Doctor in King George's Medical Hospital
Submit a review for King George's Medical HospitalYour feedback matters!
Cancer is the most dangerous disease noticeable throughout the world. The most common type of cancer that affects men is prostate cancer. Prostate is a small exocrine gland situated directly below the bladder and in front of the rectum. This is gland is approximately in size of a walnut and plays an important role in production of a milky fluid during orgasm of sex in which the semen travels. During the climax stage of the prostate gland is forced to push the fluid and remove the semen out of the reproductive structures.
Prostate gland is a slow progressive disease which makes many males left unidentified even the presence of prostate cancer even until they die. 6 out of 100 male over the age of 60 are getting prostate cancer. Though prostate cancer can be cured at a better rate when compared to other type of cancer it is always best to stay protected. Prevention is always better than cure. Here are few tips to keep your prostate healthy.
Signs and symptoms of prostate cancer-
During the early stages of prostate cancer there are usually no symptoms. Most men at this stage find out they have prostate cancer after a routine check up or blood test. When symptoms do exist, they are usually one or more of the following:
The patient urinates more often
The patient gets up at night more often to urinate
He may find it hard to start urinating
He may find it hard to keep urinating once he has started
There may be blood in the urine
Urination might be painful
Ejaculation may be painful (less common)
Achieving or maintaining an erection may be difficult (less common).
If the prostate cancer is advanced the following symptoms are also possible:
The proximal part of the femur can be painful
Ways to have a healthy prostate –
Diet and weight – the most important factor is the diet to maintain a healthy weight. Avoid fatty food items and take fats from vegetables than from animals. Avoid dairy products and increase the intake of fresh fruits and vegetables.
Exercise – have a regular practise of doing exercise at least for 30mins a day. This really helps you to keep your body fit.
Be precautious – if you have a family history of prostate cancer or if you feel you are at high risk of getting prostate cancer talk with your doctor about it and take preventive drugs as per the doctor’s advice.
Red foods – research shows that men who consume red foods like watermelon, tomato and other red fruits are at lower risk of getting prostate cancer as they contain a powerful antioxidant called lycopene
- Stop smoking – if you are at high risk of getting prostate cancer it is best advised to quit smoking and alcohol.
Cervical cancer is a form of cancer which occurs in the cervix or the lower part of the uterus in women, which opens up into the vagina. Its different from the other cancers that occur in other parts of the uterus and has a high rate of being cured if detected early.
Causes of Cervical Cancer: Cervical cancer is usually caused when abnormal cells present in the cervix, get out of control. Usually, major cases of cervical cancer are caused by a virus known as the human papillomavirus or HPV. This virus gets transmitted from one person to another by sexual means or sexual contact. Abnormal changes in the cervix cells lead to cervical cancer. Usually, cell changes occur in the transformation zone in the cervix as the cells tend to change constantly, thereby leading to cancer.
- Abnormal vaginal bleeding between menstrual phases, after menopause or after having sex.
- Pain is experienced during sex.
- Abnormal vaginal discharge is produced.
- Abnormal changes in the menstrual cycle.
- Anemia due to abnormal bleeding from the vagina.
- Recurring pain in the pelvis, back or leg.
- Several urinary problems due to the blockage of the uterus.
- Urine or stool leakage into the vagina.
- Loss of weight.
How it can be diagnosed?
A routine screening test should be undertaken to observe any abnormal cell changes in the cervix and also for the screening for cervical cancer. Taking regular Pap smear test is recommended to detect abnormal cell changes so that cervical cancer can be prevented before hand. Other diagnostic tests include, Colposcopy and cervical biopsy to determine the presence of abnormal cells in the cervix, Endocervical biopsy and Cone biopsy.
Treatment options available:
Cervical cancer can be treated when detected at an early stage. The type of treatment depends on the stage and type of cervical cancer. The most common treatment methods are as follows:
- Surgery can be undertaken for removal of the cancer. Several types of surgeries exist and the ideal one depends on the location and severity of the cervical cancer.
- Radiation therapy involves the use of high dosage X-rays and implants within the vaginal cavity. This kills the cancer cells and is used in some specific stages of cervical cancer. This therapy is often used alongside surgery.
- Chemo-radiation is a combination of radiation therapy and chemotherapy. This procedure can be used at various stages of cervical cancer.
- Chemotherapy involves using medicines for killing cancer cells. It is used in advanced stages of cervical cancer.
Pelvic cancer is caused by abnormal cell changes in the pelvis. It is a common kind of cancer and can cause negative effects on the health. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for treating pelvic cancer. Cervical cancer is one of the cancers for which vaccine for prevention is available. Young girls from teenage & older women upto 45 yrs can take this vaccine. It should be taken after consulting a gynecologist.
I have prostate enlargement. I am taking dutasteride and alfusacin since one and half years. Recently size is 30 mm. What should I do?
Hi, My father was recently diagnosed with prostate cancer with bone met. PSA> 1,000 And Gleason 8 & 9. Have consulted a few renowned doctors in New Delhi but their suggested medications are different. Some suggest Caluran 50 while others Abiraterone prednisone. I need some hard facts to choose the best option. Thank you.
Women heaving age of 28 breast lump since 8 days with pain. Doctor do test CIA and after TEST diagnose ovarian cancer HEAVING no any symptoms related to productive organs.
Diagnosed with Oligodendroglioma grade 2 with idh mutation and 1p/19q co deletion along with tert promoter mutation. Had surgery to remove almost the entire tumor and currently on radiation along with temozolomide. Just wanted to know what I can expect in the future. Also what are the chances of recurrence even after such aggressive treatment at the start itself.
We live in an age where every single individual, more or less, is exposed to the risk of cancer. It is probably an unfavorable lifestyle we lead that deprives us of good health. This might alarm many but considerable changes in lifestyle can help you realize cancer as a preventable disease. Cancer does not only make you undergo severe suffering but it also affects your friends and family. The pallor of misery spreads wider than you think.
- Abstain from tobacco: Consuming raw tobacco or smoking tobacco can be equally detrimental to your health. Tobacco increases your chances of contracting the disease. As is known, passive smoking can also affect your health adversely. Tobacco can be the potential cause behind cancer of the mouth, throat, larynx, lungs, oral cavity and even the pancreas. It might harm your kidneys and cervix. It is upon you to quit tobacco at the earliest possible. One should also try and persuade friends and relatives to give up smoking.
- Drink alcohol in moderation: Complete abstinence from alcohol might not be possible if you have already been ushered into your work- life. The society might require you to be an occasional drinker. It is important to drink in moderation. Crossing the limit can propel consequences as serious as cancer of the stomach, pancreas, liver and the heart.
- A balanced and nutritious diet: Deciding on a plant- based diet or a Mediterranean diet can aid your fight against the risk of cancer. A Mediterranean diet will involve green leafy vegetables, lots of fresh fruits, whole grains, mixed nuts, legumes and also the use of extra- virgin olive oil. Fish can be a safe bet but red meat should be avoided. One must also try to avoid processed meat as they tend to make you prone to the risk of cancer.
- Immunization: Hepatitis B and HPV or Human papilloma virus vaccines are extremely necessary to protect you against the sexually transmitted types of cancer.
- Sun protection: Caring for your skin doesn't arise from vanity. Skin cancer is one of the most prevalent kinds of cancer; the chances of this disease can be restricted by remaining in shade especially during midday, by wearing covered clothes and by using a good sunscreen lotion repeatedly while outside.
- Exercise diligently: Did you think it was okay to have weaker muscles and bulging layers of fat? If yes, you probably have grown numb to the inadequacies you face in result. Unchecked fat can lead to obesity which further complicates health conditions. Metabolic activity differs from person to person. Regular exercising can help regulate metabolism according to the needs of your body. Physical exercise protects you against the risk of breast and colon cancer. Moderate or vigorous physical activity for 150 to 75 minutes a week respectively can reduce the risk of cancer.
Cancer is as much a psychological issue as it is a physical disease. When a person is diagnosed with cancer, it is not just the person who is affected but the entire family and friends too. There is a lot of research that has been carried out on cancer psychology, due to which, the doctors are currently in a much better state to manage the psychology of the patient and family compared to a couple of decades earlier.
So, when a person is diagnosed with cancer, known as the big C, there are stages that a person goes through.
The first one is of shock and disbelief, with most people unable to digest the fact. There is often the question of “why me?” The fact is that the risk factors for cancer are constantly evolving, and so it is difficult to answer this if there is no clear reason evident.
- Anxiety and depression: Given that there is still a lot of fear and uncertainty about a complete cure for cancer, patients get anxious and distressed. They slowly begin to come to terms and realize that they need to start working on the treatment plan, so the condition improves. There is also another angle, as there are various options, and the treatment they choose will determine the course of the disease. There may be periods of sadness, isolation, lack of interest in regular activities, appetite loss, and restlessness.
- Guilt: There is also an angle of guilt, especially when there is a definite cause associated with it, like alcohol, smoking, high-risk sexual behavior, etc.
- Coming to terms: It is within a couple of months that the patients come to terms with the situation and realize that there are things which are under their control, which can make a difference. They begin to focus on good food choices, meditation and staying positive. They also do financial planning in terms of insurance and sorting out legal issues in case of an eventuality. Many also are open to seeking support in terms of family and friends and social networks. This can help them give a feeling of inclusion and that they are not alone in what they are experiencing.
All said and done, cancer psychology is as unique as each individual. The response would depend on the patient’s personality, his support system, stage of identification of cancer, and how well it responds.
There is no prescription available readily to manage the person’s psychology once they are diagnosed with cancer. This can be managed via:
- Counseling with a close friend or family member, social worker, psychologist, social support groups, etc.
- Other things which can help include meditation, antidepressant medications, exercising, and spending time with family, etc.
It occurs when abnormally dividing cancerous cells form growth like tumors in the voice box, vocal cords & other parts of the throat like the tonsils, and the pharynx which is the hollow tube that runs from behind the nose to the top of the windpipe.
The common symptoms of throat cancer include coughing, trouble swallowing, hoarseness, and swollen lymph nodes. There are two primary types of throat cancers according to where they start in the throat- pharyngeal cancer and laryngeal cancer. Pharyngeal cancer forms in the pharynx while laryngeal cancer forms in the larynx or the voice box.
Causes of Throat Cancer
Recognizing potential signs of throat cancer in the early stages of the disease is not easy. Hence, it’s critical to know the causes and risk factors for developing this type of cancer in order to be able to diagnose it at a relatively early stage of the disease and prevent a fatality. Common risk factors and causes of throat cancer include:
- Gender – Men are up to five times more likely to get throat cancer as compared to women.
- Age - Now even young persons in their twenties and thirties are coming with throat cancer.
- Exposure to certain chemicals like Asbestos, Nickel, and Sulphuric acid fumes.
The common ‘lifestyle’ causes for throat cancer are smoking or chewing tobacco, as per WHO there is no minimum safe limit of alcohol, vitamin A deficiency due to a diet deficient in green vegetables, and infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV) which causes cervical cancer in women and occurs due to unsafe sex.
The association of throat cancer with HPV infection, a sexually transmitted virus is very interesting. The Cancer Treatment Centers of America has stated that HPV infection is a risk factor for certain oropharyngeal throat cancers.
Cancer Research UK also warns that oral sex, especially with multiple partners, leads to oral cancers due to HPV infection. It further states that men are also more prone to get infected with HPV through oral sex than women and HPV infection is more common in men who have oral sex with multiple partners.
Apart from this, throat cancer has also been linked to other types of cancers like esophageal, lung or bladder. So, if you’ve been diagnosed with any of these, you are at greater risk of contracting throat cancer. These cancers also often have the same risk factors.
You can take a few steps to reduce your risk for throat cancer like stop smoking, reduce alcohol intake, maintain a healthy lifestyle – eat plenty of greens, reduce fat and salt intake, and lose excess weight by exercising regularly. You can also reduce your risk of HPV infection by limiting your sex partners and using condoms. Stop alcohol rather than reduce.
WHY ? CANCER SCREENING- Checking for cancer in people who have no symptoms is cancer screening .Can help doctors find and treat several type of cancers early, before they cause symptoms. Early detection is important because when abnormal tissue or cancer is found early, it may be easier to treat .By the time symptoms appear, cancer may have begun to spread and be harder to treat.
In Whom? - In Diseases where following principles can be followed like Disease should be important health problem in terms of frequency .Natural history of disease presents window of opportunity for early detection. Effective treatment should be available that favorably alters natural history of disease. Treatment should be more effective if initiated earlier than during the symptomatic stage .Suitable screening test - Cheap/Easily Available/Reproducible/Socially Acceptable
Caution!! Easier Said than Done due to False positive results - anxiety /unwanted additional tests False negative results - false reassurance, leading to delays in diagnosis
Over-diagnosis - cancer detected was slow growing and would not have harmed that person in his or her lifetime
Some screening tests may cause bleeding or other health problems – Sigmoidoscopy/Colonoscopy Cost burden on healthcare/ Radiation Exposure of some tests / Incidental Lesions
When? & How? - In cancers like Breast,Prostate,Colon and Cervix