While cold and cough are common, diseases like Addison’s disease are rare. It is also known as chronic adrenal insufficiency or hypocortisolism as it is a result of insufficient production of hormones like cortisol and aldosterone by the adrenal glands. This disease can affect men and women of any age.
There are two types of Addison’s disease. These are:
Primary adrenal insufficiency is more common of the two. This could be triggered as a result of autoimmune diseases or a long lasting infection such as HIV, tuberculosis and some fungal infections. Cancer can also cause this type of Addison’s disease.
Secondary adrenal insufficiency is usually caused by a problem with the pituitary gland or the hypothalamus as they are responsible for the production of hormones that stimulate the adrenal glands. Damage caused to the pituitary gland by tumors or radiation and surgery can also interfere with hormone production. Prolonged and improper use of steroid hormones can also trigger this condition.
Addison’s disease has a very slow progression and its symptoms develop gradually over time. Some of these symptoms are:
Treatment for Addison’s disease involves hormone replacement therapy. This aims at correcting the hormone levels in the body. Hormone replacement therapy includes oral corticosteroids and corticosteroid injections. The dosage of these steroids could vary depending on the situation. For example, the doctor may suggest a temporary high dosage when the patient is in a stressful condition. Along with this, sodium is also recommended especially during the summer months and while exercising. This medication must be taken regularly as skipping a single dose can be dangerous.
In some cases this condition can become life threatening. An addisonian crisis causes a drop in blood pressure, sugar and a spike in potassium levels in the body. This requires immediate medical attention and can be treated with intravenous injections of hydrocortisone, saline solution and sugar.
The build-up of gases in the stomach can be uncomfortable and very embarrassing when it leads to flatulence. Flatulence can be defined as the release of intestinal gas from the anus. This may or may not be accompanied by sound and odour. Both men and women can be affected by flatulence at any age.
Food that is difficult to digest often triggers the formation of gas such as hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane and sulphur in the digestive system as a result of the microbial breakdown of this food. Sulphur is largely responsible for the odor that accompanies the release of these gases. Beans, chickpeas, cauliflower and cabbage are some such foods that can trigger flatulence.
Flatulence on its own is not a serious condition and usually resolves itself without medication. However if it triggers severe abdominal cramps, diarrhea, persistent constipation, blood in the stools, nausea and pain in the right side of the abdomen, medical care should be immediately sought.
If flatulence is a problem you suffer from often, take a look at your diet and modify your eating habits. Keep a food diary to determine what food triggers this condition and avoid it. If you are lactose intolerant switch your dairy products for soya substitutes and avoid dairy. Anti-gas compounds that are available over the counter can also provide relief. Chew your food slowly, thoroughly and ensure that your mouth is closed while chewing to prevent swallowing air. For this reason, also avoid chewing gums and fizzy drinks. If you must eat beans, soak them overnight before cooking.
Flatulence can be easily treated with home remedies. Following home remedies can be used
1. Ginger: Ginger aids the digestion process, eases bloating and reduces gas. It also helps stool pass smoothly and helps keep the intestines clear. This does not give stomach gases a chance to build up. Ginger can be consumed in the form of capsules or a tea made by steeping ginger in hot water for a few minutes.
2. Papaya: Along with being rich in antioxidants and flavonoids, papaya contains an enzyme known as papain that helps digest proteins and reduce gas. To benefit from papain, you could eat the papaya fruit or drink a tea made with papaya leaves. Papaya enzymes are also available as supplements.
Many times we forget about the importance of our health in the race to pursue our careers and goals. We take our bodies for granted and keep working them without stopping for a breath. While some may have mastered this art, there are many who may not be able to cope with such a lifestyle and may end up falling ill. The most common problem that most people suffer from is stomach upset, gas, or stomach pain, and all of this may be because of not eating right or having irregular eating habits.
It is due to such problems that people fall ill and then go to the doctor with a problem that may take much longer to treat. However, if the patient starts to check in with the doctor before the stomach pain worsens, it may be easier to treat because very often the pain arises from stomach ulcers. Ulcers are sores that are caused on the lining of the stomach or the oesophagus or even on the intestines. In serious cases, the sores may cause great damage to the stomach and may lead to much worse issues. However, with the right intake of food, the damage may be controlled in combination with medicines and treatment from experts.
Foods to avoid
In controlling the spread of stomach ulcers or peptic ulcers, it may be important to know the food that should be avoided so that the medicines and treatments taken for controlling the problem may work better. Here is a list of foods that you should avoid:
When you start to keep your diet clean and healthy, it may be much easier for your doctor to cure you of stomach ulcers.
Contaminated food is one of the most common sources of infections in the human body and so the stomach is one of the most commonly affected organs. Whether it is eating raw food or unhygienically prepared foods, the stomach has very high chance of getting infected than other body parts.
One of the most common causes of stomach infection is the norovirus also called as cruise ship virus. Spread through vomitus and faecal material, it is quite contagious and can affect large amounts of people in confined areas like a cruise ship. The common symptoms would include nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, bloated feeling, abdominal pain (generalised or localised), fatigue, and tiredness.
On the brighter side, there are well-proven measures listed below which are simple and easy to follow that can help avoid stomach infection.
Following the above measures can help avoid the stomach flu and stay healthy.
Abdomen pain or abdominal pain is usually experienced in the area between the chest and the stomach. This kind of pain usually comes as a dull cramp that also produces shooting stabs of pains intermittently, or it may be a localised pain in one side of the stomach. This may also be accompanied by inflammation and other diseases related to organs like intestines, kidneys, pancreas, liver, spleen and stomach. So what are the causes of stomach or abdomen pain? Read on to find out:
Food Poisoning: Food poisoning can be caused due to dirty water or contaminated food. This can give rise to various infections as well as conditions like traveler's diarrhea or loose motions.
Gastro-Intestinal Conditions: GERD or gastroesophageal reflux disease and gastroenteritis, among various others, can also lead to abdomen pain as a symptom along with severe acidity and nausea. Irritable bowel syndrome is another major ailment which can leave you with persistent abdominal pain.
Generalized Pain: This kind of pain occurs in the overall area all around the stomach and may point at the presence of conditions like Crohn's Disease, a traumatic injury, appendicitis, flu, or even a urinary tract infection. Further, when the gas settles and tightens the stomach due to the inability to pass a motion on a normal, regular basis, this may be termed as constipation. This also leads to abdomen pain.
Localised Lower Abdomen Pain: Pain that is found specifically in the lower area of the abdomen can be caused due to appendicitis, obstruction or blockage in the intestine or colon, and other ailments. This pain can also be accompanied by nausea and vomiting.
Localised Centre Abdomen Pain: Pain in the centre part of the stomach or abdomen may be caused due to gastroenteritis, an injury or even the accumulation of waste products in the body, otherwise known as uremia.
Abdomen Pain and Women: For women, such localised pain may be caused due to pelvic inflammatory disease, urinary tract infection, endometriosis, ectopic pregnancy, menstrual cramps which are also called dysmenorrhoea, and fibroids. Miscarriages can also cause pain in this part of the abdomen, for women.
Renal Stones: Renal stones or stone in kidney is one of the most common causes of abdomen pain. The pain caused by kidney stone is such that it can make a patient roll in bed and this pain may radiate to toward the groin as well. Persistent pain and nausea that come with vomiting and finally give rise to blood in the vomit or stool should be checked by the doctor immediately, so as to rule out any serious ailment. Imaging tests, ultrasound and an X-Ray can help in diagnosis.
In most cases, pain anywhere in the body can be explained as a symptom of some other problem, but sometimes, there is no reason for abdominal pain. This type of pain is known as chronic functional abdominal pain. This is a gastrointestinal disorder that cannot be explained through X-ray or laboratory findings. It can be triggered by altered sensitivity to nerve impulses in the brain and gut. People suffering from this condition are often so debilitated by the pain that it becomes the central focus of their life.
This condition cannot be cured, but with proper treatment, it can be managed so that it does not affect the quality of your life. The aim of treatment for this condition is to control the symptoms and improve functioning. When it comes to treating this condition, the patient’s relationship with his or her doctor plays an important role as the condition cannot be proven through any form of testing and it has a great psychological effect on the person. Regular checkups are also a key to managing this condition effectively.
The first step towards achieving this is to identify possible emotional and situational triggers. Maintaining a journal that records these experiences can help with this. Further treatment is usually either through psychological treatment or antidepressants.
Psychological treatment is based on the understanding that the brain can block pain by diverting attention elsewhere. Nerve impulses that travel from the abdomen to the brain must pass through a type of ‘gate’ that is controlled by nerve impulses generated by the brain. When these impulses close the gates, pain is blocked while when these gates are open, the pain can be magnified. Psychological treatment for chronic functional abdominal pain can be in the form of relaxation techniques, imagery, hypnosis and cognitive behavioral therapy. While relaxation techniques such as meditation and hypnosis help a person shift focus from the pain, cognitive behavioral therapy teaches a person how to change thoughts and perceptions in order to control the pain.
Antidepressants can also act as pain relievers. This form of medication stimulates the production of brain signals that close the ‘gates’ of nerve transmissions. This blocks the pain but can take several weeks to be effective. Some people may experience side effects such as drowsiness and nausea and hence should never be taken without a doctor’s supervision. In some cases, antidepressants may also be combined with cognitive behavioral therapy or medication to regulate bowels.
There are a number of digestive problems that can affect a patient, depending on one's diet and daily routine. Indigestion, acidity, loose motions and even constipation are some of the common ailments and conditions that many of us experience. Obstruction in defecation is also one such condition that may be caused by consuming certain kinds of food or due to the digestive health in general. Obstructive defecation syndrome (ODS) is a wide term used to depict the state of patients with defecatory blockage or constipation. These frequently encountered disorders affect 18% of the population .
The condition can be diagnosed by a general physical or a gastroenterologist by using the following parameters:
Besides aches and pains, the other symptoms include the following:
Any kind of injury on the surface of the skin is immediately noticed by us, but when something happens to one of our internal organs, it can take a little longer to get to your notice for example, an obstruction in the bile duct. The bile duct is a tubular structure responsible for carrying bile from the liver and gall bladder through the pancreas to the small intestine. This bile helps the digestion process and the absorption of fat.
An obstruction in the bile duct can be triggered by a number of factors. Some of these are:
This can affect anyone, but the people who have a history of gall stones or tumors in the abdomen are at a higher risk of suffering from bile duct obstruction. Chronic pancreatitis, sudden weight loss or obesity can also increase this risk. The symptoms of biliary obstruction include light coloured stool, dark urine, pain in the upper right abdomen, nausea, vomiting and fever. Your doctor will also probably need an X-ray of the bile ducts, blood tests, a hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid scan and ultrasonograph to confirm a diagnosis before they can start treating you for the same.
If not treated in time, bile duct blockages can lead to a dangerous buildup of bilirubin in the body and trigger a number of life threatening diseases. Treatment for biliary obstruction can be through medication or surgery with surgery being the more preferred mode of treatment. It is aimed at resolving the underlying cause of the obstruction and alleviating the blockage. Treatment for biliary obstruction can be two common forms of treatment include a cholecystectomy and ERCP. The former involves the removal of the gall bladder and is suited to obstructions caused by gallstones. The latter is a procedure to remove small stones from the bile duct or place a stent inside the duct.
There are many ways bile duct obstruction can be prevented which first and foremost includes following a healthy lifestyle. If you are overweight, exercise for at least half an hour a day to regulate your weight and reach a healthy BMI. Decrease your intake of sugar and saturated fats as both these can cause gall stones. Also, increase the amount of fibre in your diet. All the above mentioned tips will certainly help you in preventing bile duct obstruction.
Stomach aches or abdominal pains are one of the most frequently reported health complaints faced by children. Children below the age of twelve are known to suffer from recurrent stomach pain. While pains such as these lead to momentary discomfiture, they also lay the path for graver worries if neglected for too long. Your child may feel sick and bunk school for two days; rest and home care can restore his or her health, but that in no way, is the best-suited way of dealing with the situation. If tummy aches resurface over a certain period of time, parents should be cautious enough to look for the root cause and should try to eliminate it accordingly.
Widely noticed causes of stomach aches in children:
Ways to treat tummy aches in children: