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Kidney stones have become a very common disease affecting millions of people worldwide. Kidney stones can be extremely painful. However, with advancements in medical science, this condition can be easily treated. So, you can put an end to all the angst and worry.
When we talk about stones, the first question that comes to the mind is, how can a stone form in one’s kidneys?
Kidney stones are formed when the minerals and salt in the fluid get deposited in the kidneys. Incidentally, kidney stones form twice as often in men as women and once you get a stone, you are at 50 % risk of getting another one.
Classification of kidney stones
Kidney stones are categorized into calcium containing or calcareous stones and non-calcareous stones.
Why do they form? the
You will be surprised but causal factor for most kidney stones is a nano-bacterial disease like a Helicobacter pylori infection along with peptic ulcer disease. This bacteria forms a calcium phosphate shell and around this further crystallization occurs mostly due to what we eat and a few other issues like Cystinuria and hyperoxaluria about which we are going to be talking in some detail.
- Hyperoxaluria is defined as excretion of oxalate in excess of 45 mg/day in the urine.
- This is a disorder when you have too much oxalate in your urine.
- Oxalate is a natural chemical in your body, and you can also ingest it via food like beets, rhubarb, spinach, chocolate, nuts, tea, wheat bran, strawberries, and soya foods.
- Actually, there is no known need for oxalate by the human body and it is normally eliminated as waste through the kidneys.
- But too much oxalate in your urine can cause serious problems like kidney stones. These stones form when the excess oxalate binds with calcium in the urine to form kidney stones.
- Apart from your diet, Hyperoxaluria can also be caused due to an intestinal disease like Crohn's, an inherited disorder and surgeries that cause an Ileal bypass or a short bowel syndrome, low calcium intake and other such factors.
- Sometimes hyperoxaluria may result from changes in the way kidneys handle normal amounts of body oxalate.
- Hyperoxaluria is found in about 20 percent of individuals with kidney stones and quick diagnosis and treatment of hyperoxaluria is important to the long-term health of your kidneys.
- Cystinuria is an inherited or genetic disorder that causes stones made of the amino acid cystine in your kidneys, bladder, and ureters.
- The first symptoms typically occur in young adults in their 20s and 30s and they continue life-long.
- Cystinuria has to be managed and treated properly otherwise it can be very painful and can have serious consequences which can damage your kidneys.
- It causes frequent stone formation which causes blockages in the kidneys and you may need repeated surgical procedures to get rid of them and this can impact kidney function over time.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Hi, since 4 years I am suffering wit urine infection (e-coli) I have changed 8 gynac and 3 urologist but still count of bacteria is not reducing and whenever I have sex it aggravate please help me.
I am 67 yrs, diabetic and with BP since 18 yrs, both are well controlled. Why proteins in urine are some time +++, ++,+ and trace, up and down. Can you suggest prevention of proteins in urine, can you suggest Doctor in your panel. Thanks.
I am a 22 years old female. I have both gallstone (just one) and kidney stone (just one) of 4 mm and 2.9 mm respectively. Also I have horse shoe shaped kidney. Is it because of the kidney shape that I have? In addition to this I also have constipation and I am more prone to loose stool. Are these symptoms of something?
Simple renal cysts are often found even in normal kidneys. In fact, they are so common that they are rarely considered as a disease. Certain lifestyle traits or genetics can be the cause of renal cysts occurring in adults as well as children, though no conclusive reasons have yet been confirmed for the occurrence of the same. Medical imaging technology such as ultrasound, X-ray, and CT scanning are being extensively used to discover these lesions.
In various surveys of people undergoing ultrasound for evaluation of non-kidney-related problems, generally 15% men and 7% women over the age of 50 were detected with renal cysts. Once the radiologic imaging of the cyst is obtained, the doctor can determine what further examination will be required.
There are basically two types of renal cysts, simple and complex.
- Simple cysts are usually round, have a thin outer wall, are filled with fluid and are rarely required to be treated.
- Complex cysts, however, can have thicker walls with solidified mass or can also be a collection of small cysts. These are definitely required to be examined further as they can be cancerous.
With the latest radiological approach to renal cysts, i.e. the Bosniak classification, observation of lesions is preferred to biopsy. Even though biopsies nowadays are largely non-intrusive, they are still recommended under very specific circumstances.
This classification uses a complicated algorithm of CT scan features like size, density and perfusion and places cystic renal masses into one of the five different categories. Categories I and II are generally simple cysts, not requiring further analysis. Still, an ultrasound is repeated at intervals of 6-12 months to ensure that the cyst is not growing. However, Bosniak category IIF cysts indicate complex cysts which are required to be observed. Lack of change with time indicates that the mass is benign, while any increase indicates the possibility of cancer. Through observation, one can prevent unnecessary surgeries.
It is mostly recommended that lesions falling under Bosniak III category should be immediately surgically removed as 40-50% have the possibility of becoming cancerous. However, close follow-up with magnetic resonance imaging can be used to avoid unnecessary surgeries as it is useful for characterizing the internal content of a cyst which may be is indeterminate even after the ultrasound and CT scan. Category IV lesions necessarily require surgical removal of the kidney, as nearly 85-100% of these are cancerous. More than 90% of those diagnosed with renal cancer which is confined to the kidney can hope to become disease-free within five years after diagnosis.
Thus, complex renal cysts have a higher possibility of developing into cancer if they are found to be malignant during the period of observation and steps should be taken for immediate removal. Consult an expert & get answers to your questions!