Why and when to do liver cancer test?
The liver is a pyramid-shaped organ in our body that lies just below the right lung. It is the largest organ inside the human body. This vital organ is divided into right and left lobes and performs a number of functions. It makes bile necessary to digest fat, makes various proteins used by the body for a number of other purposes, breaks down toxic materials in the blood that are later removed by the body as waste, helps in blood clotting and stores certain nutrients absorbed from the intestine. Thus liver is primary to the healthy functioning of the human body. Liver cancer test in India when cancerous cells form in the liver, it is known as liver cancer. Primary liver cancer is cancer that starts in the liver tissue; whereas cancer that starts in some other site and spreads to the liver is classified as the secondary liver cancer. Varied methods & techniques are available to treat liver cancer.
Diagnosis: After examining your health and learning about family history, your doctor may tell you to go for one or more of the following tests for diagnosing liver cancer:
Liver cancer does not have any symptoms, of its own. However, the tumor causes some symptoms and these symptoms appear in the later stages of cancer. Sometimes these symptoms may show up in the early stages also. The common symptoms are mentioned below:
Symptoms of liver cancer sometimes some tumors in the liver build hormones that influence other organs. These hormones may cause certain signs like low blood sugar levels, high cholesterols levels, enlarged breasts, high counts of red blood cells and high levels of calcium in the blood. If you have any of the symptoms at any stage of your life, you must consult your doctor right away to avoid unnecessary complications.
The stages of liver cancer tell the doctor how far cancer has spread. Once the stage is determined, individualized treatment plans can be designed. There are different staging systems for this cancer, but all doctors across the globe do not follow the same system. The American joint committee on cancer (ajcc) is the commonly accepted method for staging liver cancer. According to this system, the stages can be evaluated on the basis of three main factors like:
Besides these, the letter x and a number (0-4) are also assigned to these factors. For instance, t1, t2, t3 and so on; a higher number refers to increasing severity. And the letter x indicates that no information could be gathered. Liver-cancer-stages-medifee
Usually, the size and number of the tumor (s) and whether cancer has spread to blood vessels or lymph nodes are the important criteria for staging liver cancer. Here a brief description of the 4 stages of liver cancer is described:
Stage 1: In stage 1, there is only one tumor and there is no growth of cancerous cells in the blood vessels, any other organs of the body or lymph nodes.
Stage 2: In this stage, there is a single tumor and it has started growing into the blood vessels. Again there may also be more than one tumor which is less than 5cm and have not grown into the blood vessels. In either of the case, cancer may be described to be in stage 2.
Stage 3: In this stage, 3 things can happen. Stage 3a refers to more than a single tumor and at least one of them is larger than 5 cm. But the cancerous cells have not grown in the lymph nodes or any other part of the body. Stage 3b refers to cancer that has grown either into the portal vein or hepatic vein. Again, there is no growth of cancerous cells in any part of the body or lymph nodes. Stage 3c describes the stage where cancer has spread into organs of the body that are close to the liver, like pancreas but not to lymph nodes or any distant organs.
Stage 4: Stage 4a refers to the phase where there can be more than one tumor of any size in the liver. Also, the cancerous cells may have spread to other organs around the liver and also blood vessels. Cancer has spread to lymph nodes but not to other body parts. Stage 4b is the phase when cancer has spread to another part of the body. The tumor is any size and may be more than one. It may have spread to the blood vessels and other organs around the liver. There may or may not be any presence of cancerous cells into the lymph nodes.
Doctors may follow any of the two staging criteria mentioned above or even go for some other staging processes.
Screening is used to look for cancer before you have any symptoms or signs.If you know you have risk factors for liver cancer such as cirrhosis most commonly caused by alcohol abuse, other causes are Obesity, NAFLD, and diabetes, viral hepatitis (types B and C), too much iron in the liver from a disease called hemochromatosis, and some other rare types of chronic liver disease,then it is extremely important to talk with your doctor about whether you should be regularly screened for liver cancer.Finding a cancer before any symptoms have developed will increase the chance of successful treatment, Screening options include testing the blood for a substance called alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), which may be produced by cancer cells, or having imaging tests like an ultrasound.
The liver has a significant role to play in metabolism and digestion. The failure of a liver can lead to significant health issues. There are some causes for liver failure, which cannot be treated with medications. In these people, a transplant, which is replacing the diseased or injured liver with another liver, is the only definitive treatment option.
Some conditions which can require a liver transplant are:
Types of transplant:
While the concept of a transplant sounds quite convincing and appealing for those with a severe liver disease, it is also important to note that not all would qualify for a liver transplant. The conditions which would disqualify a recipient are discussed below:
A detailed liver recipient evaluation assessing the severity of liver disease, chances of survival, and overall health are done before a person is listed for liver transplant. This evaluation ensures a better success rate with the transplant.
Liver tumors are abnormal growth of tissues or cells on or inside the liver. Benign (harmless) liver tumors are those that are non-cancerous in nature and do not spread to other organs of the body. The three most common types of benign liver tumors are hemangiomas, hepatocellular adenomas, and focal nodular hyperplasias. Hemangiomas are the most common of all benign liver tumors and they are masses of abnormal blood vessels. The focal nodular hyperplasias are less common and are generally found in women in their 20s and 30s.
The hepatocellular adenomas are the least common and affects women who are of childbearing age. Some of the signs and symptoms of benign liver tumor include weight loss, fatigue, loss of appetite, and swelling of the stomach. These tumors are not cancerous and may not cause pain in a majority of the cases. Therefore, its detection is normally not easy and it can be diagnosed only through ultrasound, CT test, or MRI scan. When the tumor becomes cancerous, surgery is the only option but before that, it can be cured with medicines. Allopathic medicines are harsh in nature but Ayurveda remedies are gentle and assure permanent relief.
Here are some Ayurvedic remedies that are beneficial for benign liver tumors.
Benign liver tumors can be treated if they are detected on time and therefore if the diagnosis confirms tumor, one should take the recourse to remedy.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Cholangiocarcinoma (Bile duct cancer), like any other cancer, leaves a person physically, mentally and emotionally drained. It has been mostly found to affect people above 60 years of age. The signs and symptoms associated are so common that very few people consult a physician. A delayed diagnosis implies delayed treatment. This goes on to aggravate and complicate the situation further. One needs to be a little alert. Any symptoms, no matter how common, should not be taken lightly. Look for the early signs and symptoms and bile duct cancer can be fully cured.
Signs and symptoms associated with Cholangiocarcinoma:
Bile duct cancer can be Extrahepatic (occurs in the duct outside the liver) or Intrahepatic (cancer develops within the smaller ducts inside the liver). It must be noted that Intrahepatic Bile duct cancer and Liver cancer are different.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
The liver is a critical organ as it plays a vital role in body metabolism and digestion. Liver diseases are a challenge for medical professionals, as often, these symptoms are not obvious until the disease has progressed to quite an advanced stage. In most cases, diagnosis in the early stage is very difficult, which can help in early intervention and disease arrest. It is not just the disease, but the causes and treatment of liver cancer are also surrounded by myths.
Read on to know some of the myths and facts about liver cancer.
Liver cancer is definitely a silent killer, but keeping eyes open definitely, helps.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
The liver is an extremely instrumental organ in the human body. It not only aids in proper digestion but also fights outside infections that threaten the immune system in the body. Liver cancer and failure of it to perform its assigned functions are extremities of diseases faced by the liver. Hence, to avoid further complications such as spread of cancer, liver cancer surgery is the best option available.
Why is Liver Cancer Surgery Required?
Liver cancer surgery usually is for life-saving purposes. In some cases, cancer is totally removed from the liver, but in some cases, surgery helps in making the patient survive for longer than expected. Also, surgery is useful in stopping the advancement of cancer to the remaining parts of the body from liver. Depending on the condition, doctors decide the type of surgery method to be adopted.
When doctors come to a conclusion that surgery is the only respite left for treating cancer, the surgery decision is confirmed for the patient. There are certain diagnostic tests that the patient is made to undergo before surgery. Few of them are as follows:
Following given are the instructions patient needs to follow once surgery date is decided. The date for surgery is also then scheduled.
Day Before Surgery
Having to undergo surgery for liver cancer or for that matter any other cancer is a very distressing time for the person and his family members. Therefore having an idea as to what goes into the preparation stage can brace the person for taking precautions and then going in for the surgery. Following given are some other steps you can take to help ensure a better surgical outcome on your end:
The probability of getting back to a fit and fine body like before depends on many factors like - the progression and growth of the tumors to other parts of the body, whether the person is having cancer for the first time, or whether his earlier cancer has relapsed. It also has got a lot to do with the person's general health, whether he has any other liver condition, and lastly if the person is a likely candidate for liver transplant if the cancer is not possible to go away by removal of the affected part of liver.
While the above mentioned were the types under which cancer is classified and the chances of recovery, the line of treatment varies according to patient. There are few types of standard treatments that are used for treating any person suffering from liver cancer. They are as follows:
Methods/Techniques of Liver Cancer Surgery
Liver Resection: Surgery for resection of the liver to remove affected parts is called liver resection. The surgery for it is also referred to as partial or full hepactectomy. Surgical resection of liver is feasible because liver is an organ that has regenerative capacity. A liver transplant becomes compulsory when the liver function is very poor and not up to the mark. At such times, removing the affected portion of liver would only result in liver failure, transplant from a donor is helpful. In such liver cancer cases, the old liver is removed and fitted with a new one.
Minimally-Invasive Laparoscopic Liver Tumor Resection A laparascopic procedure is decided based on the size and location of the tumors. In this minimally invasive approach of surgery for liver cancer. One or multiple incisions are made for being able to insert the laparascope. The incisions enable the doctor to insert the cameras and surgical instruments for performing the resection surgery. The minimally-invasive surgery involves faster recovery, less blood loss and lesser postoperative pain, fewer and smaller scars as compared to an open surgery. Depending on your condition, you may need only a short hospital stay.
Cryosurgery: This technique commences with the patient getting a general anesthetic injected. A thin metal probe then freezes the tumor with the help of cold gases that destroy the cancerous cells. The probe is inserted through the abdominal skin during this technique which is used for treating liver cancer. This method is also called as Percutaneous technique. The metallic probe may sometimes be inserted in the abdominal cavity for operating on the tumor. This technique is termed as intra-abdominal surgery.
Liver Transplant: A liver transplant is another surgical technique for elimination of liver cancer from the body. This method is not advisable for people suffering from bile duct cancer. Also, only people with one or multiple small liver tumors are considered for this treatment. It involves removing the entire liver for eventually replacing it with a healthy liver taken from a donor. People suffering from liver cancer and those who qualify for a liver transplant need to wait for a long time for getting the correct donor. As a result, cancer continues to grow and at that time, tumor ablation therapy is considered suitable for the patient till time being.
Isolated Liver Perfusion: This method is only used in rare liver cancer cases wherein the cancer is failing to respond to other surgical techniques. The name comes from, the procedural step wherein highly concentrated chemotherapeutic drugs are infused into the liver. As a result, hepatic circulatory system is separated from other sources that supply blood to the body.
Other than the above treatments, targeted therapies, chemotherapy, palliative treatment and radioembolization are used for treating patients suffering from liver cancer. That is decided of course on the basis of type, staging and progression of tumors.
The surgery duration depends on the complications and progression of the liver cancer inside. The time will differ from patient to patient.
Do's and Don'ts... Post-Liver Cancer Surgery
Following listed are the recovery tips to be followed in the period post undergoing any of the above treatments listed for liver cancer of any stage.
Risks and Complications
There are few complications associated with liver cancer surgeries mentioned above.
Liver Resection Risks
Bleeding post surgery is a common complication. Also, development of blood clots in legs post operation which is also known as deep vein thrombosis is another possibility. Infections developing at the site of surgery and leakage of bile from liver are 2 other complications coming with the liver resection procedure.
Liver Transplant Risks
Liver rejection is the most common side effect. It happens because the transplanted liver is relatively new to the body and also to the immune system. As a result, diarrhea, reduced energy levels, yellowing of skin and fever with high temperature are experienced by the patient. Also, there are likely side-effects because of medicines used during transplant that may cause high cholesterol, high blood pressure, weakened bones and kidneys etc.
Cryosurgery done for treating the liver cancer may cause hemorrhage, infection, damage to major blood vessels and bile ducts and at times also relapse of the cancer
This page included information on liver cancer surgery types and every detail a patient ought to know about what happens during, before and after surgery. The treatment method; whether surgical or non-surgical, depends on the age, grade of tumor, overall health and extent of progression of the tumor in the person's body.
Liver cancer is when the cells in the liver grow uncontrolled. As the liver filters blood from all parts of the body, one of the most common reasons for liver cancer is perhaps metastasis, which is spread from other parts. Through the blood, cancer cells from other parts reach the liver for filtration and can then make the organ cancerous.
In addition to this, there are other risk factors that can lead to liver cancer. For example, people suffering from obesity, alcohol and tobacco abuse, viral hepatitis (B or C), chronic liver disease (especially in men, who are more prone than women to develop cancer), cirrhosis and someone who has a history of a prolonged use of steroids can suffer from the disease. Also, while liver cancer is very rare in the Americas, it is very common in Africa and Southeast Asia as the prevalence of hepatitis is higher in these regions.
When it comes to the symptoms, it’s acceptable that liver cancer is insidious, and the exact point of origin cannot be identified. It continues to grow until symptoms become evident, which are also nonspecific. Before analyzing your health on your own, it’s always recommendable to seek an expert’s final word on it. Let’s take a look at the top signs that might point out towards liver cancer.
जिगर शरीर में सबसे बड़ा ग्रंथियों वाला अंग है और शरीर को विषाक्त पदार्थों और हानिकारक पदार्थों से मुक्त रखने के लिए विभिन्न महत्वपूर्ण कार्य करता है। पेट के दाहिने ऊपरी चतुर्भुज मंर स्थित है, पसलियों के ठीक नीचे। लिवर पित्त के उत्पादन के लिए जिम्मेदार है, जो एक पदार्थ है जो आपको वसा, विटामिन, और अन्य पोषक तत्वों को पचाने में मदद करता है। यह ग्लूकोज जैसे पोषक तत्वों को भी स्टोर करता है और दवाओं और विषाक्त पदार्थों को तोड़ता है।
लिवर कैंसर, जिसे हेपेटिक कैंसर भी कहा जाता है, एक कैंसर होता है जो लिवर में शुरू होता है। जब कैंसर लिवर में विकसित होता है, तो यह लिवर कोशिकाओं को नष्ट कर देता है और सामान्य रूप से कार्य करने के लिए लिवर की क्षमता में दखल देता है। लिवर कैंसर के दो प्रकार होते हैं। प्राथमिक लिवर कैंसर, जो लिवर की कोशिकाओं में शुरू होता है। जबकि, कैंसर जो कि कहीं और से शुरू होता है और अंततः जिगर तक पहुंच जाता है, उन्हें जिगर मेटास्टेसिस या द्वितीयक लिवर कैंसर कहा जाता है।
प्राथमिक लिवर कैंसर के विभिन्न प्रकार
विभिन्न प्रकार के प्राथमिक लिवर कैंसर लिवर के विभिन्न कोशिकाओं से उत्पन्न होते हैं। प्राथमिक लिवर कैंसर लिवर में एक गांठ के रूप में, या एक ही समय में लिवर के भीतर कई स्थानों में शुरू हो सकता है।
1. हेपैटोसेलुलर हेपैटोसेलुलर:
हेपेटोसेल्यूलर कार्सिनोमा (एच.सी.सी), जिसे हेपेटामा भी कहा जाता है, सबसे सामान्य प्रकार का लिवर कैंसर है। एचसीसी मुख्य प्रकार के लिवर कोशिकाओं में शुरू होता है, जिसे हेपोटोसेल्यूलर कोशिका कहा जाता है। एचसीसी के अधिकांश मामले हेपेटाइटिस बी या सी, या शराब के कारण जिगर के सिरोसिस के संक्रमण का नतीजा है।
2. फाइब्रोलैमेलर एचसीसी:
फाइब्रोलामेरेलर एचसीसी एक रेअर प्रकार का एचसीसी है, जो आम तौर पर अन्य प्रकार के लिवर कैंसर की तुलना में उपचार के लिए अधिक संवेदनशील होता है।
कोलेंजियोकार्सिनोमा, जिसे आमतौर पर पित्त नली के कैंसर के रूप में जाना जाता है, लिवर में छोटे, ट्यूब जैसे पित्त नलिकाओं में विकसित होता है। पाचन में मदद करने के लिए, ये नलिकाएं पित्ताशय में पित्त को ले जाने के लिए जिम्मेदार हैं। जब कैंसर लिवर के अंदर नलिकाएं के खंड में शुरू होता है, तो इसे इंट्राहेपेटिक पित्त नलिका कैंसर कहा जाता है। यद्यपि, जब लिवर के बाहर नलिकाओं के अनुभाग में कैंसर शुरू होता है, तो एक्स्ट्राहेपाटिक पित्त वाहिका कैंसर कहलाता है।
एंजियोनेसकोमा लिवर कैंसर का एक रेअर प्रकार है जो लिवर के रक्त वाहिकाओं से शुरू होता है। इस प्रकार का कैंसर बहुत तेज़ी से प्रगति करता है, इसलिए यह आमतौर पर एक और अधिक उन्नत चरण में डिटेक्ट किया जाता है।
हेपोटोब्लास्टोमा एक अत्यंत असामान्य प्रकार का लिवर कैंसर है।
लिवर कैंसर के लक्षण
ज्यादातर लोगों के प्राथमिक जिगर कैंसर के शुरुआती चरणों में लक्षण नहीं होते। जिसके परिणामस्वरूप, लिवर कैंसर बहुत देर से डिटेक्ट किया जाता है। लिवर कैंसर के लक्षणों में शामिल हैं:
चूंकि लिवर कैंसर के लिए कोई व्यापक रूप से अनुशंसित नियमित स्क्रीनिंग टेस्ट नहीं हैं, इसलिये बीमारी के परिवार के या अन्य जोखिम कारकों के इतिहास वाले लोगों को उनके डॉक्टर से बात करनी चाहिए ताकि वे अपने जोखिम को मॉनिटर करने या कम करने के लिए सही कदम उठा सकें।
लिवर कैंसर के जोखिम कारक
प्राथमिक लिवर कैंसर के खतरे को बढ़ाने वाले कारकों में शामिल हैं: