Ante-natal check & Counseling
High Risk Pregnancy Management
Painless Delivery (with anesthesia)
Well Woman Checkup (Below 30 years and Above 30 years)
DUB – Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding
Carcinoma - Cervical Cancer
Tests & Treatments
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
New Born Screening
Level 3 NICU
Liposuction and Liposculpting
A STD or sexually transmitted disease is usually an infection which spreads from one person to another during sexual contact. Some STDs can also be transferred through touch, since they spread by skin contact. People hardly like to talk or discuss about STDs, but it is very important to rule out the possibilities of STD. Whether one likes it or not, if STD testing is ignored, then it can lead to long term consequences.
Why STD Testing is Important?
Often STDs have no signs and symptoms, and the only way to know that are you suffering from a STD is to get tested for it. So it is a good idea to get yourself tested, as you never know if you might have a STD even though you don't show symptoms. Also, when STDs are diagnosed, most of them can be cured.
Consequences of Not Getting Tested
If one has STD and is not getting tested for the same, then it could lead to health problems which can cause permanent damages or might prove to be fatal. Some of the problems are:
- Undiagnosed and untreated STDs can lead to damaged reproductive system leading to sterile men and women.
- Chlamydia, if untreated can lead to epididymitis and shrinkage of testicles and infertility in men. It also leads to pelvic inflammatory disease. But good news is, it can be treated easily.
- Syphillis can make a person blind and deaf, and can also be passed on to babies.
- Gonorrhea which can also be treated easily with antibiotics, can lead to infertility or death if untreated.
- Even HIV/AIDS if diagnosed in early stages, can enable the patient to lead a normal life and does not mean only death, contrary to conventional perceptions.
Symptoms of STD
While, gonorrhea, chlamydia and human papilloma virus (HPV) have no symptoms, the common symptoms of STDs might vary.
- In women, the common symptoms are pain and burning sensation during urination, bloody and abnormal vaginal discharge, abdominal pain, blisters, warts, and swollen glands.
- Men often experience inflammation of the testicles, prostate, sores, fever, urethral discharge and pain during urination.
If these symptoms are observed, it is vital to get tested for STDs. Also the best way to protect your partner is not to practice unsafe sex and to refrain from the same until diagnosed and treatment is complete. Getting yourself tested for STD is also beneficial, as it can prevent against complications like cancers and infertility.
The standard STD panel of tests consists of Herpes IgG antibody and HIV antibody blood tests, along with a blood test for syphilis antibody and DNA urine test for gonorrhea and Chlamydia. For more information, make an appointment with us. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
Medical science constantly challenges the boundaries by finding not only the cures to the most dangerous diseases, but finds a way to prevent them even before they occur. With years of research, practice and data available for analysis, scientists are using advanced technology in combination with years of research to create a predicting mechanism for often fatal diseases like cancer.
Breast cancer screening has always been done with mammography. The fact is that this method is only 75% accurate, laden with false positives and misses a whole set of women totally- and that too when cancer has already developed. Part of the problem comes from the dense breast tissue which one in three women have. This tissue masks the lumps, which makes it difficult for mammograms to accurately screen cancer.
Some breakthrough scientific methods are changing this by drawing on years of research to predict this deadly disease, years before it can manifest itself.
A genetic test to predict cancer 10-11 years ahead of time
This test was performed to see how environmental factors could influence cancer, along with habits like smoking, abusing alcohol or hormones, genetic changes that occur and are put a large percentage of the women at a high risk of developing this disease.
A simple blood test is used for the genetic analysis of hereditary cancer. Researchers found a biological marker, methylation of the ATM gene, which has a very high ability to predict the risk of developing cancer, several years before diagnosis. 'Methylation' concluded that when one biological indicator is exposed to carcinogenic substances, or other abusive substances like tobacco and alcohol, it may trigger the development of cancer. On the flip side, this test will take time to reach the commercial market and even then cannot give an exact timeline as to when someone may develop the disease.
A simple blood test to predict breast cancer 5 years before it develops
This is the kind of medical miracle the world is looking for. Last year in April, researches in Denmark identified a simple blood test that can predict breast cancer five years before it actually develops with an accuracy of a whopping 80%.
It works by "measuring all of the compounds in the blood to build a 'metabolic profile' of an individual, in order to detect changes in the way chemicals are processed, during a pre-cancerous stage," says Laura Donnelly, health editor at The Telegraph, which covered this development. Danish researchers observed 57,000 participants over 20 years, gathering blood samples along the way, specifically comparing a set of 800 women who remained healthy or developed breast cancer within 7 years of their first blood sample. The researchers found they were able to predict, with 80 percent accuracy, which patients would be affected by the disease, just by looking at the metabolic profiles they built from the participants' blood samples. The results have been published in Metabolomics. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
Most women attain menopause between the ages of late 40s and early 60s, the average age being about 51. This is an important milestone in a women-s gynecological history. One major change is altered female hormone levels, and this leads to a lot of physiological changes. From hot flashes to mood swings, there is also increased predisposition to osteoporosis and uterine cancer.
If you have not had your menstrual cycles for close to 12 months, chances are you are into menopause. So, that means absolutely no vaginal bleeding anymore whatsoever. However, if you experience bleeding, even spotting, be on the alert. It is not normal and needs to be examined, and if required, diagnosed and treated.
Postmenopausal bleeding or PMB as it is popularly called can be due to a variety of reasons. While it could be something as trivial as inflammation of the uterine or vaginal lining, it could also be an indication of more severe issues like cancer.
- Atrophic vaginitis - Decreasing hormonal levels lead to increased dryness and therefore inflammation of the vaginal and uterine tissue. This is one of the common causes of bleeding after menopause.
- Endometrial atrophy - Also caused by lower hormone levels, the lining of the body of the uterus gradually thins down and can get inflamed.
- Polyps - Noncancerous growths in the uterus, cervix, vulva, or vagina can also lead to bleeding
- Infections - General infection of any area along the uterine tract could lead to occasional bleeding
- Cancer - Though only 1 in 10 PMB cases turn out to be cancers, the prognosis improves with early diagnosis and intervention.
Diagnosis: As repeated above, reach out to your doctor if you notice postmenopausal bleeding. Diagnostic methods could include the following:
- Physical Examination
- Transvaginal Ultrasound
- Endometrial Biopsy
- Dilatation and Curettage
Treatment: Needless to say, this would depend on the diagnosis.
For very minor cases with diagnosis like altered hormone levels, no treatment may be required other than modification of the hormone replacement therapy.
For endometrial atrophy and atrophic vaginitis, use of estrogen creams and pessaries would be sufficient.
Polyps would require removal followed by cauterization (application of slight heat) to stop the bleeding.
Cancer - this would depend on the type and location and require a combination of chemotherapy and surgery. Removal of the uterus also may be required in some cases.
So, if you have had bleeding of any sort after ayear of menopause, do not ignore it. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
Once the reality of the positive pregnancy test sets in, dreaming about the yet-to-arrive begins. Curiosity about gender, options for names, ways to manage, shopping ideas, etc., begin to get discussed. And then totally out of the blue the news comes that there is a miscarriage. This is one of the most depressing phases. It is very important for the family to be around and support each other. While the entire family is upset and hurt over the news, the mother needs most care as there is just not emotional but a huge physical component also to the episode. On the other hand, remember that miscarriages are extremely common, and is no indication of a fertility issue.
The first step would be to diagnose and confirm the miscarriage. After that, depending on whether it was complete or incomplete, some medical intervention might be required. In most cases, medications like misoprostol are given to expel the uterine contents. These help by clearing out the contents in about a couple of days' time. In some cases, a D and C might be required if your doctor suspects that medication will not suffice. This also helps identify if there is any issue in the uterus that could have caused the miscarriage.
While the above takes care of the physical part, the emotional component also requires cautious management. Needless to say, this is trickier than the earlier one.
- Mourn to your heart's content - When you have nursed a life within you and have lost it, it is very normal to cry for its loss. There would be a mix of emotions - shock, denial, confusion, anger, grief, depression, etc. Take some solace from that fact that this is nature's way of removing unhealthy fetuses.
- Get someone to talk to - Need not be your husband, but anybody whom you can talk to without having to watch words. A sibling, a good friend, a close relative - your choice. Make sure you don't pick ones who will judge and sympathize with you. More than sympathy, you need someone understanding and knowledgeable.
- Socialize more - As you would have kept to yourself post your positive test, use this time to socialize more and meet friends whom you have not regularly been in touch with. Close family members, your children (if you already have), society groups, movie groups, etc., help to a great extent.
- Formal medical counseling: If you are not able to cope with your regular circle of family and friends, try seeking professional advice from counseling.
- Spirituality - Whether you believe in temple or churches, spend some time there. Involve in some religious activity if you would like, this helps very often.
As much as it is painful and traumatic, it is not very uncommon or unnatural. Get back on your feet, the sooner you do, the better. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
The vagina is a muscular, tubular structure of the female genital tract extending from the vulva to the cervix (the opening of the urethra). Sexual activity affects vaginal health in a number of different ways during intercourse and in the long term. A few of the varying effects and the factors responsible for these effects are listed below:
1. Changing size of the vagina
The vagina is designed to be elastic and adjustable. So, no permanent change in size is possible but it does undergo temporary changes in sizes as effects of sex. The inner walls of the vagina enlarge during sexual intercourse and during childbirth.
Tissues in the clitoris puff out and harden- this also causes an expansion in size. It takes a while to get back to its normal size.
2. Vaginal Secretion
When you are aroused during sex, the blood vessels supplying the vagina expand immediately. The blood flow increases to lubricate the vaginal walls (rugae). The rugae unfold and the space increases. These secretions are important because, women who are sexually inactive for a long time at a stretch, experience dryness that leads to urinating difficulties and rashes.
3. Unusual Discharge
Apart from natural lubricants, the vagina secretes some fluids, the process being termed as 'female ejaculation'. A tiny amount of white fluid made of prostate plasma cells, is produced just before you climax and discharged with some quantity of urine. Sometimes, prostatic specific antigen (PSA) and prostatic acid phosphatase (usually found in semen) are also found in the secretion.
4. Infections in the Urinary Tract
The friction caused by sexual intercourse may cause small cuts which enable bacteria to pass from the vagina to the urinary bladder through the urethra. This causes infection in the bladder, the urinary tract and the vagina. These can be avoided by using a condom or by urinating before and after having sex.
5. Vaginal Pain
A lot of women report the experience of pain and discomfort inside or around the vagina during and immediately after sex. The pain can result from repeated sex within a short period of time or reduced secretion of natural lubricants. If the pain is too severe, you should see a doctor because yeast infections or chronic vulvodynia can also be responsible for the pain sensation. Consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
6 dietary dos and don'ts for pregnancy
Pregnancy is an important time in a woman's life. During this period, you need to be most conscious of what to eat, do and how to change everyday habits. Following these dos and don'ts will ensure a smooth pregnancy experience for you.
1. Take your prenatal vitamin
If you have not yet started taking a prenatal vitamin, now is the time to start. It's particularly critical to get enough folic acid while trying to conceive importantly during the first trimester. It greatly reduces your baby's risk of developing neural tube birth defects such as spina bifida.
2. If you smoke, quit
Smoking increases your risk of developing several problems including miscarriages, placental and preterm birth problems. It slows the fetal growth and increases the risk of stillbirth and infant death. It's never too late to quit or cut back smoking. Every cigarette you don't light gives your baby a much better chance of being healthy.
3. Do eat seafood
Seafood is loaded with vitamins and minerals. Consume a variety of seafood so you don't have a concentration of minerals from only one type of fish. But remember to not eat more than 12 ounces of fish per 7 days.
1. Don't drink alcohol
Alcohol may immensely impact your baby's development. Women who drink alcohol while pregnant could easily deliver a baby with fetal alcohol syndrome (fas). Symptoms of fas are usually low birth weight, learning disabilities, behavioral problems, and lagging patterns in terms of growth and development milestones. Limiting or avoiding alcohol is a step that you need to take.
2. Don't eat raw meat at all
Raw and undercooked meat or eggs carries the risk of food-borne diseases as well as food poisoning incidence. Make sure all eggs and meat that you eat while you are pregnant are cooked well.
3. Don't drink lot of caffeine
Caffeine easily travels through the placenta and increases your baby's heart beats. Research shows that women can safely consume a cup or two of coffee every day, but avoid downing a triple shot strong latte while you have got a bun in the oven. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
A mastectomy is surgical removal of a breast. The surgery depends on various factors and choosing a type of mastectomy best suited for an individual suffering from breast cancer requires experience and expertise. With advancing technology, there are more options available for women to opt for surgeries, which are minimally invasive and conserving in nature. Following are the various types of mastectomies and the factors, which influence them:
Types of Mastectomies
1. Total or simple mastectomy
This is a surgical procedure which involves complete removal of the breast including the nipple. The lymph nodes, which are small glands, are an important part of your immune system and are kept intact during the surgery. This form of surgery is most suitable if the cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes.
2. Preventive mastectomy
Preventive mastectomy, also known as prophylactic mastectomy, is an option for women who have a high risk of developing breast cancer. Preventive mastectomy reduces the risk of breast cancer by a huge margin. In certain cases, removal of the entire breast along with the nipple is advisable. Women who develop cancer on one breast often opt for preventive mastectomy and remove the other unaffected breast as well.
3. Partial mastectomy
Women who are in stage I or stage ii of breast cancer can choose this procedure. It is a breast conserving technique where the tumor is removed along with the tissue that surrounds it. It is followed up by radiation therapy on the remaining breast tissue, which terminates the cancer cells and stops them from spreading. There are two types of partial mastectomy, namely, lumpectomy and quadrantectomy.
4. Radical mastectomy
Although this procedure is almost out of use, it is still considered in case the cancer has spread to certain areas like the chest muscle. In this form of surgery, the breast is removed entirety along with muscles beneath it and the lymph nodes.
5. Modified mastectomy
It is a more commonly used procedure characterized by complete removal of the breast including underarm lymph nodes. The chest muscles are untouched in the procedure, therefore allowing a breast reconstruction to follow.
Factors influencing the type of mastectomy:
• Age of the individual
• Health in general
• Size of the tumor
• The spread of the tumor
• The rate of progression of the tumor
• Whether lymph nodes are affected or not. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SID) refers to the unexplained and sudden death of a seemingly hale and hearty baby. This condition tends to occur when the baby is asleep and that's why it's also known as crib death. Although the reason for the condition is still not known, many experts have attributed the cause of the condition to abnormal development in the parts of the baby's brain that oversees breathing and awakening from sleep. Nonetheless, there are ways that can prevent the problem from occurring and which are:
- Always place your baby on the back to sleep - Sleeping on the back is the safest position that your baby should be in, whenever he or she sleeps. You shouldn't let your child sleep on the sides as he or she can roll onto the stomach, and may hamper the breathing process. You can place your baby on the stomach when he or she is awake.
- Place your baby on a firm surface to sleep sans of any objects - It's best to place your baby on a firm mattress to sleep while avoiding thick and feather padding like a thick comforter. At the same time, objects like toys, stuffed animals or pillows should be removed from the crib as they may get in the way of your child's breathing by pressing on his or her face.
- Make sure your baby doesn't become very hot - For keeping your baby warm during sleep, it's best to opt for sleep clothing or blanket made of light material so that it doesn't make him or her feel very hot. If using a blanket, it should be placed loosely over the baby and one should also remember to not cover the baby's head during sleep.
- Use a pacifier - Research suggests that the use of the pacifier can reduce a baby's chance of dying from SIDS. This is because the pacifier helps in preventing the baby from rolling over onto his or her stomach during sleep. At the same time, it's also believed that the instrument helps in keeping the baby's tongue positioned in a manner that keeps his or her airways open.
- Breastfeed your baby - Breastfeeding your baby for a minimum of 6 months can help in preventing the occurrence of SIDS. Several studies have revealed this beneficial aspect of breastfeeding. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can ask a free question.
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) is a common infection in the female reproductive organs like the ovaries, the uterus and the fallopian tubes and also the inside of the pelvis. If left untreated for a long time, PID can lead to severe problems like pregnancy complications, infertility and cancer.
- Causes: Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) like chlamydia and gonorrhea produce vaginal bacteria which travel to the interior organs and cause PID. Having unprotected sexual contact with someone who has an STD is the most common cause of PID. Moreover, medical processes like abortion, miscarriage, childbirth, insertion of contraceptive devices can also lead to bacterial infection. Having sex with a number of people, or having sex before the age of 20, or having had an STD in the past, also increase the chances of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease.
- Symptoms: The disease may show only minor symptoms or it may not show any symptom at all. When it does, the common symptoms are pelvic pain, discomfort while urinating or having intercourse, difficulties with menstruation and unusual fluid discharge from the vagina.
- Associated symptoms: High fever, nausea, vomiting, indigestion, exhaustion, shivering and fainting.
- Diagnosis: A pelvic examination is conducted to check for abnormal bleeding from the cervix (the opening of the uterus), fluid discharge or severe pain in the uterus, fallopian tubes or in the ovaries. Swabs taken from the cervix and the vagina are tested for STDs or other possible bacterial infections that may cause PID. An ultrasound or a Computerized Tomography (CT) scan is conducted to make sure that the symptoms are not being caused by other disorders like appendicitis or other kinds of infection in the reproductive organs. A pregnancy test is also done to take the necessary precautions to protect the fetus from the adverse effects of the infection.
- Treatment: The treatment procedures of PID vary depending on the type of bacteria that caused the infection in the specific case. Antibiotic medication is used to treat the condition. In case of severe complications, the patient has to be hospitalized. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
Exercising during pregnancy is beneficial not only for the expectant mother but also for the growing fetus. The effects of exercise at this time can be seen immediately and last a lifetime. Unless a woman suffers from a medical condition, she should have at least 20-30 minutes of moderate exercise a day when pregnant. Here are a few ways you can benefit from exercising when pregnant.
- Energy Boosts- Carrying a growing fetus can take away a lot of your energy leaving you feeling tired and listless. Exercising strengthens your cardiovascular system and circulatory system this giving you more energy to get through the day. It also strengthens and tones your muscles so that the effort needed for any activity is reduced.
- Improves your Sleep- Though exercise gives you a boost of energy, it also tires the muscles, thus making it easier to fall asleep at the end of the day. This is important, especially in the later stages of pregnancy where finding a comfortable position to sleep in becomes difficult.
- Lower the Risk of Pregnancy-related Complications- Regular exercise when pregnant can help reduce the risk of suffering from complications like gestational diabetes and preeclampsia. Even if you are suffering from these complications, regular exercise can help manage the condition and treat it.
- Reduce Discomfort- During pregnancy, your muscles shift and skin stretches to accommodate the growing fetus. Regular exercise can help strengthen the muscles and reduce the aches and pains associated with pregnancy. While walking can improve circulation, swimming strengthens the abdominal muscles.
- Make Childbirth Easier- Childbirth is considered by many to be the most painful part of pregnancy. If you choose to have a natural delivery, it requires stamina, focus and determination. Exercise tones the muscles and build stamina thus making it easier to push the baby out. Exercise is also said to reduce the time taken for child birth.
- Fight Stress- Pregnancy plays with your hormones a lot can lead to mood swings and depression. Exercise boosts serotonin or happy hormone levels. This helps raise your spirits and fight stress.
- Get back into shape after childbirth- Pregnancy is characterized by weight gain that can be difficult to lose after child birth. However, if you exercise regularly when pregnant, this weight gain is restricted and the excess kilos are easier to lose. This is because your muscles have been toned throughout pregnancy and the weight gain is more muscle oriented than fat. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
With an upsurge in the number of women suffering from dysfunctional reproductive systems and a myriad of gynecological problems, resulting in irregular periods, infertility and several other complications, it is of paramount importance to keep a record of the dates and duration of your monthly cycles. This is not only useful for future reference when you visit a gynecologist, but it also helps you to understand if there are delays in period or excess of bleeding in any particular month.
Why is tracking your menstrual cycles important?
Keeping a track of the menstrual cycles is a mandatory exercise for women who are thinking about pregnancy or those trying to avoid it. It is advisable to abstain from intercourse for a few days before and after the period, which is the prime time for ovulation. Keeping track of your periods gives you a clear indicator of whether you have become pregnant because delay in the menstrual onset implies pregnancy. The reverse is also true; if you are trying to get pregnant, conception is usually fruitful on these days of maximum ovulation, which you can easily calculate based on your well maintained menstrual record.
How should you go about keeping track of your menstruation?
While it not possible to note down every possible aspect of the menstruation in a notebook, the easiest way of maintaining a planner is to mark the first day of each period on the calendar. The difference between two consecutive periods will give you your cycle lengths.
In addition you can choose to make a note of how heavy the bleeding is, or if there are changes in mood and appetite on those days. You will then be well prepared for your next visit to the gynecologist.
Pregnancy is definitely a new and beautiful phase in a woman’s life. During this time, the woman’s body goes through multiple changes during the nine months and post-delivery, extra care is needed for the body to get back to its pre-pregnancy state. The following are some tips to care for your post-partum body immediately after delivery and through the first six weeks after childbirth.
- Perineal soreness: The area between the vagina and the anus stretches a lot during labour and can be sore for quite a while. In some women, this area may even be cut to enable easy passing of the baby (episiotomy). This would be more painful and can be managed with topical creams, ice packs, Kegel exercises and warm baths.
- Uterine shrinkage: The uterus enlarges to accommodate the developing baby shrinks back to its original stage after delivery. This causes severe cramps, especially during the first six weeks and if required, pain medications can be taken for the cramps.
- Breast fullness: The breasts fill with milk after birth to enable feeding, and the woman feels engorged. This is relieved with feeding, but if the baby is not on mother’s milk, warm soaks on the breasts and a supportive bra can help. It will stop once the breasts stop making milk.
- Constipation: This is common post pregnancy, and so foods rich in fibre should be consumed. Lots of vegetables, fruits and whole grains should be included in the diet. If required, stool softeners can be used.
- Body swelling: In preparation for the delivery, the hands and feet swell due to fluid accumulation. This naturally subsides over the first week to 10 days. Lying on the left side and keeping the feet elevated can help.
- Urination problem: Experiencing a burning sensation or pain while urinating and inability to start or stop a stream of urine are common urination problems, especially immediately after childbirth, which will subside in a couple of weeks. Drinking lots of water, Kegel exercises and warm baths are helpful measures that can be undertaken.
- Fatigue: Taking care of the newborn can leave you drained. Get adjusted to the baby’s routine and try to sleep with your baby. Get friends and family to help you take care of your child so that you don’t feel the entire strain.
- Emotional health: Changes in the hormone levels again affects your emotional health, so try and stay positive. Post-partum depression is very common in women, as they feel overwhelmed with caring for the newborn.
It is important to realise that while pregnancy is an important phase, it is a natural process. The body will adapt to these short-lived changes and allow you to bond with your baby by staying close to your child, responding to its needs, spending time together, and taking care of your newborn. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
Infertility is a condition, which is characterized by the inability to have a baby for over a year in spite of having planned and unprotected sex. It is a pretty common phenomenon for both men and women. However, there are several treatments available for both the sexes to help them recover from this problem. Here are some of the most common treatments available for infertility:
- Changing your lifestyle: Certain factors in your lifestyle, which may cause you to be infertile include the medications you take, lack of exercise or not having intercourse frequently enough or not at the right time. The solution for these problems is simply incorporating certain changes in your daily life, such as exercising more, sticking to a healthy diet or having intercourse more often at the right time.
- Sperm retrieval: Sperm retrieval is the technique used when you cannot ejaculate or when there is hardly any sperm present in your semen. It is also used in case of a low sperm count.
- Intrauterine insemination: Intrauterine insemination is a process in which healthy sperm cells are put into the uterus so that the egg gets fertilized when it is released. The sperm cells have to be inserted at the time when your ovaries release eggs; therefore it is crucial to know your menstrual cycle as well as how fertility drugs are affecting it.
- Fertility drugs: Fertility drugs are used to stimulate ovulation. This is done by administering medications which either regulate or cause ovulation to occur. There are several types of fertility drugs, so you should talk to your doctor about which should be the best for you.
- Hysteroscopic surgery: This is a last resort, which is taken only when there are significant problems such as intrauterine scar tissue, uterine septum or endometrial polyps.
- IVF: IVF is an assisted reproductive technology. During IVF, the sperm is first retrieved, after which fertility medications are given to the woman so that the egg can be retrieved. Finally, the egg is fertilized on a laboratory dish and injected back into the mother or a surrogate mother. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
It's said that blocked fallopian tube is the most common cause of female infertility in about 40% women. Fallopian tubes are channels through which the egg travels to reach the uterus and blockage of these tubes can put a stop to this from taking place. Depending on the different parts of the tubes, this form of blockage is of several types.
What are the different types of fallopian tube blockages?
- Proximal tubal occlusion: This form of fallopian tube blockage involves the isthmus (an area of about 2 cm long, this part of the fallopian tube connects the infundibulum and ampulla to the uterus). This problem occurs due to complications associated with abortion, cesarean section or PID (pelvic inflammatory disease).
- Mid-segment tubal obstruction: It occurs in the ampullary section of the fallopian tube and is most frequently a result of tubal ligation damage. The procedure of tubal ligation is performed to put a stop to pregnancy permanently.
- Distal tubal occlusion: This is a kind of blockage wherein the section of the fallopian tube that is close to the ovary is affected and is commonly associated with a condition known as hydrosalpinx (a condition in which the fallopian tube is filled with fluid). The latter often happens due to Chlamydia infection, leading to fallopian tube and pelvic adhesions.
The conditions that may give rise to this problem can include:
- Genital tuberculosis (the TB infection that occurs in the genital tract)
- Ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy in which the embryo places itself outside the uterus)
- Tubal ligation removal
- Complications related to surgery of the lower abdomen
- Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
- Uterine fibroids (benign growths that occur in the uterus)
- Endometriosis (development of uterine tissue outside of the organ)
These disorders can lead to the development of scar tissue, adhesions, polyps or tumors to form inside the pathway. Additionally, the tubes can also get stuck to other body parts such as ovaries, bladder, uterus and bowels. Two things can happen to the fallopian tubes, either they can become twisted or the tubes walls may stick together, leading to a complete blockage. Moreover, even if the fallopian tubes are partially damaged, they can remain open so as to enable pregnancy to occur, while increasing your risk for ectopic pregnancy. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
The cervix is a part of the female reproductive system. It is the lower part of the woman's uterus, and it connects the vagina with the uterus. This is usually closed and tight, but ends up dilating during occasions like pregnancy and childbirth. The cervix is also known to soften eventually during the course of one's pregnancy and delivery. In case the cervix starts to open up too early, this condition is known as an insufficient cervix or an incompetent cervix. Here is everything you need to know about this condition.
Definition and symptoms: An incompetent or insufficient cervix is one that opens up too early and does not support a normal delivery. The symptoms that may point at this condition include pressure in the pelvic area, pain in the back, light bleeding from the vagina, mild cramps in the abdomen, and a change in the odour and hue of the vaginal discharge that may be experienced by the pregnant woman. Usually, such symptoms and changes are not seen in the early stages of one's pregnancy. Mostly, the symptoms are experienced after the fourth or fifth month of pregnancy, in the second trimester, when there is greater pressure on the area due to the growing fetus.
Risk factors: There are a number of factors that increase the risk of this condition, including congenital conditions like uterine anomalies and other genetic disorders. These disorders may affect the fibrous protein that produces the connective tissue of the body, which is also known as collagen. When there is a decrease in this kind of tissue, the cervix becomes incompetent or insufficient. Also, when there has been overexposure to synthetic estrogen, this kind of condition may be experienced. Further, cervical trauma is another factor that may cause this condition along with dilation and curettage, which is a procedure that corrects uterine conditions.
Treatment: The main form of treatment usually includes the prescription of progesterone supplements in the form of weekly administered injections. Also, serial ultrasounds every fortnight can help in monitoring the situation closely so that the doctor is able to ascertain whether or not you are going to be able to go through a normal delivery or not. Cervical cerclage is also a surgical procedure that can help such a condition. In this procedure, the cervix is stitched up with strong sutures, which will be removed in the last month of pregnancy, or just before the delivery. This is especially helpful if there have been cases of premature delivery in the past. This procedure is usually carried out within the first 14 weeks of the pregnancy to avoid loss of the fetus. If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.
Human beings can be shielded from many infectious diseases. One of the ways to do this is by getting the disease and then producing antibodies against it so that future attacks do not happen. The second way is to have the bacteria introduced into the system so that the antibodies are produced and the infection does not take place. The first method is called active immunisation and the second is known as passive immunisation, and both are effective against different organisms.
When a baby is born, passive immunisation is chosen to provide protection against a number of diseases. In fact, the doctor will give you a list of shots that the child should be given and when. Immunisation is necessary for the following reasons:
- To save a child's life: Dreadful diseases that were once life-threatening are now completely under control through immunisation. Give your child these shots and save his/her life. Polio for instance is one such example, with incidences of paralysis and death coming down to almost nil now. Measles and whooping cough are other examples.
- Travel increases exposure: While some diseases may not be prevalent in some countries, increased travel to affected regions puts the child at a risk of developing that disease. For instance, contracting measles in the Philippines is easily avoidable with the help of vaccines.
- Early protection: The recommended schedule of immunisation should be completed so that children are offered early protection when they are most vulnerable. Their immune system is yet to mature, and this puts them at a higher risk of infections. In addition to checking with the doctor, there are multiple online tools available to check which shot should be given and at what age. Ensure that your child’s immunisations are up to date. This will ensure that they don’t miss school on account of ill health and you don’t have to miss work to take care of them.
- Safe and effective: The approved lists of shots are tested extensively and are proven safe and efficacious for children. The only few side effects include minor discomfort while taking the injection and sometimes mild fever which is short-lived, but this is nothing compared to the deadly effects of the disease for which the shots are being given.
- Social responsibility: When you vaccinate your child, you extend that immunity to your family, friends, and rest of the community. This helps in controlling the spread of certain diseases, and if everybody does it religiously, a healthy community is formed.
So, go ahead and protect your child against various diseases so that he/she can lead a healthy, happy, disease free life. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
Everyone has a different idea of what a mother and baby needs in the first few days after childbirth, but some essentials cannot be skipped out on. With that in mind, here are 10 childcare essential you may need right after the delivery.
- Nursing pillows: A baby may be small and seem light, but carrying them can put a strain on your arms. Since babies need to be fed very often in their first few weeks, a nursing pillow is a handy thing to have around. This allows you to comfortably support your baby while feeding them.
- Breast pump: Though only a mother can produce breast milk, other people can feed this milk to the baby. A breast pump will allow you to express milk at a time convenient to you and store it in bottles to be fed to the baby as needed.
- Bottles and nipples: A set of bottles and nipples are must haves for every baby. In their first few weeks, these bottles may be used to store mother’s milk, but as the baby grows, these bottles can also be used to give the baby water.
- Pacifiers: A baby who wants to constantly suck on the mother’s nipples may be soothed with a pacifier. This can give the mother some time to rest.
- Diapers: For over a year, diapers are a must for every baby. Most mothers choose disposable diapers for their convenience though others may choose cotton wash clothes as well. For the first few weeks, a baby tends to go through 10-12 diapers a day so stock up well.
- Bedding: Whether you choose to share your bed with the infant or have him or her sleep in a crib, you will need at least two sets of crib sheets.
- Baby bath tub: In their first few days, a baby needs to only be sponged down, but as they grow, regular baths become a necessity. A baby sized bathtub will make it easier to hold the baby while keeping them safe.
- Sling: Carrying a baby in your arms all the time is not possible and hence it is a good idea to invest in a sling or front pack. This also keeps the baby close to your body and allows him or her to be soothed by your warmth and heartbeat.
- Stroller: Once a child is three months old, he or she can be made to sit upright in a stroller. This gives the mother a little free time and puts less pressure on her back.
- Car seat: A car seat if a must have for every baby. You could choose between rear facing car seats of convertible car seats. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
A mother’s milk is said to be the most nutritious food for a new born baby. It contains the perfect balance of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins and minerals needed for your baby and changes to keep up with your baby’s growing needs. However, the benefits of breastfeeding extend way beyond nutritional value. Breastfeeding is beneficial for both you and your baby. Ideally, a baby should be breastfed for at least the first six months.
Here are 5 major benefits of breastfeeding.
- Stronger immunity: Mother’s milk is rich in antibodies and a number of unique compounds that help the newborn child’s body fight bacterial and viral infections. No other form of baby food is as rich in these antibodies. Babies who have been breastfed have a lower risk of suffering from ailments such as ear infection, stomach upsets and respiratory problems. The first milk expressed by a woman’s breasts after giving birth is known as colostrums. This milk coats the baby’s digestive system and prevents the growth of harmful bacteria.
- Fewer allergies: Breast milk is easier to digest than formula or cow’s milk. This protects the gastrointestinal passages from inflammation and prevents undigested food from triggering allergic reactions. Being breastfed can also reduce the number of allergies a child may suffer from in their later years.
- Healthy body weight: Breastfeeding makes a child less likely to suffer from obesity in their later childhood and adult years. This is because breast milk contains less insulin and more hormones as compared to formula. This helps regulate fat absorption. On an average, babied fed on formula put on weight quickly and are more likely to overeat in their later years.
- Stronger bones: Breastfeeding is beneficial for both the child and the mother. When a woman is breastfeeding her child, her body’s ability to absorb calcium increases. This helps increase bone density, especially as pregnancy can make bones weak.
- Builds a strong mother-child bond: After 9 months of carrying a child to term, giving birth may lead to post partum depression and a mother may feel the connection between her and the child severed. Breastfeeding helps nurture this connection and provides emotional relief to both the mother and child. For the mother, this experience releases hormones that reduce stress and relax the body. For the baby, close physical contact is very important and this process provides the perfect opportunity to do so. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
PMS is often treated as a joke but for many women, it is a monthly nightmare. Muscle cramps, headaches, bloating, breast tenderness, anxiety and depression are common symptoms of PMS. Though there is no set cure for PMS here are a few tips that will help you deal with it.
Set yourself an exercise routine
Exercising not only helps you maintain weight but also helps dealing with PMS. All you need are 30 minutes a day set aside to go for a brisk walk, jog, swim or even dance. Aerobic exercises like this improve blood circulation, ease stress and help the brain release more happy hormones.
Change your diet
If you are feeling bloated and depressed, cut back on simple carbohydrates like sugar and fat and increase your consumption of complex carbohydrates like fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Do not attempt a low carb diet to lose weight if you suffer from PMS. Reducing the simple carbohydrates in the body and increasing the complex carbohydrates keeps you body feeling full for longer and increases the serotonin levels in the body.
Quit alcohol and caffeine
Drinking a glass of wine of a cup of coffee may give you temporary relief from PMS symptoms but in the long run they aggravate your PMS symptoms such as headaches, breast tenderness and mood swings. Alcohol may also contribute towards lowering the magnesium levels in your body and thereby make you feel bloated.
One of the effects of PMs is to make you feel anxious and tense. The easiest way to address this is by learning to relax. Try meditation or yoga for half an hour every morning. This will improve your overall health as well as soothe muscle pains.
Take a few supplements
Research says that certain fatty acids like omega 3 and linoleic acid can lower irritability and body aches associated with PMS. Calcium is also known to help ease PMS symptoms. Getting these nutrients in the required levels may not be possible only through your daily meals. Hence, you can also consider supplements to ease your pains.
Use Birth control pills
Birth control pills with the drospirenone hormone can help ease symptoms of severe PMS. Menstruation is often accompanied by a drop in estrogen levels that can lead to migraines. Regular of birth control pills also regulates your hormones and hence avoids these fluctuations. It also keeps your ovaries from releasing eggs every month and hence reduces the intensity of the associated cramps.
Talk to people
You are not alone when it comes to PMS. Instead of keeping quiet about your discomfort, talk to people who may be experiencing something similar. Sharing your problems will introduce you to new ways of dealing with it. You could also get online support though various discussion groups. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.
If you are stressed and wondering if this anxiety will affect the health of your child, you can be assured that you will have an uncomplicated childbirth and a healthy baby. It is absolutely normal to be stressed to some extent regarding the changes that are taking place in your life and to your body. But that doesn’t mean you can be stressed all the time and if this is the case with you, then you should seek professional help as high anxiety levels can adversely affect the health of your baby. This is because the cortisol or stress hormone may cross the placenta and create an impact on the emotional development of the baby.
There are various ways of staying stress free during pregnancy, and they are simple enough to be incorporated in your daily routine.
- Take enough rest and concentrate on your baby: It is good for you and the baby if you relax. You should sing and talk to your baby and you will be happy to know that he or she can hear you from around 23rd week. This would also allow you to bond better with your child after the birth takes place.
- Talk about your stress with people you trust: If you have any tension or worries regarding your child’s well-being, you can always communicate it to your best friend, your mother or anyone you faith in. You should never hesitate to be honest about your thoughts and feelings, and when you are true to yourself, you are likely to receive the support you require. You should talk to your partner as well and you may be surprised to know that both of you share similar worries and that your partner has some concerns that you are unaware about.
- Eat well and stay healthy: Eating tasty as well as nutritious food is good for your mind and body. Take in as many minerals, vitamins and Omega-3 fatty acids as you can, as these will help in elevating your mood. It is believed that the amino acid named tryptophan can help you get rid of all the tensions and boost your mood. It also helps in raising the levels of serotonin and melatonin that allow you to sleep better and make you feel well rested.
With little exercise and pampering, you will be able to reduce the stress and feel comfortable about your pregnancy. But in case you feel that you are stressed out without any control, you must consider consulting a doctor.