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Addiction Of Eating Chalk Tips

Addiction

Dr. P K Sukumaran 93% (2673 ratings)
MBBS, DPM (Psychiatry)
Psychiatrist, Thrissur
Addiction

ADDICTION


Decades ago addiction was a pharmacologic term that clearly referred to the use of a tolerance-inducing drug in sufficient quantity as to cause tolerance (the requirement that greater dosages of a given drug be used to produce an identical effect as time passes). With that definition, humans (and indeed all mammals) can become addicted to various drugs quickly. Almost at the same time, a lay definition of addiction developed. This definition referred to individuals who continued to use a given drug despite their own best interest. This latter definition is now thought of as a disease state by the medical community.
Physical dependence, abuse of, and withdrawal from drugs and other miscellaneous substances is outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV TR). Unfortunately, terminology has become quite complicated in the field. To wit, pharmacologists continue to speak of addiction from a physiologic standpoint (some call this a physical dependence); psychiatrists refer to the disease state as dependence; most other physicians refer to the disease as addiction. The field of psychiatry is now considering, as they move from DSM-IV to DSM-V, transitioning from "dependence" to "addiction" as terminology for the disease state.
The medical community now makes a careful theoretical distinction between physical dependence (characterized by symptoms of withdrawal) and psychological dependence (or simply addiction). Addiction is now narrowly defined as "uncontrolled, compulsive use"; if there is no harm being suffered by, or damage done to, the patient or another party, then clinically it may be considered compulsive, but to the definition of some it is not categorized as "addiction". In practice, the two kinds of addiction are not always easy to distinguish. Addictions often have both physical and psychological components.
There is also a lesser known situation called pseudo-addiction.{(Weissman and Haddox, 1989}} A patient will exhibit drug-seeking behavior reminiscent of psychological addiction, but they tend to have genuine pain or other symptoms that have been undertreated. Unlike true psychological addiction, these behaviors tend to stop when the pain is adequately treated.
The obsolete term physical addiction is deprecated, because of its connotations. In modern pain management with opioids physical dependence is nearly universal. While opiates are essential in the treatment of acute pain, the benefit of this class of medication in chronic pain is not well proven. Clearly, there are those who would not function well without opiate treatment; on the other hand, many states are noting significant increases in non-intentional deaths related to opiate use. High-quality, long-term studies are needed to better delineate the risks and benefits of chronic opiate use.
Not all doctors agree on what addiction or dependency is, because traditionally, addiction has been defined as being possible only to a psychoactive substance (for example alcohol, tobacco and other drugs) which ingested cross the blood-brain barrier, altering the natural chemical behavior of the brain temporarily. Many people, both psychology professionals and laypersons, now feel that there should be accommodation made to include psychological dependency on such things as gambling, food, sex, pornography, computers, work, exercise, cutting, and shopping / spending. However, these are things or tasks which, when used or performed, cannot cross the blood-brain barrier and hence, do not fit into the traditional view of addiction. Symptoms mimicking withdrawal may occur with abatement of such behaviors; however, it is said by those who adhere to a traditionalist view that these withdrawal-like symptoms are not strictly reflective of an addiction, but rather of a behavioral disorder. In spite of traditionalist protests and warnings that overextension of definitions may cause the wrong treatment to be used (thus failing the person with the behavioral problem), popular media, and some members of the field, do represent the aforementioned behavioral examples as addictions.
In the contemporary view, the trend is to acknowledge the possibility that the hypothalmus creates peptides in the brain that equal and/or exceed the effect of externally applied chemicals (alcohol, nicotine etc.) when addictive activities take place [citation needed]. For example, when an addicted gambler or shopper is satisfying their craving, chemicals called endorphins are produced and released within the brain, reinforcing the individual's positive associations with their behavior.

Despite the popularity of defining addiction in medical terms, recently many have proposed defining addiction in terms of Economics, such as calculating the elasticity of addictive goods and determining, to what extent, present income and consumption (economics) has on future consumption.
Varied forms of addiction
Physical dependency
Physical dependence on a substance is defined by the appearance of characteristic withdrawal symptoms when the substance or behavior is suddenly discontinued. While opioids, benzodiazepinesbarbiturates, alcohol and nicotine are all well known for their ability to induce physical dependence, other categories of substances share this property and are not considered addictive: cortisone, beta-blockers and most antidepressants are examples. So, while physical dependency can be a major factor in the psychology of addiction and most often becomes a primary motivator in the continuation of an addiction, the initial primary attribute of an addictive substance is usually its ability to induce pleasure, although with continued use the goal is not so much to induce pleasure as it is to relieve the anxiety caused by the absence of a given addictive substance, causing it to become used compulsively. A notable exception to this is nicotine. Users report that a cigarette can be pleasurable, but there is a medical consensus [citation needed] that the user is likely fulfilling his/her physical addiction and, therefore, is achieving pleasurable feelings relative to his/her previous state of physical withdrawal. Further, the physical dependency of the nicotine addict on the substance itself becomes an overwhelming factor in the continuation of most users' addictions. Although 35 million smokers make an attempt to quit every year, fewer than 7% achieve even one year of abstinence (from the NIDA research report on nicotine addiction).[citation needed]
Some substances induce physical dependence or physiological tolerance - but not addiction - for example many laxatives, which are not psychoactive; nasal decongestants, which can cause rebound congestion if used for more than a few days in a row; and some antidepressants, most notably venlafaxineparoxetine and sertraline, as they have quite short half-lives, so stopping them abruptly causes a more rapid change in the neurotransmitter balance in the brain than many other antidepressants. Many non-addictive prescription drugs should not be suddenly stopped, so a doctor should be consulted before abruptly discontinuing them.
The speed with which a given individual becomes addicted to various substances varies with the substance, the frequency of use, the means of ingestion, the intensity of pleasure or euphoria, and the individual's genetic and psychological susceptibility. Some alcoholics report they exhibited alcoholic tendencies from the moment of first intoxication, while most people can drink socially without ever becoming addicted. Studies have demonstrated that opioid dependent individuals have different responses to even low doses of opioids than the majority of people, although this may be due to a variety of other factors, as opioid use heavily stimulates pleasure-inducing neurotransmitters in the brain. The vast majority of medical professionals and scientists agree that if one uses strong opioids on a regular basis for even just a short period of time, one will most likely become physically dependent [citation needed]. Nonetheless, because of these variations, in addition to the adoption and twin studies that have been well replicated, much of the medical community is satisfied that addiction is in part genetically moderated. That is, one's genetic makeup may regulate how susceptible one is to a substance and how easily one may become psychologically attached to a pleasurable routine.
Eating disorders are complicated pathological mental illnesses and thus are not the same as addictions described in this article. Eating disorders, which some argue are not addictions at all, are driven by a multitude of factors, most of which are highly different than the factors behind addictions described in this article.

Eating junk food: It?s in the brain

Dr. Sajeev Kumar 89% (28402 ratings)
C.S.C, D.C.H, M.B.B.S
General Physician, Alappuzha
Eating junk food: It?s in the brain
When it comes to eating junk food one may blame the brain. Addiction is a disease and the same has been proved by a study.
Two areas of the brain have to work together to give the self?control to reject unhealthy foods. California Institute of Technology researchers used MRI to scan the brains of volunteers as they looked at photos of dozens of types of foods and decided which ones they'd like to eat. They found significant differences in the brain activity between people who had self?control in terms of making food choices and those with no self?control.
An area of the brain called the ventromedial prefrontal cortex is involved in all value?based decisions. When ventromedial prefrontal cortex activity decreases, a person will probably reject an item, whereas increased activity means they?ll probably choose it.
The study published in the journal Science found that in people with no self?control, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex seemed to take into consideration only the taste of a food.
In people with good self?control, another area of the brain called dorsolateral prefrontal cortex becomes active and modulates the basic value signals so that the self?controllers also incorporate health considerations into their decisions.
The study showed that ventromedial prefrontal cortex is active during every decision and that the DLPFC is more active when a person is using self?control.
86 people found this helpful

Indications That You Are Over Eating Sweets!

Dt. Shwetha Bhatia 90% (673 ratings)
B.Sc. In Food Science & Quality Control, Post Graduate Diploma In Dietetics
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Pune
Indications That You Are Over Eating Sweets!

Do you love eating sweets and sugary foods too much and end up overdosing on them? Sweets may be delicious, but they contain an excess amount of sugar, which is harmful for your health. There are several ways in which excess sugar can negatively affect your body. You may not realize that you are overdosing on your sugar intake, and hence you should consider certain warning signs which indicate that you are consuming sweets abnormally. They are as follows:

  1. You crave for sweets and sugary foods constantly: The more sugar you consume, the more you will end up consuming. Having more sugar craving becomes an addictive cycle. This is not just because of the fact that your taste buds have adapted and make you get more of the sugary taste. Sugar gives you a high which is followed by a crash, similar to an actual drug. A high sugar diet causes a hormonal response in the body, like a wave. It brings you up and then you come crashing down. The body is triggered to crave for more sugar.
  2. You feel sluggish all day: After sugar causes a high feeling and an initial insulin spike, a crash occurs. Your energy is most stable and when you consume too much of sweets, the highs and lows of the blood sugar cause fluctuation in your energy levels. When you eat a lot of sugary sweets, it is likely that you do not consume sufficient amounts of fiber and protein. As a result, your energy levels stay low.
  3. Your skin breaks: Some people are very sensitive to a spike in their insulin levels because of sugar intake. This can lead to a hormonal cascade, resulting in acne or rosacea. A sugar binge is indicated on your face within some days.
  4. You become very moody: You may experience mood swings, which leave you feeling sad and grumpy at times. This is because of the blood sugar crash which occurs when you are coming off a sugar high. Reduced energy, and sluggishness also add to your swaying moods.

Excess sweets mean excess sugar, which indicates excess calories as well. The release of insulin is also triggered. Because of these factors, sudden weight gain is also an important sign that you are overdosing on sweets and foods which contain too much sugar. You need to make several dietary modifications, and change your lifestyle in order to save yourself from acquiring health conditions which are associated with high blood sugar, such as diabetes.

3340 people found this helpful

Signs That You May Be Suffering From An Eating Disorder!

Dr. Mahesh Hembram 86% (22 ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MD - Psychiatry, DPM
Psychiatrist, Jamshedpur
Signs That You May Be Suffering From An Eating Disorder!

Have you ever thought that you could also suffer from an eating disorder? While in most cases there are no outward signs and symptoms of such a disease, but many people experience an overwhelming feeling of controlling intense pain or other troubling emotions by eating too much or not eating at all.

It is not a passing phase that can be attributed to adolescence or a way of expressing vanity. It is therefore crucial for every sufferer to identify the problems and seek medical attention as soon as you come across even a single symptom of an eating disorder. This is because research suggests that adequate intervention of early signs can lead to the best treatment and easy relief from the unwanted disease.

Signs and symptoms of eating disorders
It goes without saying that disorderly eating habits stand in the way of enjoying a healthy life in terms of emotional, spiritual and social well-being and therefore its further progression should be inhibited. Behaviours that are commonly associated with eating disorders include:

  • Persistently adhering to an impractical and strict diet no matter how healthy or unhealthy the person is.
  • Using the bathroom right after eating.
  • Secretly binging on large amounts of food.
  • Hoarding huge amounts of food at home and at the workplace in fear of lack of availability of more food.
  • Increased consumption of various types of laxatives or diet pills or other such medication.
  • Exercising too much which may extend for several hours in a day.
  • Using illicit drugs such as cocaine to suppress an appetite.

Despite such a wide range of symptoms, an eating disorder is primarily rooted in a person’s gene and other environmental factors. It is also dependent on the medical history, addictive disorders, underlying health conditions and most importantly, life experiences of that person.

Emotional changes pertaining to eating disorder:
Here it becomes worthy to mention that certain emotional changes also go hand in hand with an eating disorder. Some of them include:

  • Withdrawal from society particularly from family and friends.
  • Withdrawal from situations where questions related to the family may arise.
  • Avoidance of a get-together or other situations where food may be present.
  • Obsessing over total calorie intake as well as calories burnt through physical exercise even when the person is losing a large amount of weight day by day.
  • Preoccupation with body weight and other aspects of physical appearance.
  • Eating too much without caring about what others may think.
  • Finding solace in foods.

It is therefore pointed out that there are two primary types of eating disorder where a person may eat too much or eat too little, both of which can be detrimental to health. Therefore, it is important to review the symptoms and find out whether you need to talk to an expert to treat the condition.

3987 people found this helpful

EATING

Dr. Mool Chand Gupta 91% (35709 ratings)
MD - Pulmonary, DTCD
Pulmonologist, Faridabad
EATING
One should avoid eating cut fruits and vegitable at this time os season to avoid
Jaundice, typhoid, gatroenteritis and cholera.
37 people found this helpful

Eating Right

Dr. Garima Kaur 90% (308 ratings)
MICOG, MS, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Eating Right

Have a light and early dinner for good sleep and fresh morning, lots of salad and vegetables and less chapati/rice.

Eating Right

Dt. Tania 92% (3468 ratings)
Net Qualified In Community Health And Social Medicine, M.Sc - Dietetics and Community Nutrition
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Durgapur
Eating Right

Eating Right

8 people found this helpful

Eating Right

Dt. Tania 92% (3468 ratings)
Net Qualified In Community Health And Social Medicine, M.Sc - Dietetics and Community Nutrition
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Durgapur
Eating Right

Eating Right

1 person found this helpful

Eating Right

Dr. Chaitanya Challa 87% (147 ratings)
MBBS, MD GENERAL MEDICINE, PDCC CRITICAL CARE, FCCS CRITICAL CARE
General Physician, Hyderabad
Eating Right

Eating right is one of the most important concious decisions that one can make on a daily basis

Eating Right

Dr. Kushal Bhandari 90% (116 ratings)
Certified Implantologist, Advanced Aesthetics
Dentist, Pune
Eating Right

Munching foods like apples, pears, carrots or celery after brushing can help in preventing discoloration as they trigger tooth-bathing saliva which helps in keeping the teeth whiter.

11 people found this helpful
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