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Schizophrenia - Know Types Of it!

Schizophrenia - Know Types Of it!

Schizophrenia is a debilitating mental and emotional condition that is characterised by a heavily distorted thought process as well as hallucinations and even extreme fear that borders on paranoia. Let us find out more about this debilitating disease:

- Causes:


Genetic factors play an important role in the development of schizophrenia.


Possible environmental factors include obstetric complications, the mother's exposure to influenza during pregnancy or starvation. It has also been suggested that stress, trauma even migration can lead to the emergence of schizophrenia. 

Neurodevelopmental Factors

Schizophrenia appears to be a neurodevelopmental disorder. That is the changes that cause the illness have been occurring from the earliest stages of development even in utero and may continue to influence the development of the brain over the first 25 years of life. 

- Symptoms

This disease has a variety of symptoms include cognitive and emotional ones that can vary in the degree and severity. One of the most common symptoms includes hallucinations and delusions where the patient may end up imagining things that do not really exist. The patient may also be gripped by sudden and crippling fear like paranoia, which can be debilitating as far as everyday functioning of the person goes. The symptoms can also interfere with the way a person deals with situations and life skills on a cognitive basis. Withdrawal and hopelessness are also a part of this disease.

- Types

Schizophrenic disorder spectrum recognises a group of symptoms which can turn into full-fledged ailments. The various kinds of schizophrenia under this wide umbrella include catatonic, disorganised, paranoid, residual and undifferentiated. Paranoid schizophrenia is when a person has unreasonable fears and doubts regarding people and situations around him or her. Usually, doctors refer to this state as schizophrenia with paranoia. Patients of disorganised schizophrenia may not have delusions and hallucinations but may display instances of incoherent speech and thinking. Further, when a patient is suffering from catatonic schizophrenia, the main symptoms include a negative emotional stance. This patient will end up withdrawing as far as socialising and family go, and they may also turn mute. Residual schizophrenia refers to a state where the patient has lost all interest and motivation in life, yet does not suffer from delusions and hallucinations. Finally, schizophrenic disorder is characterised by all the major symptoms of this disorder along with a severe mood disorder.

- Treatment: 

The earliest signs and symptoms must be referred to a psychiatrist. The treatment involves the management of the case of an individual basis along with psychological rehabilitation programs and the inclusion of the patient in self-help groups. Housing and employment programs must also be availed so as to keep the patient busy. Also, behaviour therapy will be required in such cases. The mode of counselling should usually be on a one on one basis, although many doctors also suggest that group therapy can help in showing examples of progress so as to encourage the patient to change and get a new lease of life.

Also, family therapy is considered a must for the near and dear ones of such patients to cope with it.

Communication Tips To Enhance Your Relationship!

Communication Tips To Enhance Your Relationship!

Marriage or any healthy relationship, is a bonding; and not binding. Finding the right person and living happily ever after is only true in fairy tales. In reality, once you find the right partner, maintaining and nurturing the relationship bond itself takes a lifetime and living happily solely depends on HOW you cultivate a relationship with your partner.

Communication is one of the chief ingredients besides trust, understanding, love, care, companionship and empathy in a happy and successful marriage. And failure to communicate is one of the foremost reasons for the failure of relationships. Do you say I love you and appreciate your partner or do you just criticize and complain about him/her all day long? Do you consider his/her ideas and feelings or always turn them down? To communicate effectively is to express yourself freely to your partner, convey your likes and dislikes, convey what turns you on and what doesn’t! Unless and until you are vocal about your thoughts and feelings, how do you expect your partner to understand you? You feel frustrated and upset because things don’t happen your way but have you tried to ‘express’ your way to your partner?

Lack of communication in relationships result in frustrations, misunderstandings, unrealistic expectations, guilt and can create personal differences. It is difficult for people who share their lives with each other to coexist for long without having regular and smooth communication for oiling the machinery of the relationship.

Couples who communicate effectively are not always devoid of arguments. Arguments happen because there is a difference of opinion between the partners; which is a very normal thing. Arguments usually end in nasty and bitter manner. However, it is up to us to convert that unhealthy argument into a healthy one! Most of us indulge in these arguments to win; not to resolve the matter! What is important is the ‘progress’ in the matter at hand, not the victory.

Remember, not to engage in any serious discussion or disclosure when angry as you tend to lose balance and rational reasoning. The same holds true in a situation where your partner is not “up to it”. Receptivity is of utmost importance. A ‘No’ from a partner does not mean not now, not ever. It simply means I don’t want to do that right now! –feeling free to say no if the request is unappealing at that point in time.

Communication cues that can help improve the quality of argument:

  1. Remember, there is no blaming game! WHAT is Right is more important than WHO is right.
  2. Use I statements instead of You always statements. Example - I feel angry vs. You always humiliate me. When you use I statements, you’re taking the onus on you.
  3. Attack the issue; not each other!
  4. Refrain from the 4 C’s : Caustic (sarcasm), Compare, Condemn and Criticize.
  5. Avoid mind-reading your partner and assuming things; instead express yourself verbally.
  6. Using “I feel” statements are better over “You are…” ones. When you say I feel, you’re taking the onus for your feelings and thoughts and avoiding direct blame on your partner.
  7. Have an open mind. Minds are like parachutes; they work best when open. Be proactive and open to changes, alternatives and work effectively for resolving a conflict.
  8. Stay away from Stereotyping (generalizing - all men are like that…) & ‘Gunnysacking’ (nursing past grievances and bringing them up for review while trying to resolve a present conflict).
  9. No engaging in ‘Summarizing self-syndrome’ where both partners continue to restate his/her stance and issues without actually listening to other and without understanding other’s perspective, feeling frustrated.
  10. Cut back on ‘Catastrophizing’ i.e. dwelling on the worst possible outcomes of a problem or risk that you face, to the point that even remote, unlikely disasters preoccupy your attention. Often, objectivity becomes clouded, and you may gradually begin to feel or act as though these unlikely events are really going to happen.
  11. No sending ‘double messages’- statements which have two conflicting meanings. Keep it as simple and assertive as possible.

A mind is like a parachute, it doesn’t work unless it’s open. So have a broad perspective, try to understand your partner’s perspective and try and arrive at a mutually agreeable decision that caters to wellbeing as a whole. Matrimony is the high sea for which no compass has yet been invented. What counts in making a happy marriage is not how much compatible you are, but how you deal with incompatibility. Marriage was, is and never will be perfect, Yet it is the happiest wrong we are doing on earth!

Hi, How to stop games and social media addiction in children who often throw tantrums, get emotional, has no interest in day to day activities, dis respect towards elders, manners issues and mood swings.

Hi, How to stop games and social media addiction in children who often throw tantrums, get emotional, has no interest...
Hello and welcome to Lybrate. I have reviewed your query and here is my advice. These problems are not collective. They are individual behavioral problems usually come to adolescent children. Behavioral therapy is the only treatment option. I suggest telephonic counseling and online psychotherapy for you. You can contact me for further advice and treatment options. Let me know if I can assist you further. Take care.
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Bipolar Disorder - 5 Tips To Deal With It!

Bipolar Disorder - 5 Tips To Deal With It!

Being affected with bipolar disorder can not only strain any relationship but also disrupt different aspects of family life. The mood swings stemming from bipolar disorder tend to occur spontaneously without any particular reason. The effects too can be detrimental. Below are some of the best ways one can cope with the impact of a bipolar disorder:

  1. Looking for patterns and signs: You should keep a watch for signs that indicate that you may be entering an episode of mania or depression. Along with a shift in the mood, one should look out for any changes in sleep patterns. It is also essential to keep a track of alcohol or drug usage, energy levels, level of concentration and self-confidence. Since stress is considered a major trigger of bipolar disorder, you should try to simplify life by staying away from any triggers of stress. You may also ask your family and friends to share responsibilities in case your job is too stressful.
  2. Keeping an organized and regular schedule: Sticking to a regular and organized routine can help in controlling mood swings and symptoms of bipolar disorder. People with bipolar disorders generally don’t deal well with a lot of changes. Regardless of whether one does errands or work irregularly, it is important to sleep and wake up at a particular time. Also, practising healthy sleeping habits and relax before bed by listening to music, reading books and taking a warm bath is recommended. Make sure that you don’t watch thrilling television shows, surf the internet, or play video games since these habits can worsen the mood swings.
  3. Getting regular exercise: Studies show that regular physical exercise can go a long way in improving your mood. You can start by taking a slow walk around your neighbourhood and can gradually increase the intensity of your workouts.
  4. Avoiding alcohol and other drugs: Not just alcohol, caffeine is also a strong stimulant which can make you stay wide awake at night and trigger manic episodes. It is also advised to cut back on soda and other sugary drinks, particularly at night. Alcohol, as well as other drugs, can also affect the impact of the medication which, in turn, can trigger mood swings.
  5. Writing down your feelings: Keeping a journal of the day to day life, stressors and other problems that you may have encountered through the day can be of help. With the passage of time, you will be able to identify the patterns that emerge as triggers which in turn can help you prepare yourself and manage the mood swings better.

These small lifestyle changes and coping strategies can aid in dealing with bipolar disorder effectually. Visiting a specialist can help you get an insight into the exact condition and assist in the management of the triggers.

Happiness - Know More!

Happiness - Know More!

Happiness is the opposite of inappropriate, miserable, incomplete and absolutely helpless.
If you are not happy, examine yourself, where are you inappropriate, miserable, incomplete and absolutely helpless.
If not any of these, then you are already happy and you don't know it.
More importantly, you don't want to be happy at all. You just want something else.

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Positive Benefits Of Having A Sibling!

Positive Benefits Of Having A Sibling!

In most Indian homes, a family is not complete with just one child. Until about a couple of decades ago, a family with a single child was very rare. The most common response would be 'with whom the child will play'. Between the siblings, there is always so much love. Starting from getting attention from the parent to education at all stages of life, this is one relationship which just grows and grows. While it definitely is a feel-good factor, scientifically too, it has been proven to have multiple benefits.

Read on to know some benefits of having siblings and how it can help you stay healthy and positive.

  1. A constant companion: With a sibling around, there is no need to look for a play or study companion. There is always one available right in the same home. This provides for a happy, healthy equation with a lot of give and take that just extends through life.
  2. Continuous learning environment: With a sibling around, the learning never stops. There is a constant teacher/mentor-student relationship with the elder one having an upper hand and trying to teach the younger one all sorts of things from using chalk to spoon to math to magic.
  3. Sharing begins at home: Whether it is your toys or colours, stationary or chocolates, siblings share a lot of stuff and so from a very young age, there is a behaviour that encourages sharing of all sorts of things. Studies have shown that children with siblings show a lot more sympathy and are more open to sharing things as compared to single children.
  4. Builds selflessness: The next time you see two siblings, notice how the elder one is always so protective of the younger one. The elder one is willing to give up their chocolate just so the younger one smiles. Similarly, the younger one also would give up a toy so that the elder one is happy. This selflessness is ingrained in children with siblings, which extends into their other relationships too later in life.
  5. Tougher individuals: Problem-solving is something which gets built in early in life when children have siblings. This comes in handy later in life too, which makes them tougher individuals. They are also better skilled at negotiating, good at setting and achieving goals, managing relationships (both professional and personal), and are so more successful.

The relationship with a sibling just continues through life. The above are some pointers as to how having a sibling makes for a happy, healthier, and positive life. Anyone with a sibling would definitely vouch for these!!

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I have a bad routine of sleep (this may be due to my routine) and I have gaining weight suddenly, I have anxiety issues too (actually I never took help of any psychiatrist but I feel I was in depression during my childhood, because I didn't make friends and stayed alone mostly ,felt alone and all. I read all this online about depression and symptoms a few years back.). I don't know. I am just not comfortable with doctors so I avoid as much as possible. But now I am an adult I know more about my body. I feel tired mostly, even I sleep alot. Which is not good, and I am gaining weight. And I feel alot pain in my joints and when sad around my heart. Can anyone please suggest me. What should I do next?

I have a bad routine of sleep (this may be due to my routine) and I have gaining weight suddenly, I have anxiety issu...
Get your thyroid profile, cbc, blood sugar fasting checked from some lab. In the meanwhile follow this 1. Don't take tea empty stomach. Eat something like a banana (if you are not diabetic) or any seasonal fruit or soaked almonds and a glass of water first thing in the morning (within 10 mins of waking up). No only biscuits or rusk will not do. 2. Don't overeat 3. Take your breakfast every day. Don't skip it. U should eat whatever your mother or grandparent eat in bfast. I mean to say whatever is your traditional food. If punjabi eat paratha, if belongs to south then take idli/ dosa etc. 4. Have light meals every 2 hours (in addition to your breakfast, lunch n dinner) e.g. Nariyal paani, chaach, a handful of dry fruits, a handful of peanuts, any fresh n seasonal fruit (eat whole fruit not juice), a cup of curd/milk etc 5. Take simple food like rice n dal in dinner. Finish your dinner at least 2 hours before going to sleep. 6. Maintain active life style7. Avoid fast foods, spicy n fried foods, carbonated beverages 8. Take a lot of green vegetables n fruit. 9. Drink lot of water.10. Everyday preferably sleep on same time exercise in the form of yoga, cycling, swimming, gym etc. For more details, you can consult me.
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Depression - How To Identify It?

Depression - How To Identify It?

Alternating between being happy and sad as you go through life's ups and downs is normal, but if you're sad most of the time, it could be a sign of being depressed.  Depression takes the joy out of all your activities, and can make merely getting through a day feel overwhelming. The first step to overcoming this problem is to understand its symptoms and causes.  Not everyone experiences depression the same way, but here are a few questions that can help tell you if you are depressed or not.

Do you feel helpless?

It is common for depressed people to feel helpless and that everything around them is out of their control. As a result, the person may either stop participating in activities all together or try to control things they can't. Both situations are cyclic and lead to further depression.

Have you lost interest in daily activities?

The feeling of helplessness is one of the main reasons depressed people lose interest in activities. Another reason is that activities that were once enjoyed now do not seem interesting enough. In most cases, this leads to the person isolating himself and withdrawing from all his family and friends.

Do you often feel angry or irritated?

Depression is almost always accompanied by irritability and anger. Small annoyances that would usually be overlooked quickly, take on an inappropriate significance. This can lead to poor impulse control, substance abuse and anxiety disorder. In most cases, anger and depression are related by the person trying to take accountability for things that are out of his control and hence feeling helpless.

Is there a change in your sleep pattern?

Your sleep quality is very closely related to the way you feel. Depressed people often suffer either from insomnia or oversleeping. Depressed people can have trouble going to sleep as well as staying asleep. This can cause drowsiness and lethargy during the day. Sleep apnea is also linked with depression. As you can imagine, if this is left untreated, it will only worsen your depression.

Do you feel tired?

When the body does not get adequate sleep, you begin the day feeling tired. Thus depressed people often feel fatigued and complain of a number of muscle and joint pains.  This is because the body has not had enough time to regenerate cells during the night. This is usually complemented by complains of persistent headaches and stomach aches, both of which are emotionally connected to the way you feel.

The nature of depression is such that it lowers a person's self esteem to the point of interfering with his ability to seek help. Hence if you have a positive response to the above questions, it is time to address your problem before it worsens.

Recently am having lot of mood swings. I have a job 9 to 6 .how to maintain balance between personal and professional? Please advise.

Recently am having lot of mood swings. I have a job 9 to 6 .how to maintain balance between personal and professional...
Hello and welcome to Lybrate. I have reviewed your query and here is my advice. You have to understand the mood swings. There are many people, even in your workplace, who work the same job timings. Talk to them and learn how they manage. Secondly, mood swings are based on your own perceptions, unless you have depression. I suggest telephonic counseling and online psychotherapy for you. You can contact me for further advice and treatment options. Let me know if I can assist you further. Take care.
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