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A stroke, also called cerebrovascular accident (CVA), cerebrovascular insult(CVI), or brain attack, occurs when a part of the brain is deprived of blood flow. When the brain cells are deprived of oxygen they begin to die. When brain cells die, the functions controlled by that part of the brain also stops, which results in different types of disabilities among stroke survivors.
Are you experiencing problems with your periods because of hormonal imbalance? This condition, known as PCOD and PCOS, or polycystic ovary syndrome, may make it difficult for you to get pregnant, and unwanted changes in your appearance are also indicated. In most cases, women with PCOD develop small cysts in their ovaries.
You're said to suffer from the problem of acute kidney failure if your kidneys suddenly stop working and lose their ability to eliminate waste materials including excess fluids and salts from the blood. The condition usually develops quickly over a few days or even a few hours. When this happens, waste materials accumulate in your blood, disrupting the chemical balance of your bloodstream.
So, what causes this problem?
Acute kidney failure can occur because of any one of these reasons:
1. A drop or slowdown of blood flow to the kidneys - Adequate blood circulation to the kidneys is of great importance as without it the kidneys may end malfunctioning. If blood flow to the kidney is hampered, a part of or the entire kidney may die. You may suffer from acute kidney failure if blood flow to the kidneys gets impaired due to conditions like
- Heavy blood loss
- Sepsis (body's inflammatory reaction to an infection, which can bring about organ failure, tissue damage, and death)
- Use of certain drugs
- Heart disease
2. Urinary obstructions - A sudden blockage that hampers your kidney's ability to eliminate urine can also bring about acute kidney failure. When this happens, it leads to a build up of toxins in the body, causing an overload of the kidneys. Conditions that bring about this urinary obstruction include:
3. Disease within the kidneys - Even instances of clotting within the blood vessels of the kidneys can lead to acute kidney failure. This is because if the movement of blood cells within the blood vessels gets hampered, kidneys are not able to filter out toxins from the body. The conditions and diseases that may cause clotting, and subsequently damage to the kidneys include:
- Scleroderma (an autoimmune disease that affects connective tissues and skin)
- Build-up of cholesterol deposits
- Glomerulonephritis (an inflammatory condition of the kidney's ball-shaped structures called glomeruli)
- Hemolytic uremic syndrome (a condition that occurs due to untimely death of red blood cells)
- Lupus (a disorder of the body's immune system that brings about damage to the body's own organs and tissues)
What is Chronic Kidney Disease?
Chronic Kidney Disease (also known as Chronic Renal Failure) is the progressive loss of kidney function occurring over a span of several months to several years and is characterised by the replacement of kidney architecture with interstitial fibrosis.
Chronic kidney disease is classified into five stages on the basis or proteinuria (presence of protein in large amounts in the urine) or Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) - 1 being the mildest with no distinct symptoms and 5 being end stage renal failure.
Causes and Risk Factors of Chronic Kidney Disease-
The various reasons (called risk factors) that can increase chances of Chronic Kidney Diseases are:
- Diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia (excess fat proteins in the blood)
Family history heritable renal disease
Older age, smoking
Past episodes of acute renal disease
The direct causes of Chronic Kidney Diseases are-
Diabetic nephropathy (leading cause)
Glomerulonephritis (swelling of the glomerulus in the kidneys)
Reno-vascular disease (ischemic nephropathy)
Transplant allograft failure
Exposure to drugs and toxins
Diet that you must maintain in Chronic Kidney Disease-
It is essential to make dietary as well as lifestyle amends once you are diagnosed with CKD. The main purpose of this diet is to maintain the levels of carbohydrates, fluids and minerals. This is done to prevent the buildup of waste products in the body as the kidneys are unable to fulfil its function properly.
It is recommended to refer a dietician who can make you a diet chart that helps you adhere to your diet.
Carbohydrates : Carbohydrates are a good source of energy. If the intake of protein has been restricted, then it is recommended to replace that with carbohydrates as a source of energy. Fruits, vegetables, grains and bread can be consumed as they are rich source of fibres, minerals and various types of vitamins. You can indulge in some hard candies or sweets as well.
Fats: Fats can provide a good amount of calories as well. Ensure that you only stick to healthy fats such as the monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats that are good for your cardiac health.
Reduce your phosphorus intake: A diet with no more than 800 mg of phosphorus can help reduce the risk of too much phosphorus building up in your blood. Limit intake of foods with high levels of phosphate or phosphate additives such as organ meats, whole grain breads, processed foods, cola beverages, cheese, dried beans, liver, peanut butter, dairy products and chocolate. Many beverages and processed foods have these additives. Other high-phosphorus foods to limit include:
- Ice cream
- Monitor your potassium levels: Usually, potassium is not restricted in stage 3 CKD unless lab tests show potassium is too high. Your doctor may make medication changes or prescribe a low-potassium diet. Reduce an elevated potassium level by limiting some high-potassium foods and potassium chloride (found in salt substitute and many low-sodium processed foods), such as avocado, bananas, cantaloupe, honeydew, legumes, milk, nuts, potatoes, seeds, tomato products and yogurt. Some high-potassium foods to limit or avoid include:??
- Cantaloupe and honeydew melon
- Dried fruit
- Nuts and seeds
- Oranges and orange juice
- Pumpkin and winter squash
- Tomato products (juices, sauces, paste)
- Proteins: Usually, before undergoing dialysis, it is recommended to adhere to a low-protein intake diet. However when you are undergoing dialysis, it is necessary to consume a certain amount of protein. This detailed information can be obtained from your dietician.
Fluids: In the early stages of CKD, your fluid intake is not monitored. But as the disease progresses, you need to check your intake of fluids as too much fluids may accumulate in your body and create pressure on your kidneys.
- Sodium Or Salt Intake: Keeping a check on your salt intake reduces the risks of high blood pressure. Also, having food low on salt can reduce your thirst and prevent fluid retention in your body.
The way we sit, walk, bend or stand is hugely dependent on one very vital organ of the human body; the spine. The spinal column provides strength and support to your entire framework. It has nerves, muscles, bones and tendons; all of which enhance proper functioning of your body. The human brain sends signals to the nerves in your spinal cord- a mass of nerve fibers and tissues ensconced within the spine- that further prompts every single part of your body to perform minute and notable actions all the same. A spine injury can thus impair your health; in many cases it can even turn out as fatal. Care should be taken to avoid sources of spine shock or injury. If an injury has already been acquired, it should be treated either through exercising or through medical assistance.
A few postures to reap the benefits of a fit spine:-
1. Twist your spine either early in the morning or after a tiring day
Fold one leg while the other leg remains perched on the folded one. If the left leg is folded the left elbow should be rested on your perched right knee and the right palm should be placed on the yoga mat behind your right hip. This posture can be repeated by folding the right leg as well. It increases spine mobility by twisting it to the end of its range sideways. Muscular spine aches can be remedied by following this posture once each day.
2. Do not slouch but sit straight
Some people are in the habit of slouching when they sit or stand. This is an absolutely wrong thing to do if your spine health is of any concern to you. Stretch out your shoulder blades and remain erect while standing and the same should be followed while sitting. Bending one's spine, unless it is necessary, can be very harmful.
3. Stretch your spine in three directions
This exercise is a good way to allay the tension your spine has to undergo every day. Sit with folded legs, intertwine your fingers and stretch your arms upward, in front and at the back to expand your spine to the full.
4. The downward doggy posture can relieve back pain
In this yoga posture, one is expected to stretch his or her legs according to the width of the person's back and stoop forward by placing the palms on a yoga mat. Knees and elbows should not bend.
Sinusitis is an irritation or swelling of the tissue covering the sinuses. Healthy sinuses are loaded with air. But there are times when they get blocked and loaded with fluid. In such cases, germs can develop and cause an infection. Due to this infection, your nose gets heavily blocked along with you sinuses and might make it difficult for you to breathe.
Conditions that can bring about sinus blockage include the following:
Allergic rhinitis (swelling of the lining around the nose)
Little developments or growths in the covering of the nose called nasal polyps
A deviated septum (a shift in the nasal cavity)
Salt Water Rinse: In case you suffer from sinus infections often, invest in a neti pot. This helpful container makes it simple to hydrate your nasal tract, getting out undesirable bodily fluids and any contaminants you may have breathed, an which may have been caught in the nasal cavity.
Turmeric/Ginger Root: Turmeric root is an excellent fragrant spice found in most Indian and Middle Eastern dishes. Turmeric not only contains the regular calming and anti-inflammatory curcumin, it is also an antioxidant. When it is mixed with hot ginger ale and blended with hot tea, this mixture can remove excess fluid from the clogged nasal sections, ease sinus pressure and make you feel better.
Spicy Food: Spicy ingredients such as mustard, hot peppers, curry, horseradish, and masala in one’s food may help in clearing sinuses. In case you like spices, think about including some hot flavours to your food to open your nasal entries.
Apply Warm Packs: You can use a warm pack to keep the nasal tissues damp. Also, fill a round bowl or pot with steaming water and place your face over it with a towel around your head to inhale the steam in. This will open up your sinuses and make an easy path for fluid drainage.
Take a Steam: High temperature water vapour can saturate the sinuses. Sprinkle a couple drops of eucalyptus or menthol in the shower or bath and steam up your bathroom. A hot shower can also relax the bodily fluid as well as the mucus and debris that are stuck inside your nose.
- Apple Cider Vinegar: Apple cider vinegar is not only powerful in disposing off sinus issues; it can also be used for different skin and hair issues. What it does essentially for sinus infection is that it clears up the nose so that the bodily fluid can be removed quickly.
Human bones are continuously being removed and formed, which is necessary for its proper maintenance. However, in certain cases, especially with aging, some bones and joints will be worn down to an extent where the body will not be able to reform them. This is especially true in the case of hips, which may become worn due to age or other problems within the body.
Hip replacement surgery:
When this happens, a hip replacement surgery can be performed to replace the original joints with a prosthesis or artificial hip, which is usually made out of metal or a specially formed composite material or even a combination of the two. Along with other parts, it replaces the natural hip with an artificial hip to restore mobility and other related functions.
Benefits of hip replacement surgery:
- Lessening hip pain: This is one of the major factors as well as symptoms of requiring hip replacement surgery. Due to the grinding down of the bones, even the slightest movement causes pain and after the surgery and the recovery period, the pain is lessened.
- Correction of bone deformity: When the bones grind down and are abnormally reformed, deformities may occur reducing mobility. Artificial hips will ensure that deformities are corrected and resulting problems are thus eliminated.
- Return to normal activities: This is possibly one of the primary advantages of this surgery, although it entails a long recovery period. However, most patients can get back to their normal activities and are able to resume a pain free life.
- Ability to have painless sleep: Many people who suffer from hip displacements or bone deformities are not able to sleep properly due to pain. After the surgery and the recovery period, they can return to normal functions and habits, thus are able to sleep properly.
- Leg strength increase: Many patients tend to have an increase in their leg strength as one side of the hip tends to become very weak due to bone problems before surgery. After surgery and recovery, the same side tends to have an increased strength due to the implant.
- In most cases a lifelong solution to hip problems: As the hip replacement prosthesis is made out of metal and if the operation is successful, it usually tends to last till the end of a person's life and this area usually doesn't tend to have problems again.
You might be an elite athlete or just a commoner. There is always a possibility for you to develop back pain while carrying out your daily activities. You might not be aware, but regular activities—like sitting at the computer, running on the treadmill or simply crawling into your bed for a good night's sleep—can affect the health of your spine. You are always at the risk of damaging your spine. These damages lead to back pain. It has been found that faulty postures can cause back pain by causing straining of the back muscles, injuring the tendons and damaging the vertebrae or ligaments. Back pain can be caused due to the overuse of a particular activity or for undertaking a new activity. Besides all these possibilities, most people put the blame on their discs for back pain.
The human spine is composed of 24 bony vertebrae. These are placed one on top of the other. There is a thin intervertebral disc between each vertebrae. These discs look like jam doughnuts. They are made up of a hard outer shell known as the annulus fibrosis. They have a soft, jelly-like inner core known as the nucleus pulposus. They are shock absorbers.
What Happens To The Discs When An Injury Occurs?
The jelly-like softcore in the discs can often get shifted as a result of the accident or injury. Thus, the discs become a reason behind back pain. The pain could be due to the problems with the disc while carrying out tasks like —
Symptoms Of Disc-Related Pain:
Symptoms tend to vary due to the nature of the injury and the damage caused. However, some common symptoms have been listed below:
Localised back pain
Pain in thighs, lower legs and feet
Numbness or muscular weakness
It is best to consult a doctor to know about the treatment needed for back pain related to disc. Initial treatment after detection of the problem includes the following ways:
Intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and pain medication.
Application of heat and ice packs.
Home exercise program as suggested by the doctor.
Practicing of core and lumbar strengthening exercises.
One must stop movements that aggravate the pain and don’t take difficult physical activities. You must take adequate rest to set things right.
Do You Need Any Surgery?
It is not always needed for all disc related problems. Most issues with the disc vanish after a week. Surgery is sought only after nonsurgical treatments prove useless. The decision must be taken by a doctor.
Aortic valve stenosis is a heart condition in which the valve to the biggest artery- the one which provides oxygen-rich blood to our body, called aorta, is narrowed. This prevents the valve from opening fully, obstructing the blood flow from your heart into your body.
When the aortic valve doesn’t open, your heart needs to work harder to pump blood to your body making the heart muscle weak. If left undiagnosed aortic stenosis is fatal.
These symptoms should spur you on to seek medical care right away:
Chest pain or tightness
Feeling faint with exertion
Fatigue after increased activity
Heart palpitations — rapid, fluttering heartbeat
The disorder doesn’t produce symptoms right away and is usually diagnosed during routine physical exams when your doctor listens to your heart with a stethoscope. He usually hears a heart murmur resulting from turbulent blood flow through the narrowed aortic valve.
There are other ways to diagnose aortic valve stenosis and gauge the severity of the problem, like:
Echocardiogram – This produces an image of your heart using sound. It is the primary test to diagnose a heart valve problem. Sound waves are directed at your heart here and these bounce off your heart and are processed electronically to provide images of your heart. This test helps your doctor check diagnose aortic valve stenosis and its severity plus chalk out a treatment plan.
Electrocardiogram (ECG) – In this test, patches with electrodes are attached to your chest to measure electrical impulses given out by your heart. These are then recorded as waves on a monitor and printed on paper. Though this can’t diagnose aortic stenosis directly, it can tell you that the left ventricle in your heart is thickened which normally happens due to aortic stenosis.
Chest X-ray – This allows the doctor to see the shape and size of your heart directly. If the left ventricle is thickened, it points to aortic stenosis. It also helps doctor check the lungs. Aortic stenosis leads to fluid and blood in the lungs, causing congestion.
Exercise Tests – Exercise is used to increase your heart rate and make your heart work harder. This test is done to see how your heart reacts to exertion.
Computerised Tomography (CT) Scan – This means a series of X-rays to create images of your heart and observes the heart valves. It is also used to measure the size of aorta and the aortic valve.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) – This uses powerful magnets and radio waves to create images of your heart and valves.
Once aortic valve stenosis is confirmed, you may have to go in for monitoring or heart valve surgery according to your doctor’s advice.