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Nephrotic Syndrome is a condition which is characterised by the loss of protein into the urine (called proteinuria) as a result of increased glomerular permeability and oedema. This results in low protein level in the blood. The low levels of protein in blood result in the drawing of fluids into soft tissues. A severe form ‘hypoalbuminemia’ can cause scores of secondary diseases such as ascites (retention of fluid in the abdominal cavity), pleural effusion (build-up of fluids between the lungs and the chest), or high cholesterol. It can also result in retention of fluid in other parts of the body such as eyelids, lower extremities etc.
What can cause this?
Nephrotic syndrome is mainly caused by damage to the kidneys. This leads to an increase in the concentration of protein in the urine. In adults, it can be caused due to glomerulonephritis or damage to the glomerulus of the kidneys while in children it is likely caused by minimal change disease (kidney disease marked by the abnormal loss of protein through the urine).
The other common causes of nephritic syndromes are:
- Genetic disorder
- Immune disorder
- Use of specific drugs
- Certain diseases such as diabetes mellitus, lupus
- The incidence of this disease is seen more often in males than in females.
Diet that is recommended in Nephrotic Syndrome:
In patients diagnosed with Nephrotic syndrome, the intake of salt, fat and protein must be checked. There should be emphasis on the consumption of dietary fibres that are present in vegetables and fruits.
The intake of protein and fluid should also be monitored, but this solely depends on personal factors such as age, weight and condition of the patient. It is recommended to consult a renal dietician who can guide you appropriately.
- Sodium/salt intake: The sodium or salt intake must be restricted as it leads to high blood pressure and results in fluid retention in the body, thus causing oedema (build-up of fluids within the body cavities and tissues) in the body. Avoid processed food as it contains a lot of salt.
- Protein intake: Protein is an essential part of the diet as it helps in the general makeup of the body and development of muscles. The consumption of protein must be kept under check and it is the best to consult your dietician for this. Loss of protein in urine needs to be replaced by class 1 high quality proteins in nephrotic syndrome.
- Limit fat and cholesterol intake: It is always good to curb on bad cholesterol as it is the reason behind several heart diseases. But, with patients diagnosed with Nephrotic Syndrome, it is highly recommended to avoid food rich in fats. This means staying away from unhealthy fatty meat or junk food.
- Fluid intake: Fluid intake does not have to be necessarily reduced, but it is always good to consult your doctor for the same.
“You are what you eat”. Nephrotic syndrome can slowly progress to chronic kidney disease if the necessary steps are not taken to curb it in an early stage, and diet control is a major way to do so. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Nephrologist.
I have small lump like skin hanging from the outside of my anus. I came to know that this is a hemorrhoid. I got it 3 years back from the 5th month of my pregnancy. That time I didn't take it seriously as it didn't disturb me. But day by day I felt its growing in size n adding discomfort to my daily life. I have applied garlic on it to kill it but the situation worsen. It is itching, burning, hurting n swelling a lot. Feel like a sharp pin during several times of a day. I use cold compress and bring garlic capsules. Please help how to use it. I heard about WITCH HAZEL best to cure it. But I'm in doubt whether it will remove the skin completely or not? Please help. I'm in big trouble. I am afraid of any kind of injection n surgery procedure. If possible suggest home remedy. Can I use tying a thread technique as I heard from most doctors. Please advice.
Sir/MAM I HAVE stone problem 2 stone in left kidney and 2 in right kidney both stones are 2 mm but 1 stone is in the way of urine and blockage which is 7 mm stone. 7mm create very hard pain please tell the solution to remove and avoid things. I drink water 4-5 ltr daily. please plz tell best solution.
30th September I first noticed blood (very less one drop in morning first blood )in my urine. I have consulted with two doctors in bangalore .done 4 tests. 1.RFT 2.Urine cultural 3.USG kub 4.contrast CT scan of Abdomen and pelvis. All the report is clear. But blood came in a odd day wise. I went to Kolkata on 11th Oct. From 11th october to 16th october urine is normal. But on 17th october again blood came. I have consulted with another doctor (Senior Urologist) over there. Done 4 another test. 1.Urine cultural 2.Blood Test 3.USG KUB 4.KUB with transrectal USG Of Prostate. Again all report is clear. Doctor gave me Potrate MB medicine (POTASSIUM CITRATE MAGNESIUM CITRATE AND Vitamin B6 Oral solution )on 17th october. From 17th october to 10th november again urine is clear but today morning again blood came. One thing I noticed - if I am doing night shift blood came frequently but if I am not doing it is not coming From day before yesterday I have started night shift and today blod cme.
There is inflammation and itching in anus pipe and opening of it, some time blood in stool. What do I do?
I have anal fissure. One flower like mass is at the end of rectum causing obstruction. It bleeds with pain. Inside there is a fissure. What step shall I take to get cured from it?
I have a severe condition of fissures. And what you call in layman terms as modes on the outside of the anal opening. Doctors recommending surgery. I am working and mother of two. In case of surgery which are the best options in Mumbai and the best places o get it done. Also, what is the recovery time of these surgeries and approximate cost of the procedure.
Hello, I'm suffering from penis pain as when I'm releasing urine during that time I'm feeling pain inside it. What should I do?
An overactive bladder is marked by problems with one’s bladder storage system that results in sudden urge to urinate. Involuntary and leakage of urine is also a possibility in such a case.
The problem of an overactive bladder arises when the muscles of the bladder contract involuntarily. The conditions contributing to overactive bladder are:
- Excessive production of urine due to diabetes, poor kidney function or excessive fluid intake
- Medications that increase urine production by the bladder
- Acute infections in the urinary tract
- Abnormalities in the bladder, for instance, bladder stones or tumors
- Factors hindering bladder outflow such as constipation, enlarged prostate or earlier treatments for incontinence (loss of bladder control)
- Excessive intake of alcohol or caffeine
- Decline in one’s cognitive abilities due to factors such as ageing, thus making it hard for the bladder to comprehend the signals it gets from the brain
- Incomplete emptying of the bladder, leaving only a little storage space for the urine
- Neurological disorders
How it can be treated?
- Behavioral interventions help to manage overactive bladder effectively and without side-effects. They include-
- Exercises to strengthen one’s urinary sphincter and pelvic floor muscles
- Maintaining a healthy weight
- Regulating fluid consumption
- Planning a schedule for trips to the toilet
- Employing a catheter to empty the bladder entirely
- Medications to alleviate the symptoms of incontinence and overactive bladder are-
- Oxybutynin gel
- Oxybutynin as a skin patch
- Injecting small doses of Botox (Botulinum toxin), protein-bacteria, directly into the bladder tissues to partially paralyze the bladder muscles, thus delaying urination.
- Surgery to magnify bladder capacity
However, it is a must that you seek the guidance of a urologist on immediate basis. If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult an urologist.