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Treatment of Child and Adolescent Problems
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My son is 18 months old and he has frequent urination problem. 1) cultural urine test done, and no bacteria found 2) does not drink much water but urinate more in quantity.
Breast reduction, or reduction mammoplasty, is for a woman experiencing health problems and/or extreme self-consciousness associated with very large, heavy breasts. The main complains are backache, neck pain and skin rashes or itching along with difficulty in carrying large breasts. The goal is to give the woman a more attractive contour with smaller, better-shaped breasts in proportion with the rest of her body. She will then benefit from freedom of health problems associated with large breasts and an improved self-image.
Medical problems associated with very large breasts include back and neck pain caused by the excessive weight, skin irritation, skeletal deformities and breathing problems. Bra straps may leave shoulder indentations. Large, heavy breasts also contribute to poor posture, and can interfere with normal daily activities such as exercise. Excessive breast size may also lead to a decreased sense of attractiveness and self-confidence.
Breast reduction is done under general anesthesia on an outpatient basis or in the hospital. The surgery removes fat, glandular tissue, and skin from the breasts, making them smaller, lighter, and firmer. It can also reduce the size of the areola, the darker skin surrounding the nipple.
Incisions are made around the pigmented nipple-areolar complex and extend vertically below the nipple and in the fold under the breast. The nipple-areolar complex is moved upward to the desired location. The incisions are covered with a light dressing.
Afterward, the breasts are placed in a surgical bra that will hold them symmetrically during initial healing. Initial discomfort subsides daily and can be controlled with oral medications. Scars will fade in 6-18 months. Surgery will likely reduce, but not eliminate the ability to breast-feed.
RECOVERY: WHAT TO EXPECT
When performed by a qualified plastic surgeon, breast reduction is a safe procedure. Nevertheless, as with any surgery, there is always a possibility of complications, including bleeding, infection, or reaction to the anesthesia. Some patients develop small sores around their nipples after surgery; these can be treated with antibiotic creams. You can reduce your risks by closely following your physician’s advice both before and after surgery.
Much of the swelling and bruising disappears in the first few weeks following the surgery. Breasts may appear slightly mismatched, or have unevenly positioned nipples. Their new shape will be apparent within 6 months to a year, and will depend on hormonal fluctuations, weight changes and pregnancy.
Although your surgeon will make your scars as inconspicuous as possible, some permanent scarring is inevitable. Smokers are more likely to experience poor healing and wider scars. The scars will be red and lumpy in the months following the surgery, but the redness will fade and in time the scars will be less obvious.
ABILITY TO BREASTFEED
Because the surgery removes many of the milk ducts leading to the nipples, breast-feeding may no longer be an option.
Some patients may experience a permanent loss of feeling in their nipples or breasts. Rarely, the nipple and areola may lose their blood supply and the tissue will die. (The nipple and areola can usually be rebuilt, however, using skin grafts from elsewhere on the body.)
THE END RESULT
Breast reduction produces the most dramatic results of all plastic surgeries. It ends the physical discomfort or large breasts and makes your body appear more evenly proportioned, and clothes fit better. Your new image will take some getting used to, as much as you desired the change. Give yourself—and your family and friends—time to adjust to the new you and, like most women, you will enjoy the benefits.
My son is 6 years old nowadays he is not eating anything specially home cook food. I am quite worried about him nd his health.
My Daughter suffering from abeniotic band syndrome. What is abeniotic band syndrome? What is causes of this syndrome? How can we protect our children from this syndrome?
Can you please help me out for feeding pattern for my son who is now 15 month old. What should be best for feeding to make him healthy or what should be avoided?
If rota virus and pcv vaccination of 1.5 month was missed on due date than how many days we can have this.
Diet plan for DM and HTN
Food should be distributed into small frequent feeds. The days requirement should be well distributed between the different meals. Skipping a meal or fasting is not really advisable.
As far as possible, the patient should maintain ideal body weight. Considering the height, weight, activity, age and sex of the individual the days calorie requirement can be calculated. Of the total calories 55-65% should come from cho's 15-20% from protein and the remaining 15-20% from fats.
General instructions to be followed:
Different cereals contain almost the same amount of cho and so the quantity of cereal consumed should be noted rather than the type consumed.
Whole grain cereals are better, preferred for their fibre content and satiety value.
Rice gruel if consumed, should be done so by discarding the rice water, and adding hot water.
When consuming wheat porridge, it is better to have it with pulses than using coconut milk in it.
Include whole pulses in the diet, soya products help to reduce cholesterol. Sprouted pulses are more nutrious.
Fish can be included in the diet, in the curry form. Fried fish is the best avoided. Shell fishes like prawns, lobsters etc should be avoided.
Poultry (without skin) can be used occasionally. Beef, pork, mutton, liver etc should be avoided by cardiac patients. Trim off excess fat (if any) before cooking.
Egg yolk has to be avoided by individuals with hyperlipidemia.
Milk and its products need not to be used more than 400 ml/ day. Use skimmed milk whenever possible, otherwise cream has to be removed before consumption.
Root vegetable like tapioca, yam, potato, colocasia etc are better avoided and if used, should be in moderation instead of cereals.
Include more vegetables (esp. Raw salads and green leafy vegetables) in your diet, as it is rich in fibre which in turn helps to reduce blood sugar and cholesterol levels. Raw salads with sprouted pulses enhances the nutrient composition.
Fruits are restricted for diabetics and preferably should be consumed as such than having it in the form of juice. Select low calorie fruits from exchange list.
Cardiac and hypertensive patients can take 3-4 servings of fruits. Whenever possible consume fruits with edible skins eg. Apple. Guava etc.
Use of coconut and its products must be minimized.
Cardiac patients need not restrict the intake of tender coconut water, whereas diabetes can only use it occasionally.
It is better to avoid nuts like badam, peanuts, cashew nuts etc. But occasionally can be used in restricted amounts instead of some other food items so that the calories remain unchanged.
Sugar and sweet should be avoided by diabetic patients. Low calorie sweeteners can be used in moderation as substitutes for sugar, honey, sweets etc. Cardiac and hypertensive patients should minimize their intake of sugar and sweets.
Garlic, curry leaves, fenugreek seeds cluster beans, oatbran etc have blood sugar and cholesterol loosing efforts. Ginger, foods in rich with vit- e and b carotene reduces the risk of cardiac diseases.
Alcohol intake injurious to health, 1 ml of alcohol contains 7 calories. Alcohol can cause hypoglyemia and can increase triglycerides which can be harmful for the heart.
Cooking oil used should be minimized and may be restricted to 10-15 ml/day. (2-3 tsp). Use cooking methods that require little or no fat. Hidden fat in bakery products and snacks should also be taken into account.
Preferably use a combination of cooking oils like sesame. Ground nut, sunflower, rice bran, corn oil etc. Use of coconut and palm oil should be maintained at minimum levels.
Dinner should be enjoyed two hours before retiring. At bed time either diluted milk of fruit can be consumed.
Include foods from all the different food groups and thus consume a balanced diet.
Regular exercise is most useful but physical strain after a meal should be avoided.
Free foods (can be included liberally)
Thin buttermilk, unsweetened lime juice, jeera water, fenugreek water, raw vegetable salads made of low calorie vegetables, plain clear soups etc.
Foods to be used in moderation.
Cereals, pulses, dhals, egg white, fish, chicken (skinned) milk and milk products, fruits, coconut, oil etc.
Foods to be avoided by diabetics.
Sugar, honey, jaggery, glucose and sweets of all varieties like cake, pastries, jams, jelly, sweetened drinks etc.
Roots and tubers like potato, tapioca, yam etc
Butter, ghee, dalda and fried preparations.
Horlicks, bournvita, boost etc
Fruits like jackfruit, banana, mango, sapota etc.
Dry fruits and nuts
Barley water, rice water etc.
Cholesterol rich foods (to be avoided by cardiac patients)
Whole milk and milk products
Shellfishes like prawn, crab, lobster etc.
Organ meats like kidney, liver, brain etc.
Chicken, duck with skin.
Sweet like pastries, ice creams etc.
Butter, ghee, dalda, coconut oil, palmoil
Fried foods like vada, chips, pappads, samosa etc.
Alcoholic drinks, creams soups etc.
Fiber rich foods
Whole wheat, parboiled, sago, oats etc.
Fenugreek and sesame foods
Vegetables and fruits (with skin)
Fresh coconut etc.
Sodium rich foods (to be avoided by hypertensive patients)
Salt (avoid extra salt in food and table)
Baking powder, baking soda, ajinomoto etc
Bakery products like biscuits, cakes, pastries, chocolates, bread, bun etc.
Salted chips, nuts, popcorn etc
Pappads, pickles, dried fish etc
Canned and salt preserved foods
Sauces, soup cubes
Sausages, lobsters, meat and yeast extracts
Readymade foods like cornflakes, noodles, fast foods etc.
Proprietary drinks eg. Horlicks, complan, bournvita etc