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Skin Pigmentation - Overview About It!

Dr. Amanjot A Khokhar 92% (21 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Dermatology, Venereology & Leprosy, DNB - Dermatology, Venereology & Leprosy
Dermatologist, Panchkula
Skin Pigmentation - Overview About It!

Pigmentation or the colour of your skin can be a sign of the state of your health. The skin colour can become lighter (hypopigmentation) or darker (hyperpigmentation) when you go through some physical illness or sustain an injury. Melanin is the agent which is responsible for the colour of our skin. When the cells responsible for melanin production get damaged, pigmentation disorders start to appear. When the body produces excessive melanin, the skin tends to get darker.

Excessive exposure to sun, Addison’s disease and pregnancy are some of the factors which might make the skin look darker. On the other hand, limited production of melanin makes the skin lighter and creates light patches. The condition in which your skin develops light patches is known as Vitiligo.

  1. People with darker skin tone are more susceptible to changes in pigmentation. Since dark skin contains more melanin, individuals with dark skin are more prone to ‘melasma’. Melasma is a condition wherein dark patches appear on the surface of the skin and are generally triggered by a change in the level of hormones. Though pregnant women are susceptible to this condition, it can also appear in men.
  2. Pigmentation around the neck could imply a kind of diabetes which is resistant to insulin. Whenever you find that the dark patches around the neck aren’t remedied by regular scrubbing, you need to see a doctor.
  3. Changes in skin pigmentation are also indicative of thyroid problems. Carotenemia is a condition wherein the skin colour turns more yellowish. It could be the result of hypothyroidism where there is an increased production of an antioxidant called beta-carotene in the blood. The beta-carotene, which is found in a number of fruits and vegetables, is generally processed by our thyroid gland. However, when the individual is suffering from hypothyroidism, the vitamins aren’t easily metabolized and thus get accumulated. This leads to orange and yellow skin hues which is indicative of thyroid issues.
  4. People with diabetes often experience bronzing of skin which is generally linked with iron metabolism. Yellowish skin pigmentation, on the other hand, is usually indicative of liver problems. Yellowing of skin along with yellowish tinges on the whites of the eyes is surely indicative of liver failure. Extreme cases of skin darkening or hyperpigmentation in areas around the joints (knees and elbows) could signal some kind of hormonal problem like Addison’s disease. It is always suggested that you consult with your physician whenever you notice a drastic change in your skin tone.
3788 people found this helpful

Hyperpigmentation - How Can Laser Help?

Dr. Rachna Singh 90% (10 ratings)
MBBS, Master In Dermatology, Diploma in Aesthetic
Dermatologist, Noida
Hyperpigmentation - How Can Laser Help?

Hyperpigmentation is a medical condition in which there is too much melanin in your skin. Melanin is a pigment that lends colour to our skin. It is a natural substance but its concentration in our skin may increase beyond acceptable levels because of many factors like emotional stress, over-exposure to the sun or trauma to the skin. People with darker skin get affected more by hyperpigmentation. While hyperpigmentation is not a medical disease, many people affected by it want to get it treated because of cosmetic reasons. One line of treatment of hyperpigmentation is laser treatment.

History of laser treatment

Laser treatments for skin disorders are not new. They have been in vogue since 1964 for the removal of vascular birthmarks etc. Hyperpigmentation was also treated with lasers but the aftermath of this treatment was a scarred skin area.

Benefits of laser treatment

There are more benefits than risks when it comes to using lasers for treating this medical condition. Today, concentrated bursts of laser energy are used to target the affected areas of your skin. There are lesser chances of the skin getting scarred. An important side-benefit is boosting the growth of collagen production within your skin. Collagen is a protein and forms an important part of the connective tissue that holds the skin together and is also responsible for the skin glow.

Types of laser treatment

  1. CW lasers - Also known as Argon and Carbon dioxide lasers are used to treat large areas of the affected skin. Exposure to the laser is long and continuous.
  2. Quasi-CW - Unlike the earlier treatment, this one emits short bursts of laser energy. There is little chance of your skin getting scarred which is a significant risk in the case of CW lasers.
  3. Pulsed lasers - In this type of laser treatment, there are longer rest periods between bursts of energy. The intention is to give time to the skin to recover and heal from its exposure to laser energy.

Please consult your dermatologist before undergoing one of these kinds of laser treatments.


Laser hyperpigmentation treatment can take as much as 35-40 minutes, maybe longer if the affected skin area is larger. Post the exposure of your skin to the laser bursts, it may become sensitive and develop a stinging sensation. It may also become swollen. Doctors advise the patients in such cases to avoid exposure to the sun, avoid application of sunscreen of 30 SPF and more and also to stay away from fragranced skin products.

Avoid any further treatment for the next four weeks after the first laser exposure. Generally, treatment for hyperpigmentation calls for multiple exposures to laser and these may last for several months until you have achieved your desired skin complexion.

3672 people found this helpful

Laser Pigment Reduction - Know Working Of It!

Dr. Kavita Mehndiratta 86% (32 ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, DVD
Dermatologist, Faridabad
Laser Pigment Reduction - Know Working Of It!

Everybody dreams of perfect flawless skin that will complement their personality and boost confidence. But owing to an unhealthy lifestyle and polluted environment, our skin gradually goes through wear and tear, and as a result gets damaged. Skin pigmentation can be embarrassing and annoying. Pigmentation refers to the lightening or darkening of your skin, appearance of brown pigments and dark spots. People who are exposed to the sun frequently are more likely to develop these spots on the face. These spots don’t fade easily and require professional aesthetic treatment. Skin pigmentation occurs due to excess production of melanin. The usual causes involve genetic disorders, ageing, overexposure to the sun, nutritional deficiencies and hormonal changes among others. As you age the texture of your skin changes and leaves you with dull, lifeless skin. 

Laser Pigmentation reduction – How it works? 
Laser Pigment Reduction produces waves of laser beams (heat energy) to target specific pigmented areas. The laser is absorbed by the cells that have a higher concentration of melanin pigment. As a result, only the targeted cells are damaged, and not the surrounding tissues. The main objectives of laser treatment for pigmentation are- To reduce existing pigmentation To give your skin a smooth and even-toned texture The treatment depends on the type of pigmentation and area affected. Any area on the body or face can be treated- face, neck, back, shoulder. These are the areas that are usually exposed to sun rays. For deep melasma pigmentation, laser treatment is the most preferred choice of treatment. 

Laser treatment for pigmentation is a very safe procedure to have your skin rejuvenated, so you need not worry about the side effects or complications. It is advisable to refrain from parkour activities and using makeup immediately after the treatment for few days. To know how you can benefit from this procedure, consult a dermatologist

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Laser Lighting Treatment

Dr. Ayesha Khan 90% (209 ratings)
BUMS, Certificate Course Skin & Venereal Diseases, Certificate course of Trichology, Diploma in Medical Cosmetology, Diploma in Nutrition & Obesity Management
Dermatologist, Mumbai
Laser Lighting Treatment

Laser lightning is good for dark colors, scars and pigmentation.
Laser effect melanin hormone. Depress this hormone. Secrets less then the color is bright fair and pigmentation is gone. 
Fine line wrinkles, dull and pigmentation is also gone.

Laser & Hyperpigmentation - How Former Can Benefit Latter?

Dr. Manoj Waghmare 85% (10 ratings)
MBBS, DNB - Dermatology & Venereology, FCPS - Dermatology, Venereology & Leprosy
Dermatologist, Nagpur
Laser & Hyperpigmentation  - How Former Can Benefit Latter?

Beauty is not determined by the color of skin, but by the evenness of its tone. Hyperpigmentation is a condition where patches of skin become darker than the rest of your skin. This darkening is caused by excessive production of melanin. It is relatively common but harmless. Hyperpigmentation is commonly seen on the face, arms and hands and also takes the form of age spots, sun spots, freckles etc. Genetic disorders and ageing can increase your risk of developing these dark patches.

Though it does not affect a person’s health, hyperpigmentation can affect self-confidence. Thankfully, this condition can be treated in a number of ways. Some ways of treating hyperpigmentation are:

  1. Topical skin lightening creams
  2. Light therapy
  3. Chemical peels
  4. Laser treatment

The laser can be explained as Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Laser treatment has been used for hyperpigmentation from as early as 1964. Though there are many types of lasers, argon and carbon dioxide lasers are the ones used to treat this condition. These lasers provide short bursts of highly concentrated light on the affected area. This lowers the risk of scarring. Lasers can be used for long pulse or short pulse therapies to treat varying degrees of melanin production. Your natural skin tone will also play a part in determining which type of laser treatment is best suited to you. The bursts of light produced by lasers destroy the excessive melanin through the heat generated by them and boost collagen production to aid in the healing process.

A typical laser treatment session lasts 30 to 45 minutes but can extend further depending on the size of the area to be treated. This may need to be repeated on a monthly basis until the desired effect is achieved. Laser treatment is usually pain-free but you may feel slight stinging or discomfort at the site. Your skin may also be red or inflamed for the first 24 hours after treatment. It is best to avoid makeup, fragrant skin products and sun exposure for a few days after the procedure.

When used properly laser has negligible risks. All the risks associated with lasers are dependent on the expertise of the doctor operating it. Improper use of lasers can cause blistering and burning of the skin and can even cause permanent blindness if it comes in contact with your eyes.


2563 people found this helpful

Skin Pigmentation - How To Manage It?

Dr. Manisha Bindal 85% (10 ratings)
MBBS, DVD - Skin & Venereal Diseases
Dermatologist, Meerut
Skin Pigmentation - How To Manage It?

The colour of one's skin is determined by melanin that is made by special skin cells. Melanin gives the skin its colour without which our skin would be pale pink. Skin pigmentation is dependent on the amount of melanin that is being produced. Skin pigmentation conditions may plague many people when there is an imbalance in the melanin production within the skin, due to damage to these melanin-producing cells. Let us find out more about these conditions-

Melanin Production:

If there is too much melanin production in the body, the skin may give a dark hue or show up as patches of discolouration. On the other hand, if the melanin production is too low, then the skin may give light or white coloured patches.

Various Conditions:

The awry skin pigmentation can give rise to a number of conditions with depigmentation, hypopigmentation or hyperpigmentation. Albinism is a genetic skin condition giving rise to almost no colour. An abnormally low amount of pigmentation can create hypopigmentation, making the skin look much lighter than it actually is.

Finally, hyperpigmentation is a condition where there is increased pigmentation, either due to increased melanin production or due to other pigment creating substances in the skin. In such cases, the skin appears darker in colour than its original shade.


  • There can be many causes for the above conditions. Injuries, burns, inflammation causing disorders, drug abuse and increased exposure to the sun can cause such conditions.
  • Rarely, some hereditary conditions may also cause a problem in pigmentation.
  • Infections, autoimmune disorders and allergies may also cause skin discolouration and an irregular skin tone.
  • Further, conditions like eczema, birthmarks, and hormonal changes can lead to irregular skin pigmentation too.


Dermatoscopy and woods lamp examination can help in understanding the cause of the pigmentation problem. Also, sometimes blood tests may be required for diagnosis.


The treatment of hyperpigmentation is done by the use of skin lightening preparations. Procedures like chemical peels, microdermabrasion and laser therapy can be done which target the top layer of the skin.

3820 people found this helpful

Q-Switched Laser - Know Merits Of It!

Dr. Lakshman Phonde 85% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Dermatology & Venereology
Dermatologist, Navi Mumbai
Q-Switched Laser  - Know Merits Of It!

Over the past few years, the use of Q-switched laser technique for removing brown spots from the skin has gained popularity. This procedure is used for laser skin treatments like laser skin toning and photo facial and has been observed to offer dramatic results. Whether it’s the sun freckles or the unwanted brown spots on the facial skin, the billionths of seconds laser energy pulse that that is projected on the skin, known as the Q-switched laser, release the skin pigment in such a way that it gets naturally reabsorbed by the body, which leads to its natural disposal.

Q-switched laser for photo facial
The term photo facial refers to a skin treatment, where light-based technology is used in order to treat the brown spots on the skin, eliminate broken capillaries and boost the collagen production. And when the Q-switched laser is used for photo facial, it makes the laser treatment more ideal for people suffering from skin issues like discolored spots, freckles, fine lines, etc. Q-switched photo facial is considered to be effective against sun spots on areas like the legs, chest, arms and other broader skin areas as well.

Q-switched laser for laser toning
Laser toning is another light-based treatment procedure that is known for its effectiveness in correcting the most stubborn of acne spots, sun spots and skin conditions like melisma that interferes with the pigmentation of the skin. The Q-switched laser for laser toning refers to the use of Q-switched lasers for skin rejuvenation. In this procedure, multiple passes of the Q-Switched laser are passed through the large spotted skin areas, to remove the blemishes. The procedure also gives you brighter and tighter skin post the process. So, you get numerous benefits from one method.

Benefits of Q-switched laser
The significant advantage of Q-switched laser for photo facial as well as laser toning is that one single treatment can remove more than 75% of the dark and brown spots. Depending on the skin condition of the patient, one may need to opt for more than two or three Q-switched laser treatments in order to get the desired skin tone that is completely even and flawless.

One must remember, that Q-switched laser treatments may not be ideal for people who have recently taken any skin treatment medications such as Accutane or women who are pregnant. So, check if you are the ideal candidate for the procedure with your physician and seek expert assistance to proceed with the treatment to achieve the desired outcome without a glitch.

4113 people found this helpful

Pigmentation - Know Forms Of It!

Dr. Priyanka Gupta 91% (17 ratings)
Dermatologist, Bhopal
Pigmentation - Know Forms Of It!

Pigmentation or hyperpigmentation is a skin condition that affects 80% of women in their lifetime. It is caused when patches of the skin turn dark. It is a relatively simple condition that occurs when there is excess melanin in the skin. There are different types of pigmentation, and one kind of treatment may not be effective on the others. Let us take a look at it in depth and understand the nature of pigmentation.

What is pigmentation?
Pigmentation is something that affects almost everyone irrespective of the race or the skin types. The trouble occurs when there is an excess of melanin deposits, which may happen due to various reasons. The different types of pigmentation can be freckles, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, solar lentigines, and melasma.

  1. Freckles: These are the most common types of pigmentation. Also known as Ephelides, these mostly affect people with fairer skin. These happen due to repeated exposure to the sun. Naturally, freckles appear very less during winter months. In rare cases, heredity also can be a reason for freckles.
  2. Hyperpigmentation: This is the skin's natural way of response when it is prone to injury or rashes. Acne, burns, and clinical treatments such as chemical peels and dermabrasion can lead to hyperpigmentation. They disappear over a period of time. However, there are chances that it might reoccur.
  3. Solar lentigines: They are also known as liver spots or sunspots and as the name suggests, they occur due to exposure to the UV rays of the sun. They can occur anywhere in the human body. It depends on how much of the skin is exposed and how much melanin content is exposed to the sun. These are the most critical types of pigmentation, and they must be monitored. In rare cases, they can lead to skin cancer.
  4. Melasma: This type of pigmentation is common among women and is usually caused as a result of hormonal imbalance. It can appear as a large brown patch on the skin and can blend into the skin around the borders. Usually, the symptoms increase during pregnancy and with the usage of certain stress medications.

Treatment plan
As stated, different types of treatments methods are available for treating the various types of pigmentation. These can range from topical creams to Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) and Photo Dynamic Therapy (PDT). Laser treatments are done in some cases to take care of the skin apprehensions. The experience of the dermatologist comes into effect when treating and finalizing the appropriate procedures. The treatments not only take care of the skin condition but are also very helpful in improving the overall tone of the skin. These procedures are undergone as a series of sessions, and the dermatologist will advise according to the skin condition.

Most of the pigmentation conditions can be countered with an effective sunscreen product. They have undergone many trials and are extremely safe. It all gets down to the experience and the professionalism of the dermatologist once again for getting the correct treatment plan. With just minimum care, the pigmentation factor can be kept under check.

4041 people found this helpful

Pigmentation - How Can Chemical Peels Tackle It?

Dr. Tanuja Tamhankar 85% (10 ratings)
MBBS, Diploma In Dermatology And Venerology And Leprosy (DDVL), Certified in Hair Transplant
Dermatologist, Pune
Pigmentation - How Can Chemical Peels Tackle It?

Besides being a part of aging, skin pigmentation can also be caused due to the damaging effects of acne or even long-term exposure to UV rays of the sun. You can eliminate brown spots or scars by resorting to certain skin rejuvenation treatment. The more aggressive skin treatments are Laser Skin Resurfacing or Intense Pulsed Light (IPL). For treating moderately pigmented skin, Chemical Peels can also be used.

How do chemical peels work?
Chemical peels sink deeper into the layers of your skin and stimulate the cell’s turnover process. For exfoliation, the chemical peels are used to burn the top layer of your skin, thus reducing the pigmentation of your skin and also eliminating or reducing the external lines, blemishes and wrinkles. Different chemical peels have different penetrating powers into different layers of the skin. The chemical peels are customized according to the area and extent of damages caused to your skin.

Treatment by chemical peels
Such treatment is taken up by cosmetic dermatology centers and medical spas. Prior to the process, consult the dermatologist for a better evaluation of your skin type and needs. Also know about the potential risks and side effects such as burning, excessive scarring, permanent hypo-pigmentation or hyper-pigmentation

Types of chemical peels
The following are the commonly used chemical peels used for the treatment of pigmentation:

  • Vi Peel: Considered to be a very powerful Gen Next peel, it involves minimum downtime and brings about effective results. It restores damaged skin and alleviates the visible signs of aging. Healing may take a maximum of 4 days and the peel has to be kept on the skin till it heals completely. It is particularly effective for Melasma and hyper-pigmentation.
  • Melanage Peel: It is prepared with retinoic acid and hydroquinone. It can be suitably used for all types of skin. This along with medicated masque increases the skin cell turnover and breaks up the pigments. It also stimulates the production of collagen, thus making the skin smoother and toned after it heals.
  • Trichloroacetic Acid (TCA): This has moderate penetration into the skin. Here, the downtime varies between seven to ten days, depending upon the sensitivity of your skin. It is particularly effective for those having pronounced pigmentation of the skin.
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Scalp Micro Pigmentation - Who Are Eligible For It?

Dr. Prabha Singh Glow 90% (18 ratings)
MBBS, Cosmetic Procedures and Clinical Dermatology And Therapeutics
Aesthetic Medicine Specialist, Delhi
Scalp Micro Pigmentation - Who Are Eligible For It?

Medical hairline tattoo or scalp micro pigmentation is a pigmentation method of the scalp. The pigment is applied at the epidermis of the scalp that results in the re-appearance of the hair follicles. The number of sitting required is dependent on the extent of pigmentation required. Micropigmentation is one of the most popular and natural ways to regrow hair.

Who is an ideal candidate?
This is a form of treatment is suitable for people of all ages, any stage of hair loss, any skin types, and color. A normal person has close to 2000 hairs in each square inch. Thinning of hair can result in premature aging, depression, and dogmas. This is where scalp micro pigmentation comes into the picture. It can completely restore full hair to a person who has lost almost all hair.

How many sessions are required?
It typically takes 3-4 sittings to complete the whole process of scalp micro pigmentation. Each session can take up to 3-4 hours. One week of a gap in between is necessary to continue the session. The whole process works subtly with a slow hair filling process. This can take up to a month to show results. The process includes a cartridge containing 3 needles that inject the epidermal layer of the scalp. The spacing of the pigment is then determined by copying the remaining natural follicles.

What is this process capable of?
Scalp micro pigmentation can successfully instill a youthful look to a person. It can stimulate a full front hairline, it can hide all symptoms of alopecia, camouflage any scar resulting from accident or hair transplant surgery, hide birthmarks, previous scars etc.

What are the conditions scalp micro pigmentation can address?

  • Crown balding: This is one of the common degenerative hair balding and thinning process. It makes a person looks aged and takes away self-confidence in the process. Scalp micro pigmentation can rejuvenate the crown and restore the old hair in a bald person.
  • Hair Receding: This is another form of baldness. In this condition, the hair from the front portion degenerates. Scalp micro pigmentation can successfully restore the hair for this form of baldness.
  • Restore complete hair loss: For a person who has completely lost all hair and seems like no hope to restore the old hair, scalp micro pigmentation can come handy. It can successfully restore the hair in such cases.
  • Diffused hair loss can be a problem for people of any age. It interrupts the hair cycle, creates nutritional deficiencies, emotional stress. Scalp micro pigmentation can effectively address all these problems are increasing the density of hair in a person. What’s more, it can ensure that the hair stays on the scalp for a number of years.
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