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Overview

Assault 200 Mg/500 Mg Suspension

Assault 200 Mg/500 Mg Suspension

Manufacturer: Alkem Laboratories Ltd
Medicine composition: Ofloxacin, Ornidazole
Prescription vs.OTC: Prescription by Doctor required

Assault 200 Mg/500 Mg Suspension is an antibiotic drug that fights against bacterial infections. It is used in the treatment of infections that are caused by bacteria, such as chronic bronchitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis, gonorrhea, Chlamydia, anthrax and plague. This anti-biotic also treats bacterial infections of the skin, ears, eyes, sinus, pelvis, urinary tract, bladder, cervix, urethra and the respiratory system.

Assault 200 Mg/500 Mg Suspension inhibits the production of certain enzymes in the DNA of a bacteria, which are necessary for the survival and growth of this bacterial infection. Therefore, this antibiotic drug fights against bacterial infections by killing the bacteria and inhibiting the process of bacterial cell division.

Assault 200 Mg/500 Mg Suspension is an antibiotic medicine that kills bacteria and hinders their growth. This antibiotic is a part of a class of drugs called fluoroquinolones, which work to treat infections that have been caused by bacteria. It is highly effective in treating conditions such as infectious diarrhea, cellulitis, prostatitis, plague, pneumonia and tuberculosis. Assault 200 Mg/500 Mg Suspension also helps treat bacterial infections of the urethra, cervix, urinary tract, bladder, bones, skin, ears, nose and eyes.

Assault 200 Mg/500 Mg Suspension fights against both Gram-negative as well as Gram-positive bacteria. It damages double stranded bacterial DNA and hinders DNA relaxation, thus inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial DNA. In this way, Assault 200 Mg/500 Mg Suspension inhibits the process of cell division for bacterial DNA, which helps you to get rid of a bacterial infection.

Assault 200 Mg/500 Mg Suspension is available in the form of tablets or capsules that are taken orally, in the form of eye or ear drops and can also be injected intravenously. It is advisable to take this medication only under the strict guidelines of your doctor. Follow this prescription through until the course is complete, even if the symptoms disappear. You should not skip a dose and avoid taking an extra tablet to make up for it.

It is possible for some people to experience a few common side effects from taking Assault 200 Mg/500 Mg Suspension like headaches, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, trouble sleeping and dry mouth. These side effects are minor and may not require medical attention, unless they persist for over a week. However, there are certain severe side effects such as hallucinations, tendonitis, mood swings, anxiety, irregular heartbeat, fatigue and a numbing sensation of the feet or hands. Not everyone experiences these side effects, it occurs only in a few cases. If you do experience any of these side effects, seek medical help immediately. If you are allergic to Assault 200 Mg/500 Mg Suspension, you might experience symptoms such as itchiness, swollen tongue, face, throat, hands or feet, trouble breathing and rashes. You should stop taking this medicine as soon as you manifest any of these symptoms and contact your doctor immediately.

Some people are more likely to face harmful side effects, if they also suffer from other conditions like brain disorders, seizures, heart conditions, kidney problems, myasthenia gravis, liver disease, epilepsy, tendonitis, an antibiotic allergy, bone disorders and problems of the joints. It is advisable to inform your doctor of these conditions beforehand, if he/she recommends taking Assault 200 Mg/500 Mg Suspension. It is advisable for pregnant women, women who are breastfeeding and children below 16 years, to avoid taking this antibiotic, since it can lead to harmful consequences.

Assault 200 Mg/500 Mg Suspension is used in the treatment of Community-Acquired Pneumonia which is a most common type of lung infection caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae.
Assault 200 Mg/500 Mg Suspension is used in the treatment of bronchitis which is an inflammation in lungs caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and some Mycoplasma Pneumonia.
Pyelonephritis
Assault 200 Mg/500 Mg Suspension is used in the treatment of Pyelonephritis which is a type of kidney infection caused by E.coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococci and Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Cystitis
Assault 200 Mg/500 Mg Suspension is used in the treatment of cystitis which is a bladder infection caused by E.coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococci and Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Prostatitis
Assault 200 Mg/500 Mg Suspension is used in the treatment of Prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate gland that produces semen) caused by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas and Enterococcus species.
Assault 200 Mg/500 Mg Suspension is used in the treatment of Gonococcal infection which is a sexually transmitted bacterial infection caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
Joint infection
Assault 200 Mg/500 Mg Suspension is used in the treatment of bone and joint infections caused by Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Pneumonia with cystic fibrosis
Assault 200 Mg/500 Mg Suspension is used in the treatment of Pneumonia with Cystic Fibrosis (an inherited disease that causes thick mucus to build up in the lungs and promotes the growth of bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus and Hemophilus influenzae).
Avoid taking Assault 200 Mg/500 Mg Suspension if you have a known allergy to this medicine or any other medicines belonging to the class fluoroquinolones.
Tendinitis or tendon rupture
Avoid taking this medicineif you have a past history of tendinitis or tendon rupture after using Assault 200 Mg/500 Mg Suspension.
Avoid taking this medicine if you have a past or family history of suffering from Myasthenia Gravis (weakness and rapid fatigue of muscles under voluntary control).
In addition to its intended effect, Assault 200 Mg/500 Mg Suspension may cause some unwanted effects too. In such cases, you must seek medical attention immediately. This is not an exhaustive list of side effects. Please inform your doctor if you experience any adverse reaction to the medication.
Diarrhea Major Common
Abdominal Pain Major Rare
White patches in the mouth or on the tongue Major Rare
Joint Pain Major Rare
Black or tarry stools Major Rare
Fever with chills Major Rare
Chest tightness Major Rare
Ringing or buzzing in the ears Major Rare
Muscle pain Major Rare
Numbness of the hands Major Rare
Swelling of face, lips, eyelids, tongue, hands and feet Major Rare
Running nose Minor Less Common
Sneezing Minor Less Common
How long is the duration of effect?
The effect of this medicine lasts for a duration of 12 to 20 hours.
What is the onset of action?
The peak effect of this medicine can be observed within 1 to 2 hours of administration of the dose.
Are there any pregnancy warnings?
Use of this medicine is not recommended in pregnant women. Use only if clearly needed under the supervision of the doctor.
Is it habit forming?
No habit forming tendency has been reported.
Are there any breast-feeding warnings?
Use of this medicine is not recommended in women who breastfeed due to the adverse effect on development of the infant's joints. Use only if clearly needed under the supervision of the doctor. Avoid breastfeeding for about 3 to 4 hours to decrease the infant's risk exposure. Monitoring of undesired effects like diarrhea, diaper rash is necessary.
Below is the list of medicines, which have the same composition, strength and form as Assault 200 Mg/500 Mg Suspension, and hence can be used as its substitute.
Are there any missed dose instructions?
The missed dose should be taken as soon possible. It is advisable to skip the missed dose if it's already time for your next scheduled dose.
Are there any overdose instructions?
Seek emergency medical treatment or contact the doctor in case of overdose.
India
United States
Japan
Whenever you take more than one medicine, or mix it with certain foods or beverages, you're at risk of a drug interaction.
Interaction with Disease
Central nervous system disorders Major
If you suffer from CNS disorder and you take Assault 200 Mg/500 Mg Suspension, then you may experience tremors, restlessness, anxiety, confusion and hallucinations. Avoid consuming caffeine containing products like coffee, chocolates and energy drinks.
Colitis Major
Avoid taking Assault 200 Mg/500 Mg Suspension if you experience severe diarrhea, abdominal pain, and blood in stools after taking the medicine. Inform the doctor if you have any gastrointestinal diseases. Drink adequate amount of water to prevent dehydration.
QT Prolongation Major
Avoid using Assault 200 Mg/500 Mg Suspension if you experience any chest discomfort. Regular cardiac function tests are to be performed if you have any heart disease (arrhythmia) or family history of heart disease.
Interaction with Alcohol
Alcohol
Interaction with alcohol is unknown. It is advisable to consult your doctor before consumption.
Interaction with Lab Test
Lab
Information not available.
Interaction with Food
Dairy products Moderate
The desired effect of Assault 200 Mg/500 Mg Suspension is not observed if consumed with dairy products. There should be at least 2 hours gap between taking Assault 200 Mg/500 Mg Suspension and dairy products.
Interaction with Medicine
Corticosteroids Major
You may experience pain, swelling, or inflammation in ankle, shoulder, hand, or thumb if these medicines are used together. This interaction is more likely to occur in elderly population who have undergone a kidney or heart transplantation. Replacement of the medicine should be made under the doctor's supervision.
Escitalopram Major
You may experience dizziness, lightheadedness, shortness of breath, or heart palpitations if these medicines are used together. This interaction is more likely to happen if you suffer from any heart disease (Arrhythmia) or have a family history of Arrhythmia. Appropriate dose adjustment or replacement of the medicine should be made under the doctor's supervision.
Quinidine Major
You may experience dizziness, lightheadedness, and heart palpitations if these medicines are used together. Regular cardiac function tests are to be performed if you have any heart disease (Arrhythmia) or a family history of Arrhythmia. Appropriate dose adjustment or replacement of the medicine should be made under the doctor's supervision.
Antidiabetic medicines Moderate
You may experience hypoglycemic effects like dizziness, headache, nervousness, confusion, tremor and weakness if these medicines are used together. Hyperglycemic effects like increased thirst, urination and hunger are less likely to occur. Regular blood glucose checkups are to be performed if you are diabetic or has any kidney disease. Appropriate dose adjustment or replacement of the medicine should be made under the doctor's supervision.
Aspirin Moderate
You may experience tremors, involuntary muscle movements, hallucinations, or seizures if these medicines are used together. This interaction is more likely to happen if you have a history of seizures or family history of seizures. Appropriate dose adjustment or replacement of the medicine should be made under the doctor's supervision.
Ethinyl Estradiol Moderate
The desired effect of contraceptive pills will not be achieved if these medicines are used together. Appropriate dose adjustments or replacement of the medicine should be made under the doctor's supervision.

Popular Questions & Answers

Why in pregnancy pigmentation done in underarms and neck nd how to recover from dis?

FICS, FCCP (USA), DNB (General Surgery), MS - General Surgery, MBBS
General Surgeon, Delhi
Why in pregnancy pigmentation done in underarms and neck nd how to recover from dis?
There is nothing to be afraid of. The body needs time to recover from all the assaults it had withstood during baby birth.

Hi I'm a epilepsy patient 2004 and regularly take medicine's name is zen retard 400 (2 tablets in a day) that's all my medical data. Issue - issue is that when I shaved my beard than pimple do assault in my face 2 and issue is that pimple do assault in my face as well as assault in my chest.

MBBS, PGC IN FAMILY WELFARE &HEALTH MANAGEMENT, DHA, PGD IN MEDICAL LAWS ÐICS
General Physician, Kolkata
SYCOSIS BARBE. NOTHING TO WITH DRUG. LOCAL INFECTION OF HAIR FOLLICLES IN BEARD AREA. STOP SHAVINGS TILL LESION S HEAL UP. USE UR OWN RAZOR ONLY. LOCAL ANTIBIOTIC OINTMENT ORAL ANTIBIOTIC.

Underlying condition that affects immune system, how can I know if I have these conditions or not? Are there any symptoms for the same? Thank you.

C.S.C, D.C.H, M.B.B.S
General Physician,
Underlying condition that affects immune system, how can I know if I have these conditions or not? Are there any symp...
common autoimmune diseases are: Type 1 diabetes. The immune system attacks the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. ... Rheumatoid arthritis. This type of arthritis causes swelling and deformities of the joints. ... Lupus. This disease that attacks body tissues, including the lungs, kidneys, and skin. Every part of your body, including your immune system, functions better when protected from environmental assaults and bolstered by healthy-living strategies such as these: Don't smoke. Eat a diet high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and low in saturated fat. Exercise regularly.An immune disorder is a dysfunction of the immune system. These disorders can be characterized in several different ways: By the component(s) of the immune system affected. By whether the immune system is overactive or underactive. By whether the condition is congenital or acquired.

After consulting hospitals doctor, they told me to have contraceptive pill within 48 hours of incident (physically assault). I took i-pill after 6-7 hours of the incident! So am I safe from pregnancy? Please reply.

DGO, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Bhavnagar
After consulting  hospitals doctor, they told me to have contraceptive pill within 48 hours of incident (physically a...
Yes. Mostly. Emergency contraceptive pills taken even within 72 hrs saves you from pregnancy. So don't worry.
1 person found this helpful

Hi, I am 16 years old boy, I have a problem since 1-2 years whenever I see girls and women who r attractive (have full breasts) and see their cleavage I have very very strong urge to hug them very hard and get nude fully with them start hardcore sex with them on the spot and do sex until she cries because of pain. how to get rid of such thoughts?

MBBS
General Physician, Jalgaon
Hi, I am 16 years old boy, I have a problem since 1-2 years whenever I see girls and women who r attractive (have ful...
Take Bufo rana Q Liquid Homeopathic medicine 15 drops in 50 ml water twice a day for 6 wks Avoid listening erotica, avoid sexual thoughts and fantasies, avoid porns totally Do meditation regularly Read good books daily.

Popular Health Tips

How To Handle Depression In Children & Young Adults?

M.A. Clinical Psychology, Diploma In Counselling, Diploma In Mental Illness
Psychologist, Kolkata
How To Handle Depression In Children & Young Adults?

Depression in children and young people affect people from ages 5 to 18. About one in four children in India suffer from childhood depression. Boys and girls up to the age of 10 and 16 respectively, are more prone to depression. As per the report released by WHO, among 10 South-East Asian countries, India has the highest suicide rate. An estimated rate of suicide per 1 lakh population of the age group of 15-29 is 35.5 percent.

Definition and Signs 
According to Thompson (1995), depression is an overall lowering of normal functions which is not specific to any one component of the mind. Clinically, the signs and symptoms of depression have the following components:

  1. Mood Changes: sadness, irritability, sense of loss of interest even in cherished activities
  2. Cognitive changes: inefficient thinking, poor self-esteem, a feeling of hopelessness, loss of concentration, poor attention span, indecisiveness. Rarely, suicidal tendencies, delusions, hallucinations.
  3. Physical changes: low energy, apathy, tiredness, increase or decrease in appetite, disturbed sleep, low emotional responsiveness. Children in primary school stage may report of headaches and stomach aches, limb pain.
  4. Impairment in personal and/or social functioning: Self-harm, deterioration in school work without any specific reason, sudden and persistent levels of aggression and irritability.

Causes:

  1. Marital or family disharmony
  2. Divorce and separation
  3. Physical and sexual abuse
  4. Domestic violence
  5. Problems at school: bullying, social isolation, exam failure
  6. Severe personal assault
  7. Children with parents suffering from depression

Diagnosis of Childhood Depression
Any child suffering from symptoms of depression for at least 2 weeks, should be scheduled to visit his health care provider. Parents and guardians should eliminate any physical reasons for the symptoms before visiting a mental health professional. There are no specific medical or psychological tests that can clearly diagnose childhood depression. Following measures can help to make an accurate diagnosis:

  1. Questionnaires for both the child and parents.
  2. Interviews and study of the patient's history by a mental health professional.
  3. Information from friends, teachers, and classmates can be useful to detect early symptoms of childhood depression.

Treatment

  • To alleviate depressive disorder
  • To reduce concurrent related conditions like ADHD (attention deficit hyperactive disorder) and learning disabilities
  • To promote normal social and emotional development and school performance
  • Relieve family distress
  • To prevent or reduce the risk of relapse


Psychological therapy is the first line of treatment and includes:

  1. Cognitive behavioural therapy in group and individual format
  2. Interpersonal psychotherapy focuses on interpersonal issues like interpersonal conflicts, grief and loss and its effect on current feelings and problems
  3. Psychodynamic child psychotherapy where children are given a way to express their issues through playing, drawing, talking
  4. Family therapy deals with solving family-related issues and management of crisis
  5. Art therapy is an approach to vent out your negative feelings using creative expression as an outlet.
  6. Guided self-help helps you in understanding the core of the problems and finding ways to manage the same with the help of a professional.
  7. Relaxation and self-modelling can go a long way in dealing with depression. Relaxation techniques like exercising, meditating and yoga help your mind soothe and reduce stress and anxiety which in turn elevates the mood and reduces depression.
  8. Counselling has help people overcome loneliness and discuss the things that make them feel low openly. This helps in seeking a solution for that particular cause.
2 people found this helpful

Types and Causes of Premature Ejaculation

MBBS, MCCEE, Fellowship in Sexual Medicine
Sexologist, Jaipur
Types and Causes of Premature Ejaculation

As many as 30-40 % men across the world including India experience problem of PE at some time of life. In Part 1, we learnt about the condition called Premature Ejaculation (PE). In this 2nd part, let’s understand about it’s diagnosis & types of PE - why and how it happens.

How to Diagnose PE:
The specific criteria for premature (early) ejaculation are as follows:
- In almost 75-100% sexual activity, the experience of ejaculation occurring during sexual intercourse within 1 minute after vaginal penetration and before the individual wishes it.
- The problem has persisted for at least 6 months and is a cause of mental stress to the person.
- The dysfunction cannot be better explained by any other nonsexual mental disorder, any medical disease, the effects of a drug or medication, etc

Severity of PE:
The severity of premature (early) ejaculation is broadly defined as follows:
1. Mild (occurring within approximately 30 seconds to 1 minute of vaginal penetration)
2. Moderate (occurring within approximately 15-30 seconds of vaginal penetration)
3. Severe (occurring even before sexual activity, at the start of sexual activity, or within approximately 15 seconds of vaginal penetration). In such cases conception will not be possible unless artificial insemination is used.

TYPES and Characteristics of P.E. :
Premature ejaculation can be Chronic (lifelong) or Acquired (recent).
Chronic PE:
With chronic (lifelong) premature ejaculation, the person has been experiencing premature ejaculation since he became sexually active (ie, post puberty).
Acquired PE:
Acquired (recent) premature ejaculation means that the condition began in an individual who previously experienced an acceptable level of ejaculatory control and only recently has developed PE.

What are the Causes?
The causes of PE can be divided into two broad sub-heads, which are psychological or biological cause:
1. Psychological Causes:
Premature ejaculation is believed to be a psychological problem and does not represent any known organic / physical disease involving the male reproductive organs or any known defect in the brain or nervous system. It is usually due to a pattern that is hard to change and is a result of your previous sexual experiences.

One of the most common reason is childhood habit of reaching climax/ ejaculation quickly because of fear of discovery when masturbating or during early sexual experiences with a female partner. This pattern of rapid attainment of sexual release is difficult to change in later stage of life (in marriage or long-term relationships).

Other reasons are situations in which one may have hurried climax/ ejaculation in order to hide any problem or feelings of guilt that make you rush through sexual encounters. Also, psychological causes include anxiety and relationship issues which can also result from deep anxiety about sex that relates to bad experiences encountered by the patient during development (eg: incest, sexual assault, conflict with parents, etc ).

2. Biological Causes
A number of researchers have found differences in nervous stimulations and hormonal differences in men who experience premature ejaculation compared with individuals who do not.

Some believe that some men have hyper-excitability or oversensitivity of their genitalia.

Abnormal functioning of the ejaculatory system can be attributed to:
- Thyroid problems; infection or inflammation of the urethra or prostate.
- Nerve damage occurring due to trauma or surgery (a very rare cause).
- Abnormal levels of hormones and/or neurotransmitters (chemicals present in the brain)
- Higher free and total testosterone levels or varied other biochemical markers
*The research however has been non-conclusive.

In Part 3 and 4, we will discuss the right approach and therapy for the men / couple suffering due to PE.

5 people found this helpful

Hymen - Are You Aware Of These Facts?

Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS), L.C.P.S, PhD,D.P.S.M
Sexologist, Ahmednagar
Hymen - Are You Aware Of These Facts?

Contrary to what most girls have been led to believe about the hymen being a flat tissue that covers the vagina and is ripped during penetrative sex, the truth is that hymen is a fringe of tissue around the vaginal opening. It is not an intact tissue draping across the vaginal wall because without any outlet for the menstrual blood, girls would get periods only after they lose their virginity.

Here are a few mind-boggling facts about the hymen.

  1. Just like labia, every woman's hymen varies in color, size and shapes. 
  2. It is elastic and stretchy in most cases. Vaginal delivery makes the hymen less visible by smoothening and stretching it.
  3. Despite popular belief, the pain women experience when they have sex for the first time is not due to your hymen breaking but because your vaginal muscles are too tense and/or you're going at it too rough and fast without adequate lubrication.
  4. Simple exercises such as walking, riding bicycles, doing splits as well as horseback riding may rip your hymen long before you have had intercourse. 
  5. Hymens should not be perceived as the indicator of sexual activity because they are extremely stretchy and stay with you your entire life. Even sexually active people have hymens. 
  6. If you do not resort to any sexual activity (including penetration during masturbation), the hymen returns to its default position in your vulva. 
  7. Very few women have an imperforate hymen in which the opening is too small for penetration whether by tampons, fingers, sex toys or an erect penis. A simple surgery needs to be conducted in such a case where parts of the hymen are snipped away. 
  8. There is a growth in hymenoplasty, also known as hymen reconstruction surgery, in the past few years because hymen is viewed as an indicator of virginity and there have been cases of annulment, public humiliation, torture and even death because they believe that the hymen is not intact due to sexual activity; therefore making hymenoplasty an effective solution. 

Although, not an indicator of the amount of sexual activities performed, one must seek immediate medical attention after being sexually assaulted because it can be examined to prove sexual abuse.
 

2 people found this helpful

Painful Intercourse Or Dyspareunia

BHMS
Sexologist, Lucknow
Painful Intercourse Or Dyspareunia

Dyspareunia is pain prior to, during, or after, sexual intercourse. Dyspareunia is more common in women but can affect either sex. Dyspareunia can have several different causes. For instance, vaginismus is a ‘spasm’or contractions of the muscles surrounding the vagina.

  • Dyspareunia is pain prior to, during, or after, sexual intercourse. Dyspareunia is more common in women but can affect either sex. Many women will experience dyspareunia at some time in their life. Sometimes a medial or physical etiology may not be obvious and psychosocial factors also can play an important role. In men, dyspareunia can be related to an allergic reaction to a condom or spermicidal. An infection of the prostate or prostatitis may also cause pain. If a female partner has a vaginal infection or dryness, the male can experience discomfort during intercourse.
  • Dyspareunia can have several different causes. For instance, vaginismus is a “spasm” or contractions of the muscles surrounding the vagina. Women with vaginismus have pain with insertion of tampons as well as with penile penetration.
  • Vulvodynia and vulvar vestibullitis are both conditions that are characterized by painful intercourses. They are also characterized by vulvar burning and itching. The discomfort may not necessarily be associated with intercourse.
  • In older women vaginal dryness is a common cause of dyspareunia. This is a common problem for women that are not on hormone replacement. Dyspareunia can also be caused by abnormalities of the uterus or pelvic organs. Woman may describe the pain as feeling that something is being “pushed” or “bumped” during intercourse. An enlarged uterus or ovary can cause painful intercourse especially during deep penetration. A prolapsed or “dropped” uterus or bladder may also cause discomfort. Dyspareunia can also result from previous pelvic surgery or infection. These conditions can reduce movement of the pelvic organs resulting in pain with deep penetration.
  • Women who experience trauma such as rape or sexual assault may also experience dyspareunia. Unfortunately, many women may have difficulty sharing this information with their health care providers.
  • In order to treat dyspareunia appropriately the cause must be identified. The time at which the pain occurs during intercourse and other associated symptoms can help determine the potential etiology. For instance, pain during entry may have a different etiology than pain with deep penetration.

It is also important for a health care provider to know when in a woman’s life symptoms began. For example, if a woman’s symptoms began around or shortly after menopause; her symptoms could result from atrophic vaginal tissue. She may describe her symptoms as burning or “friction” with intercourse. Vaginal lubricants or estrogen can improve dryness and decrease pain. For women with a history of endometriosis, pelvic surgery, or infection, treatment of dyspareunia is aimed at restoring pelvic organs to their normal positions and reducing scar tissue. Surgical management may also be recommended for women with symptomatic prolapsed of the uterus, rectum, or bladder.

Women with a history of sexual abuse or treatment may benefit from psychological evaluation and treating any depressive symptoms that are present.

Types of dyspareunia:

It is useful to differentiate between the different types of dyspareunia to arrive at the appropriate diagnosis, treatment, and eventual prognosis.

1. Superficial dyspareunia. Vaginismus is a specific type of dyspareunia that refers to spasms of the levator ani and perineal muscles, making intercourse difficult, painful. Undesirable, and often impossible. May clinicians have defined vaginismus as an almost certain psychogenic illness. However, organic disorders of the external genitalia and introital areas can cause such severe discomfort that any attempts at penetration can leas to spasm. This particular cycle, primarily caused by situational and anticipatory anxiety, can become self perpetuating often both organic and functional and can be solely a result of recognized disease entities.
2. Deep dyspareunia refers to a deeper pelvic pain that is experienced at any time during intercourse. Again, this may be secondary to pelvic abnormality, or it may be functional in origin. It also tends to overlap more with chronic pelvic pain syndrome.
Etiology of dyspareunia:

The presence of organic disease is often the cause of dyspareunia. Virtually all gynecologic disease entities list dyspareunia as a possible symptom.

Prominent in the list of diseases associated with dyspareunia are the following:

  • Chronic pelvic infection.
  • Endometriosis
  • Pelvic carcinoma
  • Extensive prolapsed or organ displacement
  • Episiotomy.
  • Acute vulvovaginitis
  • Cystitis
  • Urethral syndrome or other urinary tract disorders.
  • Introital, vaginal, and cervical scarring.
  • All space occupying lesions.
  • Levator ani myalgia.
  • Vulvar vestibulitis.

1. As with chronic pelvic pain syndromes, gastrointestinal (gi) diseases (e. G, bowel motility disorders) must be excluded.

2. Estrogen deprivation, irritating vaginal medications, sympathomimetic drugs, amphetamines, and cocaine are also causes, primarily in superficial dyspareunia and vaginismus.

3. The most common causes of superficial dyspareunia include vaginitis (atrophic or infectious) or lack of lubrication (either caused by physiologic conditions or suboptimal sexual technique.

4. Lesions in the cul-de-sac are said to correlate most often with deep penetration dyspareunia.

5. Women who have deep penetration dyspareunia and who do not have superficial pain on penetration or vaginismus usually do not have a causative external inflammatory syndrome.

6. Some individual with external dyspareunia or vaginismus have small, almost imperceptible scar tissue secondary to surgery or childbirth.

7. Two clinical syndromes not usually recognized involve broad ligament varicosities and the broad ligament tear syndrome.
8. Frequently unrecognized etiology, particularly on first, interview, is a history or sexual assault or abuse.

Diagnostic workgroup

It is extremely important to look for evidence of sexual abuse both on history and physical examination before undertaking an expensive workup. Routine studies include a cbc, sedimentation rate, urinalysis, urine culture and sensitivity, and vaginal smear and culture. A pap smear should also be done. If pregnancy is suspected, a pregnancy test should be done. If there is a pelvic mass, pelvic ultrasound may be helpful. A referral to gynecologist is usually made before ordering this study, however. If vulval dystrophy is suspected, a vaginal biopsy may be useful. If the vaginal examination is normal, perhaps a psychiatrist should be consulted.

  • Normal pelvic examination
  • Abnormal pelvic examination
  • Difficult penetration
  • Difficult during intercourse
  • With abnormal rectal examination
  • Inflamed
  • Hymeneal
  • Orifice
  • Bartholinitis
  • Vulvitis
  • Vulval
  • Dystrophy
  • Cystitis
  • Urethritis
  • Difficult during intercourse
  • Salpingooophoritis
  • Retroverted
  • Uterus
  • Endometriosis
  • Ovarian cyst.
  • With abnormal rectal examination
  • Hemorrhoids
  • Anal fissure
  • Impacted
  • Feces
  • B-normal pelvic examination

With sexual desire 2. Without sexual desire
Functional dyspareunia not true dyspareunia

Differential diagnosis

Sexual pain disorder: persistent recurrent genital pain or nonorganic cause associated with sexual stimulation.

Vaginismus: painful, involuntary spasm of the vagina, preventing intercourse

Vulvar vestibulitis: a chronic and persistent clinical syndrome characterized by severe pain with vestibular touch or attempted vaginal entry, tenderness in response to pressure within the vulvar vestibule, and physical findings confined to various degrees of vestibular erythema.

Vulvodynia: chronic vulvar discomfort (e. G. Burning, stinging, irritation, rawness).

Female sexual dysfunction (disorders of desire, arousal, or orgasm)

Homeopathic remedies.

1. Bellis perennis
Bruised sensation in the vagina, if intercourse is interrupted.

2. Cactus grandiflora
Vagina squeezes shut when intercourse is attempted. Intercourse may be easier just before menses.

3. Coffea
Over sensitivity of the vulva and vagina. Heat and itchiness. Vaginismus with pain.

4. Cuprum
Cramping in the vagina and sometimes also in the legs, during intercourse.

5. Ferrum
Vagina feels dry, painful and raw. No feelings of arousal.

6. Gelsemium
Anxiety before intercourse. Tendency to vaginismus.

7. Lycopodium
Dry, burning vagina during and after intercourse. May have varicose veins in vulva.

8. Natrum mur
Dryness, with smarting and burning pains. Acrid discharge.

9. Platina
Strong sexual desire. May have erotic dreams. Difficult to have intercourse as vulva is extremely over-sensitive. Intercourse is painful and causes bruised sensation.

10. Rhus tox
Soreness during and after intercourse, often accompanied by physical restlessness.

11. Sepia
Dryness with bleeding after intercourse. (if you have this symptom seek medical advice.) feeling that everything will prolapse. Suits women who are exhausted and want to escape from their situation.

12. Staphisagria
Extremely useful remedy for pain after loss of virginity or in instances of rape or sexual assault.

13. Thuja
Vagina is over-sensitive making intercourse painful and difficult. Pains: burning, sore, bruised. May be helpful where there is a history of sti’s or if there are feelings of shame and self-disgust in relation to intercourse.

But before taking these medicine please consult your homoeopathic doctor.

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Importance Of Sex Therapy In Couples

Sexologist Clinic
Sexologist, Faridabad
Importance Of Sex Therapy In Couples

Over the last couple of decades, there has been a steady increase in the number of sex-related issues. While there are a variety of reasons attributed to it including more exposure to sex through media forums, the changing lifestyle of people is said to be a bigger reason.

With people connected to their work all through the day and multitasking on the rise, work is never complete.  Even when retiring for the night, there are always things running about what next to do.  In cases where both couples are working, there is no match of timings either. That being the case, sex has taken a backseat - almost the last seat.

In addition, the altered Indian lifestyle also has led to greater exposure to sex leading to increased cases of abuse (family/friends circle), past unpleasant experiences, relationship failures, etc.  All these have changed the equations in relationships. More and more couples are worried about a number of sexual issues, including:
- Loss of desire 
- Anxiety about sex
- Erectile dysfunction
- Orgasmic disorder
- Premature or delayed ejaculation
- Conflicting sexual desires 
- Past sexual abuse or assault
- Loneliness
- Image issues 
- Promiscuity 

Sex therapy is on the rise, and 90% of the therapy consists of getting the couples to have a frank, open discussion. As much as it is a private topic, the problem can only be solved when an open discussion happens - both with the doctor and with the partner.

Whether it is past abuse or erectile dysfunction, the first step is to acknowledge the problem and discuss about it. If you are not able to confide in your partner or a good friend, it is advisable to seek a therapist.  It is wise to pick a therapist who comes through referral. Some things to keep in mind are:

- Be open - Like any other counseling, sex therapy also involves a frank discussion with complete confidence in the person. The therapist will understand your concerns about anxiety or problem and help you how to communicate your desires and needs with your partner.
- It does not end with one discussion - Starting to work with a sex therapist is just the first step. It might take a while (a few months) to completely resolve the issue and identify the solution.
- Involve your partner - Though it is advisable to start talking alone with the therapist, after a couple of sessions, the partner may also be called in also to see if there is something that needs to be worked upon.

Sex therapy can definitely help to resolve the above noted issues and improve sex life, which is very essential for a healthy body and relationship.

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