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Overview

Vaginal/Vulvar Atrophy: Treatment, Procedure, Cost And Side Effects

What is Vaginal/Vulvar Atrophy?

Vaginal atrophy is a condition in which estrogen level in the body gets low due to vaginal atrophy, drying, thinning and inflammation of vaginal walls took place. It is been seen in womens that vaginal or vulvar atrophy leads to distressing urinary symptoms. It also makes sex painful for womens. It could also lead to the symptoms of genitourinary syndrome of menopause. Reduced estrogen levels also results in many changes in the body.

What is Vaginal/vulvar atrophy symptoms?

From moderate to severe genitourinary syndrome of menopause, patient may experience - light bleeding after sex, vaginal discharge, burning sensation in vulva or vagina, vaginal dryness, UTIs (urinary tract infection), sexual discomfort, tightening or shortening of vaginal canal, less vaginal lubrication during sex, genital itching, urgency with urination. In such condition it is better to consult a doctor. On the basis of clinical condition he/she will advise you the solution. In case of painful sex doctor might advise you water based lubricants or moisturizer for your vagina.

What is the Treatment of Vaginal/Vulvar Atrophy?

While going for the treatment of vaginal atrophy will start with few tests include - pelvic exam, urine test, and acid balance test. When comes to the treatment of it, the doctor might recommend you to try the vaginal moisturizer, water-based lubricant apart from the doctor could also advise using topical vaginal estrogen, oral estrogen as well.

Topical estrogen is available in various forms such as vaginal estrogen cream, vaginal estrogen ring and vaginal estrogen tablet.

When it comes to lifestyle and home remedies you might get relief by using over the counter moisturizer, allow time to become aroused during sex and you could also try water-based lubrication.

Can vaginal atrophy be reversed?

By seeing today’s development in the women health care and new treatment approaches, earlier it is seen as a permanent condition with the woman had to live with. But now it could be said that vaginal atrophy could be reversed by taking a few treatments such as - vaginal estrogen cream, vaginal estrogen tablets, and vaginal estrogen ring could help to reverse the problem. Other options include patches, gels, patches, pills, and high dose rings as well.

Is Vaginal/Vulvar atrophy painful?

Vaginal or vulvar atrophy is a thinning, inflammation and drying of the vaginal walls due to fewer estrogen levels in the body. It could lead to distressing urinary symptoms and also make sex painful. It could be treated by various treatments available.

What are the causes of Vaginal/Vulvar Atrophy?

Vaginal atrophy could be decreased by less estrogen production, which makes vaginal tissues thinner, drier, more fragile and less elastic. A drop of estrogen levels may occur premenopause, post-menopause, after pelvic radiation therapy, and the side effect of breast cancer treatment as well. It also has certain factors which contribute to risk are - smoking, no vaginal births, and no sexual activity. It could also lead to some complications such as urinary problems and vaginal infections. To prevent from such condition it is important to have sexual activity with or without a partner, as it increases blood flow and helps in keeping vaginal tissues healthy.

What foods increase female lubrication?

Eating healthy food and having a good lifestyle is key to many things. When it comes to vaginal dryness, it could be treated with medications, but there are many ways to increase lubrication naturally. There are certain foods which can help increase female lubrication such as

  1. Cranberries - it contains antioxidants, vitamin e, vitamin c, and powerful acidic compounds to fight bacteria. It also helps to fight urinary tract infections and improves vaginal lubrication and health.
  2. Sweet potatoes - it contains a high amount of vitamin a, which is related to fertility. It also helps in strengthen muscle tissues for healthy vaginal and uterine walls. It also helps women who are trying to get pregnant. Sweet potatoes also help in the production of sex hormones and lubrication.
  3. Yogurt - probiotics such as yogurt balances the pH levels and prevents from yeast infections as it contains calcium. It also helps with pre menstrual syndrome symptoms.
  4. Omega 3 fatty acids - it helps with blood flow and circulation, along with vaginal lubrication. Foods like flax seed, oil fish, walnuts, etc can help.
  5. Apples - it helps in orgasms, as it contains antioxidants which are good for blood flow, lubrication and sexual drive.
  6. Soy - it helps to decrease estrogen levels and benefits postmenopausal women by blood vessel health. It also helps with lubrication.
  7. Green veggies - like kale, spinach, collard greens are natural blood purifiers, also enhances circulation. It also prevents dryness in the vagina and helps in stimulation.
  8. Avocados - it contains potassium, vitamin b-6, and healthy fats containing libido boosting. It helps by strengthening vaginal walls and lubrication in the vagina.

Popular Health Tips

All About Vulvar Cancer

MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology, MBBS, DGO
Gynaecologist, Mumbai
All About Vulvar Cancer

Vulvar cancer is an invasive and cancerous growth, which occurs in the vulva (the external vaginal or reproductive tract opening in females). The main types of vulvar cancer include:

  1. Squamous cell carcinoma: This condition gives rise to abnormal growths that generally originate from the most common forms of skin cells known as squamous cells. They are characterized by open sores, scaly red patches, elevated growths with a depression in the centre or warts which might crust or bleed. They can cause disfiguring and sometimes can prove to be fatal if their growth is allowed.
  2. Melanoma: This is a form of cancer that is known to develop cells that contain pigment called melanocytes. It is one of the most dangerous forms of cancer and is more commonly found in women.
  3. Basal cell carcinoma: Basal cell carcinoma contributes to around 1- 2% of vulvar cancer. This form of cancer tends to be slow-growing lesions on the labia majora (external large vulvar folds), but is capable of occurring anywhere else on the vulva. The behaviour bears resemblance to basal cell cancers that occur in other locations. Their growth is local and the risk of deep invasion or metastasis (spreading of cancer) is low. Treatment of basal cell carcinoma involves excision. However, these types of lesions tend to recur if they are not removed completely.

Symptoms of vulvar cancer include:

  1. Itching, bleeding or burning sensation on the vulva that is not relieved.
  2. Occurrence of skin changes such as rashes or warts, on the vulva.
  3. Pain in pelvis, particularly during sex or urination.
  4. Changes in skin colour of the vulva (abnormally red or white).
  5. Lumps, ulcers or sores that occur on the vulva which does not subside

Treatment options of vulvar cancer include:

1. Surgery: This is the most common form of treatment wherein, the cancer is removed without affecting the sexual function of the woman. Some of the surgical procedures include:

  • Laser Surgery
  • Wide local excision (small portion of the cancerous tissue)
  • Radical local excision (removing a major portion of benign tissues as well)
  • Ultrasonic surgical aspiration (tumour is broken into small pieces using fine vibrations)
  • Vulvectomy (removal of all or part of vulva)

2. Radiation Therapy: This treatment procedure involves using radiations such as X-rays to target and destroy the cancer cells. The two forms of radiation therapy are external radiation therapy and internal radiation therapy.

3. Chemotherapy: This form of treatment uses oral administration or injection of chemicals into the veins so that the growth of cancerous cells is stopped, either by elimination of the cells or by prohibiting cell division.

4946 people found this helpful

Ayurveda For Cerebellar Atrophy

MD - Ayurveda
Ayurveda, Jaipur
Ayurveda For Cerebellar Atrophy

Brain is like a network of many wires, these wires are cells called neurons. When these cells start shrinking, that is Cerebellar Atrophy. Shrinking of brain! Yes you read it right. Many different causes come together and shrink the brain tissue. Impact of this shrinkage reflects on the actions of brain. Actions controlled by affected area of the brain.

Cerebellar atrophy is of two types- generalized and localized. In generalized, type of atrophy all activities of brain diminish. In case of localized cerebral atrophy activities controlled by a specific area of the brain are affected. So, symptoms vary according to affected area with problem.

Causes of cerebellar atrophy includes- infection, drugs and other diseases like parkinson’s and alzheimer etc. Cerebral ataxia, dysphagia and inability to speak are few of the symptoms which appear in patients.

Ayurveda about Cerebellar Atrophy

This particular condition is not described in Ayurveda as it is. Exact noun is not available in terms of the name of disease in Ayurveda. For treatment, we need to understand the pathology. Pathology is a process which leads us to problem. Until unless we don't reverse pathology. Condition will remain same. Some medicines can help us to suppress signs and symptoms. This is not the treatment as per Ayurveda. Ayurveda believes in reversal of pathology. 

In case of Cerebral Atrophy, the main thing is the cause why brain cells start decaying. Ayurveda works on three Doshas. Vata is one of these three. Vata controls the nervous system. So nervous system is all about Vata Dosha. Aggravation of Vata dosha leads to the neural problems. The diet, lifestyle which can aggravate Vata dosha causes conditions like  Atrophy.

Because old age is a period for Vata Aggravation thus atrophy is common in old age. So everything is related to Vata. Sukhayu Ayurved has researched well in all such cases. Cerebellar Atrophy is common in people who follow Vata Aggravating foods and lifestyles.Thus approach for the treatment of Cerebellar Atrophy is according to Vata Vyadhi.

Vata is dry thus it dries up the tissues. Therefore we need to nourish the body with “fats” and unctuousness.  We can do that through Panchakarma treatments. We have seen more wonderful results in all such cases with Ayurvedic treatments.

Ayurveda Treatment for Cerebellar Atrophy

Generally, it is asked is there some medicines for Cerebellar Atrophy. There is a treatment for Cerebellar atrophy with Ayurveda. Sukhayu Ayurveda provides the treatment through Panchakarma interventions. Basti is a drug of treatment in all neural disorders. There are many types of Bastis. Especially relevant basti is selected according to the condition of patients. In addition to all these Yoga is another dimension what we add to the treatment for atrophy.

While working on diet-lifestyle our physicians prescribe medicines for 6 to 8 months and 21 days panchakarma. Selection of Panchakarma procedures vary from patient to patient. As a result of nourishing the body and countering dryness of Vata signs and symptoms of a patient starts reducing. Most important thing for treatment is- faith and follow-up. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Ayurveda.

6667 people found this helpful

Painful Intercourse Or Dyspareunia

BHMS
Sexologist, Lucknow
Painful Intercourse Or Dyspareunia

Dyspareunia is pain prior to, during, or after, sexual intercourse. Dyspareunia is more common in women but can affect either sex. Dyspareunia can have several different causes. For instance, vaginismus is a ‘spasm’or contractions of the muscles surrounding the vagina.

  • Dyspareunia is pain prior to, during, or after, sexual intercourse. Dyspareunia is more common in women but can affect either sex. Many women will experience dyspareunia at some time in their life. Sometimes a medial or physical etiology may not be obvious and psychosocial factors also can play an important role. In men, dyspareunia can be related to an allergic reaction to a condom or spermicidal. An infection of the prostate or prostatitis may also cause pain. If a female partner has a vaginal infection or dryness, the male can experience discomfort during intercourse.
  • Dyspareunia can have several different causes. For instance, vaginismus is a “spasm” or contractions of the muscles surrounding the vagina. Women with vaginismus have pain with insertion of tampons as well as with penile penetration.
  • Vulvodynia and vulvar vestibullitis are both conditions that are characterized by painful intercourses. They are also characterized by vulvar burning and itching. The discomfort may not necessarily be associated with intercourse.
  • In older women vaginal dryness is a common cause of dyspareunia. This is a common problem for women that are not on hormone replacement. Dyspareunia can also be caused by abnormalities of the uterus or pelvic organs. Woman may describe the pain as feeling that something is being “pushed” or “bumped” during intercourse. An enlarged uterus or ovary can cause painful intercourse especially during deep penetration. A prolapsed or “dropped” uterus or bladder may also cause discomfort. Dyspareunia can also result from previous pelvic surgery or infection. These conditions can reduce movement of the pelvic organs resulting in pain with deep penetration.
  • Women who experience trauma such as rape or sexual assault may also experience dyspareunia. Unfortunately, many women may have difficulty sharing this information with their health care providers.
  • In order to treat dyspareunia appropriately the cause must be identified. The time at which the pain occurs during intercourse and other associated symptoms can help determine the potential etiology. For instance, pain during entry may have a different etiology than pain with deep penetration.

It is also important for a health care provider to know when in a woman’s life symptoms began. For example, if a woman’s symptoms began around or shortly after menopause; her symptoms could result from atrophic vaginal tissue. She may describe her symptoms as burning or “friction” with intercourse. Vaginal lubricants or estrogen can improve dryness and decrease pain. For women with a history of endometriosis, pelvic surgery, or infection, treatment of dyspareunia is aimed at restoring pelvic organs to their normal positions and reducing scar tissue. Surgical management may also be recommended for women with symptomatic prolapsed of the uterus, rectum, or bladder.

Women with a history of sexual abuse or treatment may benefit from psychological evaluation and treating any depressive symptoms that are present.

Types of dyspareunia:

It is useful to differentiate between the different types of dyspareunia to arrive at the appropriate diagnosis, treatment, and eventual prognosis.

1. Superficial dyspareunia. Vaginismus is a specific type of dyspareunia that refers to spasms of the levator ani and perineal muscles, making intercourse difficult, painful. Undesirable, and often impossible. May clinicians have defined vaginismus as an almost certain psychogenic illness. However, organic disorders of the external genitalia and introital areas can cause such severe discomfort that any attempts at penetration can leas to spasm. This particular cycle, primarily caused by situational and anticipatory anxiety, can become self perpetuating often both organic and functional and can be solely a result of recognized disease entities.
2. Deep dyspareunia refers to a deeper pelvic pain that is experienced at any time during intercourse. Again, this may be secondary to pelvic abnormality, or it may be functional in origin. It also tends to overlap more with chronic pelvic pain syndrome.
Etiology of dyspareunia:

The presence of organic disease is often the cause of dyspareunia. Virtually all gynecologic disease entities list dyspareunia as a possible symptom.

Prominent in the list of diseases associated with dyspareunia are the following:

  • Chronic pelvic infection.
  • Endometriosis
  • Pelvic carcinoma
  • Extensive prolapsed or organ displacement
  • Episiotomy.
  • Acute vulvovaginitis
  • Cystitis
  • Urethral syndrome or other urinary tract disorders.
  • Introital, vaginal, and cervical scarring.
  • All space occupying lesions.
  • Levator ani myalgia.
  • Vulvar vestibulitis.

1. As with chronic pelvic pain syndromes, gastrointestinal (gi) diseases (e. G, bowel motility disorders) must be excluded.

2. Estrogen deprivation, irritating vaginal medications, sympathomimetic drugs, amphetamines, and cocaine are also causes, primarily in superficial dyspareunia and vaginismus.

3. The most common causes of superficial dyspareunia include vaginitis (atrophic or infectious) or lack of lubrication (either caused by physiologic conditions or suboptimal sexual technique.

4. Lesions in the cul-de-sac are said to correlate most often with deep penetration dyspareunia.

5. Women who have deep penetration dyspareunia and who do not have superficial pain on penetration or vaginismus usually do not have a causative external inflammatory syndrome.

6. Some individual with external dyspareunia or vaginismus have small, almost imperceptible scar tissue secondary to surgery or childbirth.

7. Two clinical syndromes not usually recognized involve broad ligament varicosities and the broad ligament tear syndrome.
8. Frequently unrecognized etiology, particularly on first, interview, is a history or sexual assault or abuse.

Diagnostic workgroup

It is extremely important to look for evidence of sexual abuse both on history and physical examination before undertaking an expensive workup. Routine studies include a cbc, sedimentation rate, urinalysis, urine culture and sensitivity, and vaginal smear and culture. A pap smear should also be done. If pregnancy is suspected, a pregnancy test should be done. If there is a pelvic mass, pelvic ultrasound may be helpful. A referral to gynecologist is usually made before ordering this study, however. If vulval dystrophy is suspected, a vaginal biopsy may be useful. If the vaginal examination is normal, perhaps a psychiatrist should be consulted.

  • Normal pelvic examination
  • Abnormal pelvic examination
  • Difficult penetration
  • Difficult during intercourse
  • With abnormal rectal examination
  • Inflamed
  • Hymeneal
  • Orifice
  • Bartholinitis
  • Vulvitis
  • Vulval
  • Dystrophy
  • Cystitis
  • Urethritis
  • Difficult during intercourse
  • Salpingooophoritis
  • Retroverted
  • Uterus
  • Endometriosis
  • Ovarian cyst.
  • With abnormal rectal examination
  • Hemorrhoids
  • Anal fissure
  • Impacted
  • Feces
  • B-normal pelvic examination

With sexual desire 2. Without sexual desire
Functional dyspareunia not true dyspareunia

Differential diagnosis

Sexual pain disorder: persistent recurrent genital pain or nonorganic cause associated with sexual stimulation.

Vaginismus: painful, involuntary spasm of the vagina, preventing intercourse

Vulvar vestibulitis: a chronic and persistent clinical syndrome characterized by severe pain with vestibular touch or attempted vaginal entry, tenderness in response to pressure within the vulvar vestibule, and physical findings confined to various degrees of vestibular erythema.

Vulvodynia: chronic vulvar discomfort (e. G. Burning, stinging, irritation, rawness).

Female sexual dysfunction (disorders of desire, arousal, or orgasm)

Homeopathic remedies.

1. Bellis perennis
Bruised sensation in the vagina, if intercourse is interrupted.

2. Cactus grandiflora
Vagina squeezes shut when intercourse is attempted. Intercourse may be easier just before menses.

3. Coffea
Over sensitivity of the vulva and vagina. Heat and itchiness. Vaginismus with pain.

4. Cuprum
Cramping in the vagina and sometimes also in the legs, during intercourse.

5. Ferrum
Vagina feels dry, painful and raw. No feelings of arousal.

6. Gelsemium
Anxiety before intercourse. Tendency to vaginismus.

7. Lycopodium
Dry, burning vagina during and after intercourse. May have varicose veins in vulva.

8. Natrum mur
Dryness, with smarting and burning pains. Acrid discharge.

9. Platina
Strong sexual desire. May have erotic dreams. Difficult to have intercourse as vulva is extremely over-sensitive. Intercourse is painful and causes bruised sensation.

10. Rhus tox
Soreness during and after intercourse, often accompanied by physical restlessness.

11. Sepia
Dryness with bleeding after intercourse. (if you have this symptom seek medical advice.) feeling that everything will prolapse. Suits women who are exhausted and want to escape from their situation.

12. Staphisagria
Extremely useful remedy for pain after loss of virginity or in instances of rape or sexual assault.

13. Thuja
Vagina is over-sensitive making intercourse painful and difficult. Pains: burning, sore, bruised. May be helpful where there is a history of sti’s or if there are feelings of shame and self-disgust in relation to intercourse.

But before taking these medicine please consult your homoeopathic doctor.

4 people found this helpful

Female Sexual Health: Female Should Know

BHMS, PGD PPHC, BMCP, Training In USG
Homeopath, Kolkata
Female Sexual Health: Female Should Know

You just never seem to be in the mood these days. Or the last few times you had sex, it hurt. Maybe you have some discharge that’s different from the norm.

But how do you know which signs might signal a bigger problem with your health?

“How can you know what abnormal is if you don’t know what normal is?”

Lang says it’s a good idea for a woman to examine her vagina with a mirror and light each month, just as you do a regular check of your breasts.

If something just doesn’t seem right or it’s bothering you, don’t feel embarrassed to bring it up with your doctor. “You deserve to have a healthy sex life,

Here are the few symptoms  you should bring up when they happen and consult doctor

Low Desire

By far the most common sexual health issue for women is low desire,

If low desire doesn’t bother you, it’s not a problem, But if it’s causing you distress (and it’s lasted for at least 6 months), you can talk to your doctor to find out what may be going on.

Hypoactive sexual desire disorder, the medical term for a low sex drive, can have many different causes -- physical, emotional, cultural, or a combination of those. It could come from a hormone problem, such as estrogen or your thyroid hormone. It could happen because of other health conditions you have, like diabetes, anxiety, depression, or sleep disorders. It may be a side effect of a medication you take, like antidepressants or birth control pills. Even smoking and alcohol can affect desire. Or it may have to do with the quality of your relationship with a sexual partner.

Your doctor or another health professional in the office may ask you some questions to figure out what’s going on.

Pain and Discomfort

You’re not alone if sex hurts. Nearly three out of four women will have pain during intercourse at some point. It could be in the vagina and the area just outside of it, called the vulva. But some women feel pain inside their pelvis, too.

Sometimes sex is uncomfortable when you’re not aroused enough, or you have a vaginal infection or a skin condition, like allergies or psoriasis. But pain during sex can also be a sign of serious conditions like pelvic inflammatory disease, endometriosis, fibroids, ovarian cysts, or cancer. So if it happens often or is severe, see your doctor -- she’ll want to rule out any serious health issues that could be causing it.

If you’ve reached menopause, painful sex may be caused by vaginal atrophy. That’s when the tissues around your vagina and vulva dry up because of the loss of estrogen.

If you feel a bulging sensation around your vagina and have trouble peeing, it could be a sign that your bladder or other organs in your pelvis have dropped from their normal place and are pushing against your vagina. That’s called a pelvic organ prolapse, a problem that becomes more common with age. Treatments include Kegel exercises, physical therapy, Homeopathic medicine and surgery.

Irregular BleedingIf you’re past menopause and you have bleeding from your vagina, see your doctor as soon as possible. She’ll need to make sure you don’t have a serious problem, like an infe

ction, uterine fibroids, or cancer.

If you’re still having periods, watch for any spotting, bleeding between periods, bleeding after sex, or periods that are heavier or last longer tha

n usual.

Consult doctor if you have these symptoms.

Unusual Discharge

Is there a change in the color, amount, or smell of your discharge that lasts more than a few days? Let your doctor know.

You may have something that’s simple to treat, like a bacterial or yeast infection. But some discharges may be a sign of sexually transmitted diseases like gonorrhea or chlamydia. Watery or bloody discharges may be due to cancer

Lumps and Bumps, Rashes and Sores

If you notice any changes in your skin below your beltline, like a mole that looks different or is new, or a bump that itches or hurts, tell your doctor.

These spots can have many different causes, from an ingrown hair to an STD like genital warts or herpes. More serious is vulvar cancer, a rare condition that can show up as a lump, bump, or sore. It may cause itching or tenderness.

No matter what symptoms you’ve noticed, when something doesn’t feel or look right to you, don’t worry that you’re making a big deal out of nothing. “Run it by your doctor just to get a reassuring word,” Lang says. “So you don’t have to worry.”

Risk Factors Of Breast Cancer!

MBBS, Diploma In Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Risk Factors Of Breast Cancer!

What is a risk factor?

A risk factor is anything that may increase a person's chance of developing a disease. It may be an activity, such as smoking, diet, family history, or many other things. Different diseases, including cancers, have different risk factors.

Knowing your risk factors for any disease can help guide you into the appropriate actions, including changing behaviors and being clinically monitored for the disease.

What are the risk factors for breast cancer?

Any woman may develop breast cancer. However, the following risk factors may increase the likelihood of developing the disease.

Risk factors that cannot be changed:

  • Gender. Breast cancer occurs nearly 100 times more often in women than in men.

  • Race or ethnicity. It has been noted that white women develop breast cancer slightly more often than African-American women. However, African-American women tend to die of breast cancer more often. This may be partly due to the fact that African-American women often develop a more aggressive type of tumor, although why this happens is not known. The risk for developing breast cancer and dying from it is lower in Hispanic, Native American, and Asian women.

  • Aging. Two out of 3 women with invasive cancer are diagnosed after age 55.

  • Personal history of breast cancer

  • Previous breast irradiation

  • Family history and genetic factors. Having a close relative, such as a mother or sister, with breast cancer increases the risk. This includes changes in certain genes, such as BRCA1, BRCA2, and others.

  • Benign breast diseaseWomen with certain benign breast conditions (such as hyperplasia or atypical hyperplasia) have an increased risk of breast cancer. 

  • Dense breast tissue. Breast tissue may look dense or fatty on a mammogram. Older women with high dense breast tissue are at increased risk.

  • Diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure. Women who took this drug while pregnant (to lower the chance of miscarriage) are at higher risk. The possible effect on their daughters is under study.

  • Early menstrual periods. Women whose periods began early in life (before age 12) have a slightly higher risk of breast cancer.

  • Late menopauseWomen are at a slightly higher risk if they began menopause later in life (after age 55).

The most frequently cited lifestyle-related risk factors:

  • Not having children, or having your first child after age 30

  • Recent use (within 10 years) of oral contraceptives

  • Physical inactivity

  • Alcohol use (more than 1 drink per day)

  • Long-term, postmenopausal use of combined estrogen and progestin (HRT)*

  • Weight gain and obesity, especially after menopause

Environmental risk factors:

  • Exposure to pesticides, or other chemicals, is currently being examined as a possible risk factor.

**Hormone replacement therapy update

Hormone (estrogen-alone or estrogen-plus-progestin) products are approved therapies for relief from moderate to severe hot flashes related to menopause and symptoms of vulvar and vaginal atrophy. Although hormone therapy is effective for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis, it should only be considered for women at significant risk of osteoporosis who cannot take nonestrogen medications. The FDA recommends that hormone therapy be used at the lowest doses for the shortest duration needed to achieve treatment goals.

Postmenopausal women who use or are considering using hormone therapy should discuss the possible benefits and risks with their doctor.

Popular Questions & Answers

I have problem in my vulva region since 8 months. I have visited almost 5 gynecologists in this time period. It has scaly texture and whenever I pee the area around it burns. I am not having uti nor am I having sugar. My menstrual cycle is fine though flow has reduced. Sometimes I think I have skin issues but then I'm not sure about whom should I visit? Gynecologist or dermatologist? I'm really stressed because its becoming unbearable now. My sex life is ruined too. Whenever I have sex it becomes worse. At first I thought that I'm allergic to latex condoms so I opted for non latex ones (skyn kamasutra ). But it won't stop it's pretty bad. Help mee.

MD-Ayurveda, Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine & Surgery (BAMS)
Sexologist, Haldwani
Hello- Change of vaginal secretions into an acidic PH can results in scaly and dry skin around vulva. Only external treatment will not be beneficial for you, you need to improve your diet schedule and sleep timings to prevent the secretion from getting acidic. Try these steps- Wash your Vaginal area with Trifla powder Decoction (Kadha) twice daily. Apply Mahatiktaka Ghrita in the affected part afterwards. You will get these medicines on any ayurvedic store near you. Good luck.
1 person found this helpful

Table of Content

What is Vaginal/Vulvar Atrophy?

What is Vaginal/vulvar atrophy symptoms?

What is the Treatment of Vaginal/Vulvar Atrophy?

Can vaginal atrophy be reversed?

Is Vaginal/Vulvar atrophy painful?

What are the causes of Vaginal/Vulvar Atrophy?

What foods increase female lubrication?

Play video
Cosmetic Vaginal Surgeries
I am Dr Arpana Jain, senior gynecologist, attached with Fortis hospital Delhi.

Today we are discussing about cosmetic surgery related to vagina i.e., cosmetic vaginal surgeries. Because of increasing awareness and self-realization of the body, this surgery is in great demand. There are various procedures which we can do To improve the cosmetic problem related to vagina portion. One is vaginoplasty when the vagina lacks because of repeated childbirth, the vagina becomes very loose, and there is decreased sexual pleasure. To increase that, the vaginal uterus can be reduced with surgery, and other is labiality. It is basically the term for labia minora because the inner lip of labia which is very large because of that there is difficulty in walking and there can be difficulty in sexual relation also it leads to a lot of problems, and cosmetically it is also not good. The surgery can be done to reduce the size of this lip. And the other is hymenoplasty, this is a thin membrane over the vagina and after relation it is broken, to repair that membrane and to make the woman virgin again the hymen membrane can be stitched again to make woman virgin. Another point is labia major augmentation. Sometimes it is the outer lip of vulva, which is very thin which is cosmetically not very good, so it can be augmented with putting the backup fat below this to make it beautiful. Another is vulvar lipoclastic. When it is very thick, the labia is very thick, it is very full of backup fats sometimes it becomes very bad looking so it can be reduced by liposuction. Another is G point augmentation, and clitoral hood reduction, sometimes there is long skin layer on G point, it can be reduced the clitoral hood which can be reduced and these two surgeries G point augmentation and clitoral hood reduction is basically to improve the sexual desire. These cosmetic surgeries are increasing day by day to improve the sexual desire and pleasure and because of the cosmetic region, we are doing this which is really really fine.

Thank you so much and if you have any query or if you want to contact me you can come down to my office or you can take appointment through lybrate. Thank you so much.
Play video
Hypertension: How Does It Increase The Risk Of Major Diseases?
This is Dr. Ramesh Kawar and I m interventional cardiologist attach to Bombay Hospital, Beach Candy Hospital, Surana Group of Hospitals and in Malad Lifeline Hospitals. I m in the field of interventional cardiology from last 20 years doing an intervention for coronary and non-coronary situations. For vulvar situations, for congenital heart diseases and other interventional fields. Today we are going to talk on hypertension. As you know hypertension is a very common illness which is affecting as a non-communicable disease which is affecting Indian population at large.

If you see the prevalence of hypertension in India in rural population is somewhere around 5-7% while in urban population it is around 10%. So a huge chunk of our population is suffering from hypertension. Unfortunately, diagnosis and the treatment of hypertension remains poorly managed in the sense that almost 25 % of our patients are not diagnosed. Though they are suffering from hypertension around to the latest ACCH guidelines. Almost 25% remains undiagnosed, roughly around 25% they are diagnosed but they are not treated properly.

Similarly, around 25% of these patients who are diagnosed are treated poorly. Only 25% of our patients who are suffering from hypertension is are being treated properly. So there is a roughly 25% rule. It is important to treat patients with hypertension why? Because if we keep these patients untreated they are going to land up in a lot of cardiovascular disease problem like patients suffering from a stroke because of either ischemic stroke or bleed in the brain or they may suffer a heart attack like myocardial infarction or die from erythema because of hypertensive heart disease.

They may also suffer from kidney problem and lead to end-stage renal disease and dialysis. They may suffer from a retinal problem with loss of vision. So it is very important to treat and control their blood pressure so as to prevent all these deadly diseases. Now there are various stages of hypertension. Normally we say that a patient whose normal blood pressure is less than 120mm systolic and less than 80mm diastolic then we call as stage 1 hypertension where your blood pressure systolic blood pressure is between 132-139.

Earlier was 142-149 but now with the latest guidelines, 2017 ACCH guidelines recommend that any person who is having systolic blood pressure between 132-139 and a diastolic blood pressure of 80-89 is classified as stage 1 hypertension. And anything more than 140mm of systolic and more than 90mm of diastolic is classed as class 2 hypertension or stage 2 hypertension. Respective their stage we have to take a proactive step to control their blood pressure either by non-pharmacological means or by pharmacological means.

Non-pharmacological means should we tried for each and every patient whatever stage is, it is very important and there are various ways in which you can control blood pressure. If you are obese then reduction of weight will help you in controlling your blood pressure, reduction of salts intake less than 2-3 grams per day will help you in reducing your blood pressure. Similarly increasing potassium intakes like fruits-vegetable lot of vegetables and fruits especially fruits containing citrus fruits like juicy fruits like oranges, sweet limes all these will help in bringing down your blood pressure.

Regarding the salt intake, you have to avoid all the salty things like a pickle, pepper, baked products, processed foods, junk foods, you have to avoid all these to reduce your salt intake. Home cook food is best. Besides salts and potassium and weight reduction, other non-pharmacological majors which will help you in controlling your blood pressure is sedation of smoking if you are smoker, reduction of alcohol to less than 60ml per day for adult males and less than 30ml for women should encourage.

Then also regular physical activities is very very important in controlling your blood pressure. You should walk to at least 30-45minutes of the brisk walk at least 5-6 days a week if not for all days but the minimum for 5 days a week and 30-45minutes of brisk walking. You can also do yoga, meditation and other things to control your blood pressure. If your blood pressure doesn t come under control with these majors then one can start with pharmacological treatments. You have to control your blood pressure by whatever means.

Even if you have to take 1 medicine 2 medicines 3 or even 4 number of medicines it is very very important to keep them under control with the help of drugs which are very effective in controlling your blood pressure. If you control your blood pressure properly you are less likely to suffer from other cardiovascular disease mortality. So it is very very important to control your blood pressure. Be aware about your blood pressure and try to control it by whatever means which includes non-pharmacological treatment as well as pharmacological treatment. So to book an appointment with me you can contact me through lybrate.com.
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Vaginal Discharge
I m Dr Meera Sethi, I ll be telling you something very important topic which is the most common factor in women of all age group that is vaginal discharge.

Vaginal discharge serves an important housekeeping function in the female reproductive system. From where the fluid comes, where the discharge comes, the fluid is made by the glands inside the vagina and cervix, and this carries dead cells and bacteria. This keeps the vagina clean and helps to prevent infection. Most of the time, vaginal discharge is perfectly normal. Girls complain I am having the discharge, I am having the discharge, this discharge may be normal, this can vary in odour as well as hue, colour, depending on the time of your menstrual cycle. For example, there will be more discharge if you are ovulating, breastfeeding or sexually aroused. It will be different if you are pregnant or if you are not keeping your personal hygiene properly. However, the colour, smell, consistency seems significantly different and if it is associated with vaginal itching or burning, there can be some infection.

What causes abnormal discharge?

Any change in the vaginal balance of vaginal flora affects the smell, colour or consistency of the discharge. There are few things that can upset the balance like a fungal infection, bacterial vaginosis which is common in pregnancy or in women who have multiple sexual partners. Trichomoniasis, which is typically contracted after unprotected sex, pelvic inflammatory diseases, diabetes, sexually transmitted diseases like gonorrhoea or Chlamydia, can be by the use of antibiotics. If the girl or woman is taking antibiotics for a throat infection, or urinary infection, she might have added symptoms of vaginal itching, because of the change in the vaginal flora, the fungal infection can be there. By use of douches, scented soaps, bubble bath, there can be an infection. During the menopausal period, vaginal atrophy leads to infection.


What are the types of abnormal discharges and their possible causes?

Cloudy or yellow discharges seen in gonorrhoea, frothy yellow or greenish discharge with a bad smell is seen in trichomoniasis. There can be symptoms associated such as pain and itching while urinating. Thick, white cheesy discharges are seen in fungal infection with symptoms like swelling and itching around the vulva. There will be painful sexual contact also. A white, grey or yellow discharge with vicious odour is seen in bacterial vaginosis with symptoms like itching and swelling of the vagina and vulva. Bloody or brown discharge is seen in irregular menses, cervical erosion, or there can be a polyp.

How to make a diagnosis of abnormal discharges?

You will be asked by the doctor of the abnormality of the discharge, that when does the abnormal discharge begin, what is the colour of the discharge, what is the smell if there is any if you have any itching, pain or burning in and around the vagina.

Do you have any sexual partner? Do you douche?

And the doctor may take a sample of the vaginal discharge for testing. So it is mandatory not to take any self-medication because the type of the discharge varies from person to person, and from time to time, and the treatment will depend on the type of infection you are having.

So how is abnormal discharge is treated?

Your treatment will depend on your causative problem. Like if there a is fungal infection, you will be treated with oral anti fungals, vaginal pessaries into the vagina and cream outside the vagina and your vulva. Bacterial vaginosis is treated with anti biotics orally and vaginal creams to be applied inside the vagina. Trichomoniacal infection is treated with oral metranedazole or tinidazole and vaginal pessaries are supplemented with it. If the patient is diabetic, it is very important to control the blood sugar levels, otherwise the patient will not be cured of the symptoms. In menopausal ladies, we give estrogen creams for local application to make the atrophic vagina very healthy.

Now, I ll be giving you some important tips to prevent the vaginal infection, which is a very common problem. So you have to keep your vagina clean by washing regularly with mild, gentle soap and warm water or hygienic washes. You should not use scented soaps and feminine douches. Do not use bubble bath or feminine sprays. It is important while going to washroom, always wipe from front to back to prevent bacteria from getting into your vagina and causing any infection. Wear 100% cotton undergarments and avoid overly tight clothing. It is very important to keep your perineal area or private parts dry.

I think this talk will help you in the prevention of a major problem that is vaginal discharge.

Thank you.
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Acne and Acne Scars
Here are symptoms,cause and treatments of Acne and Acne Scars

Hello friends I m Dr. Kanu Verma. I m a consultant dermatologist and cosmetologist practicing in the Dwarka, Delhi. Today I m going to say something about the very common skin problem which is
acne. This is a very common problem which is because of the inflammation of the Pilosebaceous unit of our skin which is attributed to the androgen hormone activities or keratinization problem or related to the bacterial P-acne infection in the gland and so on.

Sometimes, usually the stress environment food habits they don t have the direct impact on that acne but indirectly they cause the acne. OK now the acne squally of acne is acne scars. Actually the scarring is the problem. Acne scars occurs when the inflammation inflammatory changes and infection in the pilosebaceous unit exceeds the skin repair mechanism. There can be a two type of acne scars hypertrophic or raised scars or atrophic depressed scars. Hypertrophic scars when the bear mechanism is over and excessive so there s more collagen formation and this scars are raised over the skin. Atrophic or depressed scars it could be when there s a loss of skin tissue from skin though that causes the skin couldn t repair it properly and there comes the depressed scars. It could be of ISPECT types of scars, box scars, rolling scars.

One more thing sometimes is no scarring over the skin but acne heals leaving behind the pigmentary changes over the skin that we call hyper pigmentation or post inflammatory hyperpigmentation. There are many type of treatment for the acne scars not only the medicine but chemical peels, microdermabrasion, micro-needling processes, micro-needling includes derma rollers, derma pens, then laser treatment. All these treatments you have to go through a sequel of treatment so that the skin and this skin become smooth and the scars fade away.

There are some do s and don ts for the acne and acne scars. You should not pick and prick the acne or pimples when they are. There is very good temptation be that squeeze of the white puss from the acne so it won t leave us scar. Don t keep on touching the acne, don t pricking them, pressing them, squeezing them, don t wash them frequently, cover your face always when while going out of the house, wear the sunscreen, cover your face with the dupatta or scarf, so that it prevents for your skin from the pollution. This is normal ways from which you can prevent the acne scar to an extent. Drink lots of water. Have a healthy lifestyle. More of the fruits and veggies in your diet. Avoid junk food.

If you need any further consultation or details about the treatment then you can go contact me through the Lybrate.
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Acne and Its Scars
Good morning friends. Mera naam Arvind hai and I am from Faridabad. Me aaj apko acne or acne related problems ke baare me batane wala hun. Hum ise aam bhasha me muhaase bhi kehte hai or medical terms me hum ise acne vulgaris kehte hai.

Zadatar ye dekha gaya hai ki acne vulgaris 12-13 saal ki umar me shuru hota hai aur 27- 28 saal ki age aate aate ye khatamm hojata hai. Lekin kisi kisi ko ye 34-35 ya 40 saal ki age tak bhi ho sakta hai. Ise hum old age acne kehte hai. Iski koi khaas wajah nahi hoti hai lekin 70-80 % teenagers me ye problem dekhi jati hai. Aur ye zadatar body me testesterone hormone ki wajah se hota hai.

Ye bohot tarah se ho sakta hai. Mild ho sakta hai, comedones and papules bhi ho sakte hai, pastures ban sakta hai, aur kabhi kbhi nodules or cyst bhi ban jate hai jiski wajah se chehre pe bade bade nishan ho sakte hai, un nishan ko hum acne scar kehte hai. Ye scar 2-3 tarah ke ho sakte hai. Jese ki depression ho sakta hai aur elevation hypertrophic, atrophic scar. Iske ilawa acne chaati pe bhi ho sakta hai, back pe bhi ho sakta hai, shoulders pe bhi ho sakta hai. Par samanya roop se yeh chehre pe sabse zada hota hai. Agar bohot zada severe condition ho to yeh chest pe bhi ho sakta hai aur back pe bhi ho sakta hai.

Jahan tak khaan paan ka sawaal hai, dekha gaya hai ki khaan padaarth se iska koi lena dena nahi hai. Abhi haal filhaal me jo bhi anusandhan hue hai, usme dekha gaya hai ki jo bhi meethi cheezein hoti hai wo acne ko badhawa deti hai. Islie hum kehte hai ki aap meethi aur tali hui cheez bohot kam khaie. Aur kisi tarah ke khaan paan se iska koi sambandh nahi hai. Weight badhne se bhi problem ho sakti hai.

Ab hum iske treatment ki baat karte hai. Treatment me hum lagane ki dawai dete hai aur kabhi kabhi khane ki bhi deni padti hai, ye depend karta hai ki problem kitna severe hai. Jab bhi apko acne se related koi bhi problem ho to aap nearest dermatologist se consult kijiye, wo apka acche se ilaaj karenge aur kaafi jaankaari denge jisse kisi bhi tarah ki galat bhavna man me na ho.

Jitna jaldi treatment hoga utna he scar banne ka chance kam rahega aur treatment me jitni der hogi scar banne ki sambhavna utni he zada hogi.Iska ilaaj bohot he accha hota, response accha ata hai or ye dikkat ekdam theek hojati hai unless hormones ki koi bohot badi samasya naa ho. Agar hormones ki samasya hoti hai to hum hormones ka bhi ilaaj karte hai jisse ki acne aana band hojae.

Iske ilawa scar ke liye alag se treatment hota hai jisme laser hota hai, peeling hoti hai, derma roller hota hai. In sab ka prayog hum kar sakte hai. Aur iske baad bhi koi problem ho to aap apne doctor se khule dill se baat kijiye ki iska aur kya ilaaj ho sakta hai. Me humesha kahunga ki agar apko is prkaar ki koi bhi problem ho to aap apne nearest dermatologist ko consult kare.

Kis bhi problem ke liye aap mujhe Lybrate ke through sampark kar sakte hai.
Having issues? Consult a doctor for medical advice