during their pregnancy and it has an effect on nearly 7% of the first-time mothers. The Pregnancy Induced Hypertension causes serious complications and in severe cases, it is dangerous for the baby as well as the mother. Pregnant women suffering from this condition are induced with labor early if they suffer from PIH or pregnancy 
Induced hypertension.

The Three levels of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension include:

  1. Only high blood pressure
  2. High blood pressure and protein in urine or swelling
  3. High blood pressure, protein in urine, convulsions and swelling

Common Symptoms of Preeclampsia:
The main symptoms that occur are:

  1. Blurred vision
  2. Upper right Abdominal Pain
  3. Headaches
  4. Swelling in the Face and Hands
  5. Infrequent Urination
  6. Rapid weight gain

Physiologic Tests:

The methods that are used to test Pregnancy Induced Hypertension

  1. Cold pressor test
  2. Rollover  test
  3. Isometric handgrip tests

These tests are carried out in pregnant women during their 29th to 31st week of pregnancy. These Pregnancy Induced Hypertension tests when proved positive and the diastolic rise in pressure was found to be about 20 mmHg.  The pressure observed was not more than 140/90 in women in any case of two consecutive occasions. These results specify that not any of these trouble free physiologic tests are of any application as a predictor of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension.

Cure: 
Preeclampsia occurs in women with a history of hypertension in parents, high proteinuria, BMI or Body Mass Index and family history of diabetes. It is by using a partial set of maternal characteristics that pregnant women are at an increased risk of developing Pregnancy Induced Hypertension.

The cure for this condition-preeclampsia is delivery and in many cases, doctors insist their patients go for a caesarian section. Sometimes the Doctors suggest for an early delivery as it includes an additional threat of loss to the mother to be due to prematurity. 

The inflammatory disorder is characterized by anti-angiogenic protein in high levels and soluble forms like tyrosine kinase in the maternal circulation. It is very important that pregnant women adopt the process of self evaluation to safeguard from risk of high blood pressure. They must monitor their blood pressure from time to time as it would empower them to care for their pregnancy and reduce the chances of complications during pregnancy.

3571 people found this helpful

Myths And Facts About Turmeric

MD-Ayurveda, Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Sexologist, Haldwani
Myths And Facts About Turmeric

Let's be clear about what turmeric can not do:

Turmeric usually does not cause significant side effects -- ( The truth is that some people can experience stomach upset, nausea, dizziness, or diarrhea)
You can use turmeric if you have gallbladder problems -- (The truth is that turmeric can make gallbladder problems worse)
Turmeric is not helpful for diabetes -- (The truth is that early research suggests that taking turmeric daily for 9 months can reduce the number of people with prediabetes who develop diabetes.)

Now that we have cleared up what Turmeric cannot do, let's talk about what it Can do for you.

Turmeric has been used for roughly 4000 years as a medicine for a wide variety of medical conditions. Turmeric was mainly for digestive issues, but can be used to treat everything from indigestion to cancer.

The main active ingredient in turmeric is curcumin, and according to UMMC, 'Curcumin is also a powerful antioxidant. Antioxidants scavenge molecules in the body known as free radicals, which damage cell membranes, tamper with DNA, and even cause cell death.

Antioxidants can fight free radicals and may reduce or even help prevent some of the damage they cause. In addition, curcumin lowers the levels of two enzymes in the body that cause inflammation. It also stops platelets from clumping together to form blood clots.'

Turmeric has been shown to treat:

Indigestion
Dyspepsia
Ulcerative Colitis
Stomach Ulcers
Osteoarthritis
Heart Disease
Cancer
Bacterial Infections
Viral Infections
Uveitis
The research that back up these claim is extensive to say the least. For instance, a publication from The International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell
'Although safe in most cases, ancient treatments are ignored because neither their active component nor their molecular targets are well defined. This is not the case, however, with curcumin, a yellow pigment substance and component of turmeric (Curcuma longa), which was identified more than a century ago. For centuries it has been known that turmeric exhibits anti-inflammatory activity, but extensive research performed within the past two decades has shown that the activity of turmeric is due to curcumin, a diferuloylmethane. This agent has been shown to regulate numerous transcription factors, cytokines, protein kinases, adhesion molecules, redox status and enzymes that have been linked to inflammation. The process of inflammation has been shown to play a major role in most chronic illnesses, including neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, pulmonary, metabolic, autoimmune and neoplastic diseases.'

The publications concludes:'The wisdom and scientific credentials of curcumin in the Ayurvedic and Chinese systems of medicine have been corroborated by numerous studies conducted over the past 30 years. These observations are also supported by epidemiological data suggesting lower incidence of chronic diseases in people from countries where curcumin is consumed. The various effects of curcumin have been widely studied in Western systems of medicine for decades, and has been found to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Considering that inflammation plays a major role in most chronic illnesses, anti-inflammatory agents are needed for prevention purposes. Although several different steroids and NSAIDS (such as celecoxib, aspirin, ibuprofen, phenylbutazole, etc.) have been approved for treatment of inflammatory conditions, most of them have side effects, especially when consumed over long periods of time. Because curcumin inhibits multiple proinflammatory pathways and is affordable, this phytochemical should be further explored for prevention and treatment of various chronic diseases. Further clinical trials are needed to fully develop the potential of this 'age-old NSAID'.

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