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Skin Problems in Children Tips

6 Common Skin Problems in Children

Dr. Dharamvir Singh 92% (1251 ratings)
MD - Dermatology , Venereology & Leprosy, MBBS
Dermatologist, Delhi
6 Common Skin Problems in Children

Children are more susceptible to health problems as their immunity is still developing and along with frequent infections such as fever or stomach problems, skin problems are a common affliction. Most skin problems within children are a manifestation of the underlying conditions such as allergies or other sicknesses. Some of the common skin allergies and problems are mentioned here.

  1. Heat Rash or Prickly Heat: This is possibly the most common skin condition that children are generally afflicted by. These are small red bumps on the skin which look like minute pimples. It is caused due to the blockage of the pores and excessive sweating due to hot weather or wearing warm clothes.
  2. Ringworm: Unlike the name, this condition isn’t actually caused by the infection from a worm. Ringworm is named so due to the ring that forms on the skin which is scaly, inflamed, red in color and can be quite itchy. It is mostly caused by a fungus that lives on the skin. Ringworms are mostly passed through skin to skin contact.
  3. Chickenpox Rashes: Although there are vaccines that have minimized the occurrence of this disease, it still occurs from time to time. One of the tell-tale signs of this disease are the rashes that may develop all over the body which is accompanied by fever. Although, these may go away, some marks from the rashes may remain and it is important to take care so that they don’t leave any mark behind.
  4. Eczema: This is another very common skin condition that afflicts many kids and is usually attributed to allergies and asthma. The typical symptoms usually include a patch of raised skin which is inflamed and red. Children often complain about excessive itching and the affected skin tends to be quite dry. Although topical medications are useful, curing or treating the underlying symptoms shows remarkable improvement.
  5. Impetigo: This is a type of bacterial infection which primarily occurs around the mouth and nose but repeated scratching can spread it around other parts of the body as well. In this condition, red sores or blisters may develop on the skin and then develop a yellow crust which may even ooze fluid sometimes. It is mostly spread by the use of objects such as toys and clothing items or even towels. Antibiotics may be required to treat this condition.
  6. Allergic reactions or contact dermatitis: Another very common skin problems that affect kids, this occurs as a reaction to certain chemicals such as those found in certain foods, soaps, plants or insects which may either cause a lesion or an inflamed area on the skin. In some cases, it may form blister, although all of these will go away on their own. However, if it persists for more than a week or two or if it is extremely painful, you should immediately take your child to the doctor. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult the doctor and ask a free question.
2561 people found this helpful

How To Control Common Skin Problems In Children?

Dr. Rashmi Sharma 87% (91 ratings)
MBBS, D.V.D.L, Fellowship, DNB (Dermatology)
Dermatologist, Delhi
How To Control Common Skin Problems In Children?

Problems with the skin during the teenage years are very common. Although skin issues can be really stressful, the right skin care treatment can help in controlling the problems you may face during this time. Here are some of the skin issues that you may face at this stage of life and ways to prevent them:

1. Oily Skin: Oily skin is a very common occurrence during teenage years. To a certain extent, oily skin may be due to genetics but for some, it may be due to hormonal changes that cause excess oil to be produced on the skin surface. In order to not inflame the skin further, individuals with oily skin shouldn't overly scrub their skin as well as not use harsh cleansers to clean the face. More importantly, when you do use a cleanser on your face, you should only do so two times a day. If you go overboard, it would only do more harm than good.

2. Acne: Whether it is blackheads, whiteheads or spots filled with pus, acne affects about 80% of teenagers at some point in their lives. Teenagers are more prone to this problem because the hormone levels during this time are especially high, resulting in an increase in the magnitude of sebaceous glands and the oil that is produced. When too much oil is produced, this, along with dead skin cells block, the follicles, giving rise to acne. There are certain ways in which you can prevent it from occurring, such as always having a bath after any strenuous activity, not picking or touching the problem areas and washing acne-prone spots only two times a day.


3. Excessive Sweating: Excessive sweating is another major cause of concern for teenagers. The problem can be due to two different conditions - stress or hyperhidrosis (a condition wherein you sweat excessively on a daily basis). Wearing clothes made from cotton, using antiperspirants as well as avoiding drinks and foods that may cause episodes of excessive sweating are some of the ways in which you can keep the problem in control. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a dermatologist.

4645 people found this helpful

How To Take Care Of Your Children?

Dr. Mukesh Vyas 90% (603 ratings)
BPTh/BPT
Physiotherapist, Pune

Always make it a practice to encourage your children to inform you if they face any pain or discomfort in the neck or back before it becomes a serious problem.

1 person found this helpful

Oral Care For Children!

Dr. Puneet Kansal 92% (821 ratings)
MDS - Orthodontics, BDS
Dentist, Meerut
Oral Care For Children!

Dental sealants: protection shield for children oral health

10% of children are prone to dental cavities, as it is one of the most common problems worldwide. Children need specialized pediatric care & their parents have to play an important role to take care of their children's dental health.

Cavities occur when children takes more sugar in their diet which forms plaque or translucent bacterial on the tooth surface. It destroys the tooth enamel. Once you lose tooth enamel, it can't be recovered.

Many studies showed that from childhood to adulthood, children have many dental problems and the most common is cavities. As we can do, many cure through dental visits, good oral hygiene, fluoridated tooth paste which have minimum quantity of fluoride, flossing, mouth rinse.

After all the precautions, children still have cavities because some have low immunity so response to bacteria is more prone on their oral cavity. When your child eats and drinks, these bacteria create acids, which can dissolve the protective layer beneath the retained plaque. It removes minerals from the enamel, which if left untreated causing a cavity. Parents often have questions about how to take care of their children's teeth.

For good oral hygiene of children, using dental sealants as protection shield to keep the teeth healthy. Dental sealant is a plastic material that is applied to the teeth, hardens them, and provides a barrier against plaque and other harmful substances. They are usually placed on the chewing (occlusal) surface of the permanent back teeth, the molars and premolars & protect them from cavities. It works like rain coat for tooth against cavities.

Dental sealant procedure:

First, polishing the surface of the tooth to remove plaque and food debris from the pit and fissure surfaces.
Next, isolate and dry the tooth. Then, etch will apply on the surface of the tooth, rinse off the etching material and dry the tooth.
Applying the sealant on the surface of the tooth with a brush; a self-curing light will be used for about 30 seconds to bond the sealant to the tooth surface.
Then, evaluating the dental sealant and check the occlusion. Once the sealant as hardened it becomes a hard plastic coating, and child can chew on the tooth again.

Many studies have shown that dental sealant are effective in helping to prevent decay on chewing (occlusal) surfaces for last many years. If necessary, it is also possible to place a new dental sealant on the tooth. Dental sealant is a painless treatment without drilling or numbing medications. Sealants are more common in children because of the new growth of permanent teeth.

 

2 people found this helpful

Acne in Children

Dr. Ramakanth Reddy 94% (157 ratings)
MBBS, Diploma In Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Acne in Children

What is acne?

Acne is a disorder of the hair follicles and sebaceous glands. Hair follicles are the areas around the base or root of each hair. Sebaceous glands are the tiny glands that release oil (sebum) into the hair follicles. The sebum moistens the skin and hair. The sebum and hair get to the skin surface through tiny holes called pores. 

Acne is very common. Most children and young adults between ages 11 and 30 will have acne at some point. Acne most often begins in puberty. But it can happen at any age. There are different types of acne that affect newborns, infants, younger children, and adults. 

Acne may occur when the pores gets clogged with dead skin cells and oil. Bacteria that are normally on the skin may also get into the clogged pore. Acne comes in several types. One type is a comedone. This is a plug of sebum in the hair follicle. They are either closed whiteheads, or open blackheads. These are not inflamed or infected.

Inflamed acne causes red, painful bumps or sores. The sores may be infected with bacteria. This type of acne includes:

  • Pustule. Bacteria cause the hair follicle to be inflamed. Pustules are closer to the skin surface.
  • Papule. The wall of the hair follicle gets irritated. Papules are deeper in the skin.
  • Nodule. These are larger, deeper, and more solid.
  • CystThis is a nodule with pus.

What causes acne?

The cause of acne is not fully understood. Acne is linked with:

  • Hormonal changes during puberty, pregnancy, and the menstrual cycle
  • Rising levels of male sex hormones (androgens) in both boys and girls during puberty that causes more sebum and more dead skin cells
  • Using makeup or cosmetics that block the pores
  • Using certain products to wash the skin
  • Wearing clothes that rub or irritate the skin
  • High levels of moisture in the air (humidity) and sweating
  • Taking certain medicines, such as corticosteroids    

Who is at risk for acne?

Being a teen (adolescent) is the greatest risk factor for acne. A family history also increases the risk for severe acne.

What are the symptoms of acne?

Acne can occur anywhere on the body. It is most common in areas where there are more sebaceous glands, such as:

  • Face
  • Chest
  • Upper back
  • Shoulders
  • Neck

Symptoms can occur a bit differently in each child. They can include:

  • Small bumps that are skin-colored or white (whiteheads)
  • Small bumps that are dark in color (blackheads)
  • Red, pus-filled pimples that may hurt
  • Solid, raised bumps (nodules)
  • Darker areas of skin
  • Scarring

The symptoms of acne can be like other health conditions. Make sure your child sees his or her healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

How is acne diagnosed?

The healthcare provider will ask about your child’s symptoms and health history. He or she will look at the areas of the body with acne. The provider may advise that your child see a doctor who specializes in skin care (dermatologist).

How is acne treated?

Treatment will depend on your child’s symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is. The goal of acne treatment is to improve the skins appearance and to lessen the chance of scarring. Treatment for acne will include gentle, regular skin care. Your child's healthcare provider may advise:

  • Non-prescription cleansers and creams, lotions, gels, or other products
  • Prescriptions that are put on the skin (topical) or taken by mouth (oral)
  • Other therapies or procedures, such as laser therapy, light therapy, or chemical peels
  • Draining of a cyst, or injecting it with medicine

Topical medicines are often prescribed to treat acne. These can be in the form of a cream, gel, lotion, or liquid. These may include:

  • Benzoyl peroxide. This kills bacteria.
  • Antibiotics. These help stop or slow down the growth of bacteria. They also reduce inflammation.
  • Tretinoin. This stops new comedones from forming. It also encourages new skin cell growth and unplugs pimples.
  • Adapalene. This helps stop new comedones from forming.

Medicines to take by mouth may be prescribed, such as:

What are possible complications of acne?

Acne can cause problems with self-esteem. It may cause emotional problems. It may result in depression, anxiety, and even suicidal thoughts. Severe or long-term acne may cause scarring. Serious infections may also develop.

Living with acne

Acne can be a long-term condition. Early treatment can help to prevent or lessen severe acne. Help your child by:

  • Reminding your child to not pick, pop, or squeeze acne, which can spread infection and cause scars
  • Talking with your child's healthcare provider if over-the-counter treatments don’t work well
  • Considering taking your child to a dermatologist for long-term or severe acne
  • Making sure your child stops acne treatment slowly, not quickly, once acne clears
  • Having your child treat acne a few times a week to prevent it from returning, if needed
  • Making sure your child does skin care regularly and gently

When should I call my child's healthcare provider?

Call your child's healthcare provider if: 

  • Your child is upset by his or her acne
  • The acne is getting worse
  • Over-the-counter treatments are not working

Key points about acne

  • Acne is a disorder of the hair follicles and sebaceous glands.
  • Acne may happen when the pores gets clogged with dead skin cells and oil. Bacteria that are normally on the skin may also get into the clogged pore.
  • Most teens and young adults between 11 and 30 years old will have acne at some point.
  • Both over-the-counter and prescription medicines are available to treat acne.
  • Acne can have an emotional effect. This can lead to depression, anxiety, and even suicidal thoughts.
  • Scarring can result from severe or long-term acne.

Next steps

Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your child’s health care provider:

  • Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
  • At the visit, write down the names of new medicines, treatments, or tests, and any new instructions your provider gives you for your child.
  • If your child has a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
  • Know how you can contact your child’s provider after office hours. This is important if your child becomes ill and you have questions or need advice.
4 people found this helpful

Can children have heart problem....???

Dr. Krish Vaidya 93% (3910 ratings)
MD-Physician, Fellow. Cardiology, Fellow. Diabetology
Cardiologist, Vadodara
Can children have heart problem....???
It is a typical myth that heart problems can only occur in adults and aged people.

Fact is - children can also be having heart diseases! which are called congenital or by birth heart diseases.
These ones include- septal defects like- asd, vsd (hole in the heart), valvular diseases, heart malformations, pda and even adult like coronary heart disease.

Signs and symptoms can be-
Easy fatigue,
Difficulty in breathing
Sometimes bluish discolouration of skin
Chest pain
Palpitation etc.

For such issues, consult a cardiologist as soon as possible.
2 people found this helpful

What is Impetigo in Children?

Dr. Ramakanth Reddy 94% (157 ratings)
MBBS, Diploma In Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad

What is impetigo in children?

Impetigo is an infection of the skin. When it affects just the surface, it’s called superficial impetigo. Impetigo can also affect deeper parts of the skin. This is called ecthyma. It may occur on healthy skin. Or it may occur where the skin was injured by a cut, scrape, or insect bite.

Impetigo is most common in children from ages 2 to 5. It is contagious. This means it’s easily passed from one person to another. It can be spread around a household. Children can infect other family members, and can reinfect themselves.

What causes impetigo in a child?

Impetigo is caused by bacteria. The bacteria that can cause it include:

  • Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus

  • Staphylococcus aureus

Who is at risk for impetigo in a child?

Impetigo is more common in children, but adults may also have the infection. A child is more likely to get impetigo if he or she:

  • Has close contact with to others with impetigo

  • Does not keep clean (poor hygiene)

  • Is in warm, moist (humid) air

  • Has other skin conditions, such as scabies or eczema

What are the symptoms of impetigo in a child?

Symptoms can occur a bit differently in each child. They also vary depending on which bacteria caused it. Symptoms can include:

  • Red bumps

  • Sores that are filled with fluid, draining fluid, or crusted over

  • Areas that are red, swollen, and may itch

  • Swelling of nearby lymph glands (nodes)

The bumps or sores can occur anywhere on the body. But they are most common on the face, arms, and legs.

The symptoms of impetigo can be like other health conditions. Make sure your child sees his or her healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

How is impetigo diagnosed in a child?

The healthcare provider will ask about your child’s symptoms and health history. He or she will give your child a physical exam. A sample of the pus from the sores may be sent to a lab. This is called a culture. It’s done to see what type of bacteria caused the infection. It can help the doctor decide the best antibiotic for treatment.

How is impetigo treated in a child?

Treatment will depend on your child’s symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is. Treatment may include:

  • Prescription antibiotic cream or ointment. This is most often done for mild impetigo. Over-the-counter antibiotic cream or ointment is usually not advised.

  • Antibiotic pills or liquid by mouth (oral). This is most often advised if your child has several areas of impetigo or ecthyma. It may also be advised if more than one person in a household has impetigo.

  • Cleaning and bandaging. You will need to gently washing affected areas of your child’s skin with mild soap and water. Cover areas that are draining fluid. Make sure to wash your hands before and after caring for your child’s impetigo.

What are possible complications of impetigo in a child?

Possible complications of impetigo can include:

  • Worsening or spreading of the infection

  • Scarring, which is more common with ecthyma

Impetigo caused by beta-hemolytic strep bacteria can cause:

  • Kidney damage (poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis)

  • Fever, joint, and other problems (rheumatic fever)

What can I do to prevent impetigo in my child?

You can help to prevent impetigo and prevent it from spreading to others. The following may help:

  • Keep your child out of daycare or school for 24 hours after starting antibiotic treatment. Your child can return after 24 hours. Cover any draining sores with bandages.

  • Make sure your child and everyone else in your household washes his or her hands well. This means using soap and water and scrubbing well.

  • Have everyone in the household use their own towels for drying hands and for after bathing. Do not share towels.

  • Keep your child's fingernails short. This can help prevent your child scratching and spreading the infection.

When should I call my child's healthcare provider?

Call the healthcare provider if your child has a skin infection after being in contact with anyone who has impetigo.

1 person found this helpful

What is thrush in children?

Dr. Ramakanth Reddy 94% (157 ratings)
MBBS, Diploma In Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad

Thrush (Oral Candida Infection) in Children

What is thrush in children?

Thrush is a mouth infection that is common in babies and children. Symptoms include white or yellow velvety patches in the mouth. Thrush is caused by a type of fungus called Candida. Candida is found naturally on the skin and in the mouth. But if Candida grows out of control, it can cause thrush. Thrush is not a serious problem for a healthy child. It can be treated with antifungal medicine.

What causes thrush in a child?

Candida yeast is common in the everyday environment. It only causes a problem when it grows out of control. This can happen if a child:

  • Has taken antibiotics
  • Uses inhaled corticosteroids, such as for asthma
  • Uses a pacifier often
  • Has a weakened immune system

Which children are at risk for thrush?

A child is more at risk for thrush if he or she:

  • Had a very low birth weight
  • Passed through the birth canal of a mother with a yeast infection
  • Has taken antibiotics
  • Uses inhaled corticosteroids, such as for asthma
  • Uses a pacifier often
  • Has a weakened immune system
  • What are the symptoms of thrush in a child?

Thrush causes milky white or yellow patches to form on the tongue or inner cheeks. These patches can be painful and may bleed. Some babies have no pain from thrush. Others may have pain and be fussy and refuse to feed. It may hurt when your child swallows. Thrush can also cause cracked skin in the corners of the mouth. Symptoms can occur a bit differently in each child. The symptoms of thrush can be like other health conditions. Make sure your child sees his or her healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

How is thrush diagnosed in a child?

The healthcare provider will ask about your child’s symptoms and health history. He or she will give your child a physical exam. This will include looking in your child’s mouth.

2 people found this helpful

Preventing Thumb Sucking in Children

Dr. Meenakshi Vaishnavi 91% (168 ratings)
PGDHHM, BDS
Dentist, Gurgaon
Preventing Thumb Sucking in Children

Thumb or finger sucking is common in infants through the first year of their lives. A child usually turns to his thumb when he is tired, upset or bored.

A child younger than five years should not be pressured to stop thumb sucking. While majority of children give up such habits on their own before they enter school, about 15 percent of children continue thumb sucking past their fifth birthday. This is an age when teasing often starts, causing difficulties for children.

Apart from this, thumb sucking can also lead to dental problems. A child who is still sucking his thumb by age five, when permanent teeth start coming in, may develop an abnormal bite. In addition, prolonged thumb sucking can cause minor physical problems, such as chapped lips or cracked skin, calluses, or fingernail infections.

The effects of thumb sucking are usually reversible until the age of seven because children still have their deciduous (baby) teeth. If thumb sucking continues beyond that age, when the second teeth are erupting, permanent dental problems can occur.

There are various things you can do to help your child stop thumb sucking:

1. Reward your child and offer encouragement - For example, with a hug or praise to reinforce their decision to stop the habit.

2. Limit nagging - If children feel they are being nagged they will become defensive.

3. Mark their progress on a calendar - For example, place a star or a tick for each period (such as a day or week) that the child does not suck thumb or finger. Provide a special outing or a toy if the child gets through the period successfully.

4. Encourage bonding - For example, with a special toy.

5. Reminders - Give the child a mitten to wear as a reminder not to suck, or place unpleasant tasting nail paint (available from chemists) on the fingers or thumb. Placing a band aid over the thumb at bedtime is another reminder.

6. Offer distractions - While a child is watching tv, have toys available for children to play with. Sit with the child during this time and give a cuddle to help them not to suck. In the car, have toys available to keep children occupied.

7. Talk to your pediatrician and your child's dentist, who may recommend appropriate treatment that prevents thumb sucking.

3638 people found this helpful

Fever in Children And Home Remedies

Dr. Rakesh Gupta 92% (258 ratings)
MBBS, Diploma in Child Health (DCH)
Pediatrician, Gondiya
Fever in Children And Home Remedies

Fever remains the most common concern prompting parents to present their child to the emergency department. Fever has traditionally been defined as a rectal temperature over 100.4 F or 38 C. Temperatures measured at other body sites are usually lower. The threshold for defining a fever does vary significantly among different individuals, since body temperatures can vary by as much as 1 F. Low-grade fevers are usually considered less than 102.2 F (39 C).

Fever itself is not life-threatening unless it is extremely and persistently high, such as greater than 107 F (41.6 C) when measured rectally. Risk factors for worrisome fevers include age under 2 years (infants and toddlers) or recurrent fevers lasting more than one week. Fever may indicate the presence of a serious illness, but usually a fever is caused by a common infection, most of which are not serious. The part of the brain called the hypothalamus controls body temperature. The hypothalamus increases the body's temperature as a way to fight the infection. However, many conditions other than infections may cause a fever.

Fever in Children - Causes:

Causes of fever include:

  • Bacterial infections
  • Viral infections, like influenza (the "flu")
  • Medications
  • Illicit drugs
  • illnesses related to heat exposure
  • Allergies
  • Rarely, inflammatory diseases

When to seek medical care:

  • The child is younger than 6 months of age (regardless of prematurity).
  • One is unable to control the fever.
  • One suspects a child may become dehydrated from vomiting, diarrhea, or not drinking (for example, the child has sunken eyes, dry diapers, tented skin, cannot be roused, etc.).
  • The child has been to a doctor but is now getting worse or new symptoms or signs have developed.

Although you may have done your best to care for your child, sometimes it is smart to take your child to the emergency department. The child's doctor may meet you there, or the child may be evaluated and treated by the emergency doctor.

Take a child to an emergency clinic when any of the following happen:

  • One has serious concerns and is unable to contact the child's doctor.
  • One suspects the child is dehydrated.
  • A seizure occurs.
  • The child has a purple or red rash.
  • A change in consciousness occurs.
  • The child's breathing is shallow, rapid, or difficult.
  • The child is younger than 2 months of age.
  • The child has a headache that will not go away.
  • The child continues to vomit.
  • The child has complex medical problems or takes prescription medications on a chronic basis (for example, medications prescribed for more than two weeks' duration)

Home Remedies for Fever in Children:

The three goals of home care for a child with fever are to control the temperature, prevent dehydration, and monitor for serious or life-threatening illness.

  • The first goal is to make the child comfortable by reducing the fever below 102 F (38.9 C) with medications and appropriately dressing the child. A warm water bath can also be helpful .
  • To check a child's temperature, one will need a thermometer. Different types of thermometers are available, including glass, mercury, digital, and tympanic (used in the ear).
    • Glass thermometers work well but may break, and they take several minutes to get a reading.
    • Digital thermometers are inexpensive and obtain a reading in seconds.
  • Oral temperatures may be obtained in older children who are not mouth breathing or have not recently consumed a hot or cold beverage.
  • Monitoring and documenting the fever pattern is achieved using a thermometer and a handmade chart.
  • Acetaminophen  and ibuprofen  are used to reduce fever.
    • Follow the dosage and frequency instructions printed on the label.
    • Remember to continue to give the medication over at least 24 hours or the fever will usually return.
  • Children should not be overdressed indoors, even in the winter.
    • Overdressing keeps the body from cooling by evaporation, radiation, conduction, or convection.
    • The most practical solution is to dress the child in a single layer of clothing, then cover the child with a sheet or light blanket.
  • A sponge bath in warm water will help reduce a fever.
    • Such a bath is usually not needed but may more quickly reduce the fever.
    • Put the child in a few inches of warm water, and use a sponge or washcloth to wet the skin of the body and arms and legs.
    • The water itself does not cool the child. The evaporation of the water off the skin cools the child. So, do not cover the child with wet towels, which would prevent evaporation.
    • Contrary to the popular folk remedy, never apply alcohol in a bath or on the skin to reduce fever. Alcohol is usually dangerous to children.

 

  • The second goal is to keep the child from becoming dehydrated. Humans lose extra water from the skin and lungs during a fever.
    • Encourage the child to drink clear fluids but without caffeine (and not water). Water does not contain the necessary electrolytes and glucose. Other clear fluids are chicken soup,  other rehydrating drinks available at the grocery or drugstore.
    • A child should urinate light-colored urine at least every four hours if well hydrated.
    • If diarrhea or vomiting prevents one from assessing hydration, seek medical attention.

 

  • The third goal is to monitor the child for signs of serious or life-threatening illness.
    • A good strategy is to reduce the child's temperature below 102 F (39 C).
    • Also, make sure the child is drinking enough clear fluids .
    • If both these conditions are met and the child still appears ill, a more serious problem may exist.
    • If a child refuses to drink or has a concerning change in appearance or behavior, seek medical attention.
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