Treatment Of Achilles Tendon Injuries
Treatment Of Achilles Tendon Rupture
Treatment of Achondroplasia
Treatment of Tenosynovitis
Treatment of Tennis Elbow and Golfer'S Elbow
Treatment of Tendon Injury
Treatment of Tennis Elbow
Treatment of Tendonitis
Treatment of Ankylosing Spondylitis
Treatment of Ankle Sprain
Treatment of Shoulder Injuries
Treatment of Arm Pain
Treatment of Shoulder Pain
Treatment of Arthrogryposis
Management of Smoking Cessation
Treatment of Slip Disc
Balloon Angioplasty Procedure
Treatment of Spondylitis
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Gastric (stomach) cancer occurs when malignant cells form in the lining of the stomach. By far, it is known to be the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths not only in Asia but also worldwide. Though it can affect both male and female populace, it is seen more commonly in men and in people aged 50 years or older.
Type: Gastric cancers can present as one of the following types -
- Adenocarcinoma: Begins in the glandular cells lining the inside of the stomach. This forms a majority of the stomach cancers.
- Lymphoma: Begins in immune system cells present in the walls of the stomach. Occurrence of lymphoma, in the stomach, is rare.
- Carcinoid Tumor: Begins in hormone producing cells of the stomach. Occurrence of carcinoid cancer, in the stomach, is rare.
- Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST): begins in nervous system cells of the stomach. Occurrence of GIST, in the stomach, is rare.
Gender: It affects both male and female populace.
Etiology: The factors that are associated with increased risk of gastric cancer include the following mostly –
- ‘Helicobacter Pylori’ bacterial infection in the stomach is a common cause of gastric cancer of both the intestinal (expanding) & diffuse (infiltrative) type. Furthermore, studies indicate that high salt intake is synergistic with H. Pylori infection in the manner that it is likely to increase the risk of gastric cancer that is induced by H. Pylori bacteria.
- Smoking, consuming alcohol, red meat, salty/ smoked/ processed foods, low intake of fruits and vegetables, diets rich in nitroso compounds, eating foods contaminated with aflatoxin fungus etc all.
- Atrophic gastritis characterized by chronic stomach inflammation is known to increase the risk multi-fold. Chronic gastric inflammation can lead to atrophy of the gastric mucosa, metaplasia, dysplasia and finally carcinoma.
- History of pernicious anaemia, gastric ulcers, adenomatous gastric polyp etc all.
- Family history of gastric cancer. Several familial syndromes that have been associated with a pre-disposition to gastric cancer include familial adenomatous polyposis, Lynch syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and e-cadherin mutation (diffuse type)
- Blood group A, Obesity etc all are known to be associated with diffuse or cardia gastric cancer.
- Low socioeconomic status - persistent lifestyle issues/ irregularities including high stress coupled with an improper diet/ dietary pattern.
- Epidemiological evidence is indicative of a risk or pre-disposition to gastric/ stomach cancer for people suffering from diabetes mellitus (DM).
- Very high dose ionizing radiation exposure is an uncommon risk for gastric cancer.
Features: There are often no early stage symptoms. Early stage symptoms, if any, are non-specific and are likely to be ignored, thus delaying the diagnosis most often. Hence, gastric/ stomach cancer is often detected at an advanced stage where the disease is either locally advanced or metastatic. The various presentations (of signs & symptoms), by stage (early or advanced), of gastric cancer are as enumerated below:
Early Stage – can present with one or more of the following non-specific symptoms/ signs -
- Dyspepsia (Indigestion),
- Stomach/ Epigastric discomfort,
- Bloated feeling after eating,
- Mild Nausea/ Vomiting,
- Blood in Vomit (Haematemesis),
- Weight loss (Cachexia)
- Occult blood in stool/ Melaena,
- Advanced Stage – presents with one or more of the following symptoms/ signs -
- GI Bleeding with black tarry stools (Melaena),
- Persistent Nausea/ Vomiting,
- Blood in Vomit (Haematemesis),
- Early Satiety,
- Loss of Appetite (Anorexia),
- Weight loss (Cachexia),
- Persistent pain in the abdomen,
- Fluid build-up in the peritoneal cavity (Ascites),
- Edema of the lower extremities,
- Liver Enlargement (Hepatomegaly)/ Jaundice,
- Difficulty swallowing food (Dysphagia)
- Screening: Is generally recommended for asymptomatic populations in high incidence areas or as surveillance for high risk individuals. The goal of screening, as usual, is to be able to detect & diagnose gastric cancer at an early stage which is potentially curable. It is mostly endoscopic/ radiologic.
Diagnosis: Following are the diagnostics employed in gastic cancer -
- Physical Examination: May be remarkable for palpable abdominal mass, weight loss (cachexia), abdominal distension, ascites, hepatomegaly, lower extremities edema and lymphadenopathy for gastric cancers in the advanced stage. For early gastric cancers, however, physical examination is largely uninformative.
- Blood: Hb- may be low, ESR – raised, tumor markers CEA & CA-19-9 could be raised sometimes in adenocarcinoma but are not frequently elevated. Abnormal blood test results may be indicative of malignancy, but a follow-up gastroscopy/ biopsy is always the gold standard for accurate diagnosis.
- Stool: Occult blood may be +ve
- Barium Meal X-Ray: Could show a filling defect at the site of the carcinoma/ cancer growth.
- Gastroscopy/ Biopsy: Clinches the diagnosis.
- Endoscopic Ultrasound: Maximizes tumor staging as it helps determine the depth of invasion of the tumor.
- CT Scan: Of chest, abdomen & pelvis helps detect metastatic disease, if any, and also helps stage the disease (TNM) appropriately.
- Bone Scan: Helps detect osseous metastasis (bone mets), if any.
- Treatment: Conventional treatment includes surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy as contextually appropriate. Surgery (i.e. gastrectomy either sub-total or total), with an adjuvant chemotherapy and/ or radiotherapy as contextually relevant, is the only treatment that is known to cure the disease in light of the prognostic indicators as briefly enumerated in the section below. Chemptherapy and/ or radiation alone cannot be curative. Mostly, it can improve symptoms, and may prolong survival. Simultaneously, an adjunctive or integrative naturopathic treatment with suitable complementary & alternative medicines (CAM) too can help improve clinical outcomes and facilitate recovery as feasible contextually.
Prognosis: For gastric cancer is variable. Preventive measures, earlier diagnosis and right early treatment is key for an effective therapeutic management & better prognosis. Like most other cancers, the chances of cure for an early stage gastric cancer are more. The cure/ recovery chances are influenced by the grade, stage of cancer, recurrence and the patient’s general health & vitality etc all. Distal tumors are known to be cured more often than the proximal ones. Again, intestinal-type gastric cancers are known to have a better treatment outlook in comparison to the diffuse-type gastric cancers.
Prevention: Rightly said, prevention is always a better choice. Although genetic risks are difficult to modify, still an adherence to a relative Mediterranean diet, maintaining an ideal body weight and an active lifestyle with due emphasis on regular exercising, de-stressing and relaxation is highly recommended for reducing the risks of many cancers including gastric cancer. A healthy eating plate comprises essentially a low fat diet, fibre rich foods including whole grain cereals, green leafy vegetables cooked using healthy vegetable oils, fresh fruits of all colours as seasonally available and healthy proteins/ fats including fresh fish, poultry, beans, nuts etc all. The consumption of alcohol, if any, has to be strictly in moderation, and is best avoided in a high risk scenario. Smoking is to be avoided too. Again, red meat, butter, refined grains, sweets, sugary drinks including carbonated beverages and other high calorie foods etc all, if any, are to be taken sparingly. Not only it is important to eat healthy, but also it is equally important to eat properly. Insufficient chewing, eating until full, eating meals within a short time etc all are best avoided so as to ease off digestive burden on the stomach/ other organs in the GI tract. Last but not the least, consumption of clean and filtered water, natural probiotics like freshly prepared yogurt/ butter milk, maintenance of cleanliness & hygiene including oral hygiene etc. all can help guard against H. Pylori infections. Breastfeeding is known to be protective against H. Pylori infections too.
Mujhe acidity or gas constipation he ibs bhi or 4 years se blood vessels bhi ho raha he legs or hands me bilkul flat no itching no burn bus atey he or chale jate he kya karu.
There are several different types of pimples and they have different signs and symptoms:
- Whiteheads - also known as a closed comedo. These are very small and remain under the skin, appearing as a small, flesh-colored papules.
- Blackheads - also known as an open comedo. These are clearly visible on the surface of the skin and are black or dark brown due to the oxidation of melanin, the skin's pigment. Some people mistakenly believe they are caused by dirt, because of their color, and scrub their faces vigorously - this does not help and may irritate the skin and cause other problems.
- Papules - these are small, solid, rounded bumps that rise from the skin. The bumps are often pink.
- Pustules - these are pimples full of pus. They are clearly visible on the surface of the skin. The base is red and the pus is on the top.
- Nodules - these are morphologically similar (similar structure) to papules, but larger. They can be painful and are embedded deep in the skin.
- Cysts - these are clearly visible on the surface of the skin. They are filled with pus and are usually painful. Cysts commonly cause scars.It is advisable to visit a dermatologist instead of taking over the counter medicines for pimples.
My BMI is within limit 26 and I have fatty liver. I am non alcoholic & non smoker. Last time I did scanning for different reason and doctors said no major. Please suggest.
I have lot of hair fall problem .How I rescue it. Naturally .And in winter very much problem with dandruff .Please give me suggestions.
Mere face pe kharish hoti hai or khushk face hota hai or sath me face pr red nishan pd jate hai kya kru?
Menu planning for diet of indian toddlers:
Indian diet plan for toddler
In the above given chart, the outer 6 boxes represent the different food groups. This chart will help you in planning your own menu based on your convenience and timing for your baby. Follow the following tips for planning a healthy menu for your toddler.
The trick is to simply add at least 1 item from each group through out the day. Ofcourse you can use a particular group more than 2 times too. But in order to maintain variety in terms of taste and nutrition, its important to plan from each group. Ex – you can plan for rice in the afternoon and oats in the evening menu. Both the items belong to the cereal group and are equally healthy.
Make your choices of food from the given food group more interesting for the kid. Ex – instead of feeding your baby with rice and milk every day, introduce variety. Plan for rice and curd, or lightly lemon flavored rice, mix rice with mung dal from pulses group to add protein and variety to your kids menu.
After your kid turns 15 – 16 months old, you can mix up 2 or more food groups together. Ex – oats porridge with apple. Here oats cover the cereal group, milk will cover up for protein and apple will cover the fruits group. Some kids with good digestibility can tolerate the mixed groups concept right from 12 month on wards.
Cereal group – This group includes cereals like rawa (semolina), ragi, rice, oats, wheat and its products like brown bread, wheat based biscuits. These cereals are easy to digest. Initially its best to grind the food product, or mash it well to avoid choking. Some kids take time to learn to chew.
Milk and milk products group – As the name suggests this group includes all varieties with milk. Cows milk has the best digestibility. Hence it is preferable to give you kids cow’s milk. You can later introduce him with milk products like cheese, curd, buttermilk and paneer. Cheese on brown bread is a good snacking option for your 2+ year old toddler. They relish it.
Non – vegetarian protein group – This group includes chicken, eggs and fish. I would really recommend you to start your kid a little late with fish. May be after he is 2 +. This will ensure his digestion capacity. It is not that kids do not eat fish before this age. There are individual differences and food preferences. All you need to do is ensure about your kids digestion capacity,
And allergic reactions to these foods.
Dals and pulses group – Start with easily digestible dals like mung dal. Once they are tolerated well by the kid, you can then move forward to slowly introduce her with all the other varieties of dals, and pulses. Make sure the first time you try any new pulse, it should be diluted enough. If your baby has any sign of intolerance towards these foods, like change in color of stool, hard stool or watery stool or gases or stomach ache after the intake, reintroduce the food after a week in a diluted form
Fruits and vegetables – The fruits and vegetables that are mentioned under the groups in the above info graphic diagram, can be used in any form. You can mash the fruits, make juice out of it, pressure cook the fruit for 1 whistle and then mash it (apple). Or you can hand over them as slices to your kids. So they also learn to eat on their own. You can use vegetables in soup forms or cooked vegetable form, just the way you consume it at home. Make sure you add little or no spices to the preparation. You can introduce the spices and masala for the baby after she is 2.5 + years of age.
Fats and sugars – This group is placed in the center on purpose. Although you need to use very little amount of fats and sugar for your toddler, but please do not ignore this group. Your baby really needs good fats for better digestion. Don’t forget that these little ones also require tasty foods just like us. You can add sugar or jaggery to their food preparations.
Note – You need to feed your growing toddler every 2- 3 hrs, don’t wait for them to signal for hunger. Kids get really cranky and irritated if they go without food for long. To become a smart mom, you need to set your timetable accordingly. Keep your busiest hours for their milk feeds. But do not over do milk. Excess milk feeds and no solid will make her/ him hate food. They may also get loose motions, uncontrolled bladder. They would become cranky if you don’t give them enough solids. And the kid will want to stick to you at all
Here is an indian diet plan for toddlers for your reference.
Time and menu:
- 7.00 am (after waking up): 1 glass milk + 4 soaked almonds
- 9.00 am Breakfast: Choose any 1 from the mentioned options: Rawa kheer / ragi kheer / vermicilly kheer, Soft cooked rawa upama with finely chopped carrots, Soft cooked mung dal chilla with grated carrots and finely chopped spinach, Curd with soaked poha, (add a little salt or sugar as per your kids taste), Soft dosa or idli with sambar
- 11.00 am: 2-4 slices of apple / orange / water melon /musk melon / pomogranate / papaya / 2 wheat based biscuits / ragi flakes (handful) (any seasonal fruit)
- 1.00 pm: Lunch (choose any 1 from the mentioned options)- Curd rice / dal + rice / sambar + rice / milk + rice / vegetable pulav / kadhi + rice / lemon flavored rice, Vegetable khichadi, Daliya upama (soup consistency), Vermicilly upama, Soft cooked roti or phulka with toru / bottle gourd / palak / methi / potato vegetable
- 2.30 pm: Buttermilk (optional) / ragi kanji
- 4.00 pm: Choose any 1 from thementioned options- Oats porridge with chopped apple or banana, Fruit smoothie with almond or walnut (at room temperature), Milkshakes, Hot milk with 4 biscuits, Aata laddu – 2 small, Dry fruit chikki, Sliced / boiled veggies like carrot, broccoli with curd dip, Tacos with vegetable based greek yogurt dip, Home made wheat cake piece
- 6.00 pm: Spinach soup / carrot soup / tomato soup / mix vegetable soup / corn soup (grind corn kernel in a mixer) / fruit juice during warm climate
- 8.00 pm: Dinner (choose any suitable option from breakfast or lunch menu)
- 10.00 pm: Bedtime- 1 glass milk + 4 soaked almonds
Note – The above mentioned diet plan is a general diet plan. This indian diet plan for toddlers meets the nutritional requirement of an average indian toddler. Some foods may or may not be suitable to some kids, in such a case a personalized approach is necessary.
Important tips to consider while following this indian diet plan for toddlers:
• Milk intake:
Give your toddler the regular milk when he wakes up in the morning. Give him 100 to 200 ml of milk in the morning and in case he/she is allergic to milk and milk products, you can replace milk with a whole fruit, almond milk, or soya milk. If your child has crossed 2 years of age, you may consider adding health drinks such as pediasure to his milk. Make sure to give your toddler full cream milk and he/ she requires milk energy to support his body’s functions and to grow into a powerful adult with time. In the evening, give your toddler 100-50 ml of milk depending on his preference. Yes, do value his preference as many toddlers simply hate the taste of milk. You can’t help as i’m sure many of you also hated milk in your childhood. Use your imaginations, make them tasty smoothies or milkshakes
• Water intake
A toddler’s daily water intake may typically consist of at least 5 cups of water. This includes the juices, milk, and other fluids that your toddler consumes throughout the day.
Make sure you give your toddler wholewheat or brown bread or bread that is fortified with vitamins and minerals.
• Fruits and vegetables
You may opt for cooked or pureed food. Cooked or pureed vegetables with bland flavors are the best options for toddlers. These may include vegetables such as pumpkin, potato, sweet potato, squash, carrots, and butternut. Try with mashed food items. It’s better to feed ytout toddler steamed vegetables and pulses
• Homemade food:
Today’s nuclear family setups coupled with an increase in the opportunities for women employment, time has become a scare resource for today’s families. It is always better to avoid tinned and packaged foods as they contain preservatives that may be detrimental to your child’s health. Make sure you invest some time to secure your child’s health and prepare meals at home. We are sure love will help you find that time!
• Oatmeal cereals
It is a good idea to help your child build healthy eating habits since a very young age. You may introduce oatmeal cereals at a very early stage as they are healthy breakfast options and your child is most likely to develop an acceptance for oatmeal cereals as well as other complex carbohydrates.
• Portion intake
1 tablespoon of each food: the rule of thumb. At one time, a one-year old child should be fed 1 tbsp of cooked cereal, pureed fruit, pureed cereal, cooked meat, cooked vegetable, one egg and ½ cup of milk and dairy products. On a similar line, a 2-year old child should be given 2 tablespoons of different foods at a time. And as you can already guess, 3 tablespoons of different foods at a time constitute the perfect dietary portions for a 3-year old child.
• Nutritious snacks
Your kid will eat when he/she is hungry and will stop when he/ she feels full. Sometimes, you may consider providing nutritious snacks to your kid. This does not mean that you have to put a lot of extra effort in preparing healthy snacks as a lot of healthy yet no-hassle snacks are available in the market. Prepare some finger-friendly, bit-size foods and your toddler will take the responsibility of feeding himself/ herself:
• Thinly-sliced fresh fruit
• Low-sugar breakfast cereals
• Mini muffins with whole grain crackers
• Shredded cheese
• 2-4 ounces of pure fruit juice, with one part juice being mixed with two parts of water.
• Start with pureed or strained vegetables such as green beans, squash, or carrots.
Some common mistakes that you should avoid:
• Making your child drink more than 16-24 ounces of milk per day.
• Forcing your child to eat when he/ she is not hungry.
• Allowing your child to eat sugary snacks
Don’t get in to a habit of worrying about your kid’s food. The only thing that you should observe is whether your child is gaining weight with time and whether he is remaining active throughout the day. Too much of restrictions in his/ her diet or too much of ‘çarefree’ attitude may actually harm your child’s health. Refer this indian diet plan for toddlers and enjoy your child’s meal times, be a little creative and allow him to enjoy his/ her creative side as well.
My hair is falling down I can not stop even I had used many consulted oils and shampoos but its not stopping.
Hello Doctor, What is the cure of high heart beat rate. I have pulse rate of above 95/minute most of the day? My habits: No Alcohol, no Smoking, about 3 cups of tea/day, usually computer work. I have observed this for more than 10 years. Thanks in Advance.
Is the masturbation can cause hair fall? My hair is falling down I have. consulted a doctor and get a oil but its not stopping yet what i. Can do any suggestions for me plzz.
When I do any kind of neck or any exercise I feel like everything around me is moving. It gives me a lot of problem. So please tell me the reason behind this problem and how can I get relief from it?
Here are a few exercises to lose double chin.
Chin lift exercise: This exercise requires you to work and stretch multiple facial muscles including neck, throat, and jaw and hence, it is one of the best exercises to reduce double chin. You need to make use of your lips to do this exercise and you may choose to perform it either in sitting or standing position.
How to do it - Look up and look towards the ceiling with your eyes fixed towards the ceiling. Make your lips tight as though you are trying to kiss the ceiling. Remain in this posture for about 5 seconds and the come back to your normal position. Repeat this exercise 10 to 20 counts.
Jaw release: The jaw release exercise can help you get a sharply defined jaw line and strong cheek bones. With this exercise, you can work the muscles around your lips, cheeks, and jaws.
How to do it - Sit or stand in a straight posture and move your jaw as if you are chewing. Make sure your mouth is closed. Inhale deeply and exhale while chewing. Do this chewing rotation 5 times. Then open your mouth and push your tongue against your lower jaw. Remain in this posture for 5 seconds, then inhale and exhale again. This creates one repetition. You need to repeat this exercise 10 to 15 times continuously.
Platysma tone: The exercise provides amazing results in terms of toning your chin and cheek muscles and prominently defining your jaw line. Platysma refers to a muscle that originates from the chin region and stretches to the shoulder. When you work the platysma, you can prevent the sagging of the neck as well.
How to do it - Sit or stand in a straight posture. Open your mouth and pull back your lips in a downward direction. Press your lips against the teeth and move your jaw up and down. Make sure that the muscles of your jaw are being pulled and the tendons of your neck should feel the stretch. Repeat 20 times.
Rolling the neck: This exercise not only tones your jaw line, chin, and neck muscles, but it also reduces stress and promotes sleep. It tightens the skin of your neck and reduces wrinkles. You can be in a sitting or standing posture while carrying out this exercise.
How to do it - Keep your head in the normal position. Next, bend your head to one side and then slowly rotate it so as to make a complete circular rotation. Make sure that you keep your spine straight and your shoulders down at all times. Continue rotating your head in circular motion in clockwise as well as anti- clockwise direction for 3 to 4 times.
Exercises to reduce cheek fat
After exercises to lose double chin, it is now time to learn exercises to lose fat from cheeks. Chubby cheeks define a baby’s cuteness, but as we grow up, we have a different definition of beauty. We like well-defined cheekbones and prominently-sculpted jaw line. And perhaps this is the design that nature has created for human forms. However, some people retain their baby face and some may gain weight because of which their cheek bones may lack definition. Here’s how they can reduce facial fat and get a chiseled face:
Fish face: This exercise is a sort of anytime-anywhere job that you can perform while doing other activities such as watching t. V, taking bath, or reading a novel. Through this exercise, you can stretch your cheek muscles and reduce flabbiness.
How to do it: Pout your lips. Suck your cheeks and form a fish face. Try to smile while being in this posture and hold till 5 seconds. Relax when you feel the pressure on your cheeks and jaws. Repeat 15 to 20 times.
Cheek lifts: A wide smile not only rejuvenates the mood of the one who smiles and the others who witness it, but it also serves as the basis of the cheek lift exercise. A wide smile tones and strengthens drooping cheeks and reduces cheek wrinkles which make your face look younger.
How to do it - Take a comfortable sitting posture and smile as wide as you can. While smiling, raise your cheeks upwards and push against your eyes. Feel the tension in your cheek muscles. If possible, shut your eyes and do this exercise more conveniently. Remain in this posture for 15 seconds and then come back to the relaxing mode. Repeat the exercise 15 times at a stretch.
The blow-air exercise: This exercise makes use of almost all the neck and facial muscles and hence, it is one of the most effective and natural face lift exercises that can address both chubby cheeks and double chin issues.
How to do it– Begin by sitting straight on a chair. Bend your head back so as to face the ceiling. Pull your lips together and blow out air from your mouth. Keep blowing out air for 5 seconds and ten relax. Repeat 15 to 20 times.
The mouthwash move: This facial exercise not only strengthens the cheek muscles, but it also helps in reducing double chin.
How to do it - Sit in a comfortable position and fill up one of your cheeks with air. Next, transfer the air from one cheek to the other and continue to do so for a minute and then relax. The movement is very similar to what you would do while rinsing your mouth with a mouthwash. Repeat the exercise 5 to 10 times.
In vitiligo patients ayurvedic medicines in form of extracts show quick results in stopping, the spread of white patches.
In vitiligo patients it has been found in studies that t-cells produced in bone merrow travel in blood and attack skin which causes vitiligo.