What is Liver Cancer Surgery?
The liver is an extremely instrumental organ in the human body. It not only aids in proper digestion but also fights outside infections that threaten the immune system in the body. Liver cancer and failure of it to perform its assigned functions are extremities of diseases faced by the liver. Hence, to avoid further complications such as spread of cancer, liver cancer surgery is the best option available.
Why is Liver Cancer Surgery Required?
Liver cancer surgery usually is for life-saving purposes. In some cases, cancer is totally removed from the liver, but in some cases, surgery helps in making the patient survive for longer than expected. Also, surgery is useful in stopping the advancement of cancer to the remaining parts of the body from liver. Depending on the condition, doctors decide the type of surgery method to be adopted.
When doctors come to a conclusion that surgery is the only respite left for treating cancer, the surgery decision is confirmed for the patient. There are certain diagnostic tests that the patient is made to undergo before surgery. Few of them are as follows:
Following given are the instructions patient needs to follow once surgery date is decided. The date for surgery is also then scheduled.
Day Before Surgery
Having to undergo surgery for liver cancer or for that matter any other cancer is a very distressing time for the person and his family members. Therefore having an idea as to what goes into the preparation stage can brace the person for taking precautions and then going in for the surgery. Following given are some other steps you can take to help ensure a better surgical outcome on your end:
The probability of getting back to a fit and fine body like before depends on many factors like - the progression and growth of the tumors to other parts of the body, whether the person is having cancer for the first time, or whether his earlier cancer has relapsed. It also has got a lot to do with the person's general health, whether he has any other liver condition, and lastly if the person is a likely candidate for liver transplant if the cancer is not possible to go away by removal of the affected part of liver.
While the above mentioned were the types under which cancer is classified and the chances of recovery, the line of treatment varies according to patient. There are few types of standard treatments that are used for treating any person suffering from liver cancer. They are as follows:
Methods/Techniques of Liver Cancer Surgery
Liver Resection: Surgery for resection of the liver to remove affected parts is called liver resection. The surgery for it is also referred to as partial or full hepactectomy. Surgical resection of liver is feasible because liver is an organ that has regenerative capacity. A liver transplant becomes compulsory when the liver function is very poor and not up to the mark. At such times, removing the affected portion of liver would only result in liver failure, transplant from a donor is helpful. In such liver cancer cases, the old liver is removed and fitted with a new one.
Minimally-Invasive Laparoscopic Liver Tumor Resection A laparascopic procedure is decided based on the size and location of the tumors. In this minimally invasive approach of surgery for liver cancer. One or multiple incisions are made for being able to insert the laparascope. The incisions enable the doctor to insert the cameras and surgical instruments for performing the resection surgery. The minimally-invasive surgery involves faster recovery, less blood loss and lesser postoperative pain, fewer and smaller scars as compared to an open surgery. Depending on your condition, you may need only a short hospital stay.
Cryosurgery: This technique commences with the patient getting a general anesthetic injected. A thin metal probe then freezes the tumor with the help of cold gases that destroy the cancerous cells. The probe is inserted through the abdominal skin during this technique which is used for treating liver cancer. This method is also called as Percutaneous technique. The metallic probe may sometimes be inserted in the abdominal cavity for operating on the tumor. This technique is termed as intra-abdominal surgery.
Liver Transplant: A liver transplant is another surgical technique for elimination of liver cancer from the body. This method is not advisable for people suffering from bile duct cancer. Also, only people with one or multiple small liver tumors are considered for this treatment. It involves removing the entire liver for eventually replacing it with a healthy liver taken from a donor. People suffering from liver cancer and those who qualify for a liver transplant need to wait for a long time for getting the correct donor. As a result, cancer continues to grow and at that time, tumor ablation therapy is considered suitable for the patient till time being.
Isolated Liver Perfusion: This method is only used in rare liver cancer cases wherein the cancer is failing to respond to other surgical techniques. The name comes from, the procedural step wherein highly concentrated chemotherapeutic drugs are infused into the liver. As a result, hepatic circulatory system is separated from other sources that supply blood to the body.
Other than the above treatments, targeted therapies, chemotherapy, palliative treatment and radioembolization are used for treating patients suffering from liver cancer. That is decided of course on the basis of type, staging and progression of tumors.
The surgery duration depends on the complications and progression of the liver cancer inside. The time will differ from patient to patient.
Do's and Don'ts... Post-Liver Cancer Surgery
Following listed are the recovery tips to be followed in the period post undergoing any of the above treatments listed for liver cancer of any stage.
Risks and Complications
There are few complications associated with liver cancer surgeries mentioned above.
Liver Resection Risks
Bleeding post surgery is a common complication. Also, development of blood clots in legs post operation which is also known as deep vein thrombosis is another possibility. Infections developing at the site of surgery and leakage of bile from liver are 2 other complications coming with the liver resection procedure.
Liver Transplant Risks
Liver rejection is the most common side effect. It happens because the transplanted liver is relatively new to the body and also to the immune system. As a result, diarrhea, reduced energy levels, yellowing of skin and fever with high temperature are experienced by the patient. Also, there are likely side-effects because of medicines used during transplant that may cause high cholesterol, high blood pressure, weakened bones and kidneys etc.
Cryosurgery done for treating the liver cancer may cause hemorrhage, infection, damage to major blood vessels and bile ducts and at times also relapse of the cancer
This page included information on liver cancer surgery types and every detail a patient ought to know about what happens during, before and after surgery. The treatment method; whether surgical or non-surgical, depends on the age, grade of tumor, overall health and extent of progression of the tumor in the person's body.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Liver cancer is when the cells in the liver grow uncontrolled. As the liver filters blood from all parts of the body, one of the most common reasons for liver cancer is perhaps metastasis, which is spread from other parts. Through the blood, cancer cells from other parts reach the liver for filtration and can then make the organ cancerous.
In addition to this, there are other risk factors that can lead to liver cancer. For example, people suffering from obesity, alcohol and tobacco abuse, viral hepatitis (B or C), chronic liver disease (especially in men, who are more prone than women to develop cancer), cirrhosis and someone who has a history of a prolonged use of steroids can suffer from the disease. Also, while liver cancer is very rare in the Americas, it is very common in Africa and Southeast Asia as the prevalence of hepatitis is higher in these regions.
When it comes to the symptoms, it’s acceptable that liver cancer is insidious, and the exact point of origin cannot be identified. It continues to grow until symptoms become evident, which are also nonspecific. Before analyzing your health on your own, it’s always recommendable to seek an expert’s final word on it. Let’s take a look at the top signs that might point out towards liver cancer.
Lybrate | Dr. Shekhar Haldar speaks on IMPORTANCE OF TREATING ACNE EARLY
जिगर शरीर में सबसे बड़ा ग्रंथियों वाला अंग है और शरीर को विषाक्त पदार्थों और हानिकारक पदार्थों से मुक्त रखने के लिए विभिन्न महत्वपूर्ण कार्य करता है। पेट के दाहिने ऊपरी चतुर्भुज मंर स्थित है, पसलियों के ठीक नीचे। लिवर पित्त के उत्पादन के लिए जिम्मेदार है, जो एक पदार्थ है जो आपको वसा, विटामिन, और अन्य पोषक तत्वों को पचाने में मदद करता है। यह ग्लूकोज जैसे पोषक तत्वों को भी स्टोर करता है और दवाओं और विषाक्त पदार्थों को तोड़ता है।
लिवर कैंसर, जिसे हेपेटिक कैंसर भी कहा जाता है, एक कैंसर होता है जो लिवर में शुरू होता है। जब कैंसर लिवर में विकसित होता है, तो यह लिवर कोशिकाओं को नष्ट कर देता है और सामान्य रूप से कार्य करने के लिए लिवर की क्षमता में दखल देता है। लिवर कैंसर के दो प्रकार होते हैं। प्राथमिक लिवर कैंसर, जो लिवर की कोशिकाओं में शुरू होता है। जबकि, कैंसर जो कि कहीं और से शुरू होता है और अंततः जिगर तक पहुंच जाता है, उन्हें जिगर मेटास्टेसिस या द्वितीयक लिवर कैंसर कहा जाता है।
प्राथमिक लिवर कैंसर के विभिन्न प्रकार
विभिन्न प्रकार के प्राथमिक लिवर कैंसर लिवर के विभिन्न कोशिकाओं से उत्पन्न होते हैं। प्राथमिक लिवर कैंसर लिवर में एक गांठ के रूप में, या एक ही समय में लिवर के भीतर कई स्थानों में शुरू हो सकता है।
1. हेपैटोसेलुलर हेपैटोसेलुलर:
हेपेटोसेल्यूलर कार्सिनोमा (एच.सी.सी), जिसे हेपेटामा भी कहा जाता है, सबसे सामान्य प्रकार का लिवर कैंसर है। एचसीसी मुख्य प्रकार के लिवर कोशिकाओं में शुरू होता है, जिसे हेपोटोसेल्यूलर कोशिका कहा जाता है। एचसीसी के अधिकांश मामले हेपेटाइटिस बी या सी, या शराब के कारण जिगर के सिरोसिस के संक्रमण का नतीजा है।
2. फाइब्रोलैमेलर एचसीसी:
फाइब्रोलामेरेलर एचसीसी एक रेअर प्रकार का एचसीसी है, जो आम तौर पर अन्य प्रकार के लिवर कैंसर की तुलना में उपचार के लिए अधिक संवेदनशील होता है।
कोलेंजियोकार्सिनोमा, जिसे आमतौर पर पित्त नली के कैंसर के रूप में जाना जाता है, लिवर में छोटे, ट्यूब जैसे पित्त नलिकाओं में विकसित होता है। पाचन में मदद करने के लिए, ये नलिकाएं पित्ताशय में पित्त को ले जाने के लिए जिम्मेदार हैं। जब कैंसर लिवर के अंदर नलिकाएं के खंड में शुरू होता है, तो इसे इंट्राहेपेटिक पित्त नलिका कैंसर कहा जाता है। यद्यपि, जब लिवर के बाहर नलिकाओं के अनुभाग में कैंसर शुरू होता है, तो एक्स्ट्राहेपाटिक पित्त वाहिका कैंसर कहलाता है।
एंजियोनेसकोमा लिवर कैंसर का एक रेअर प्रकार है जो लिवर के रक्त वाहिकाओं से शुरू होता है। इस प्रकार का कैंसर बहुत तेज़ी से प्रगति करता है, इसलिए यह आमतौर पर एक और अधिक उन्नत चरण में डिटेक्ट किया जाता है।
हेपोटोब्लास्टोमा एक अत्यंत असामान्य प्रकार का लिवर कैंसर है।
लिवर कैंसर के लक्षण
ज्यादातर लोगों के प्राथमिक जिगर कैंसर के शुरुआती चरणों में लक्षण नहीं होते। जिसके परिणामस्वरूप, लिवर कैंसर बहुत देर से डिटेक्ट किया जाता है। लिवर कैंसर के लक्षणों में शामिल हैं:
चूंकि लिवर कैंसर के लिए कोई व्यापक रूप से अनुशंसित नियमित स्क्रीनिंग टेस्ट नहीं हैं, इसलिये बीमारी के परिवार के या अन्य जोखिम कारकों के इतिहास वाले लोगों को उनके डॉक्टर से बात करनी चाहिए ताकि वे अपने जोखिम को मॉनिटर करने या कम करने के लिए सही कदम उठा सकें।
लिवर कैंसर के जोखिम कारक
प्राथमिक लिवर कैंसर के खतरे को बढ़ाने वाले कारकों में शामिल हैं:
A liver transplant surgery involves surgically substituting a problematic liver with a healthy liver from a different person. Usually, the healthy liver is taken from a person who has recently passed away. In some cases, a living person may also give away part of the liver. Usually, living donors are members of the family or someone who has a good blood type match. The liver regenerates lost tissues after a surgery; hence, the donor’s liver becomes normal within a few weeks of surgery.
You may require a liver transplant if your liver does not function optimally, owing to the below mentioned conditions:
You have to undergo certain procedures before the surgery is conducted; a general health exam, imaging tests, blood tests and a psychological exam are conducted before the surgery. Based on the functioning of the liver and some other factors, your suitability for the transplant will be determined.
The procedure begins with general anesthesia, following which an incision is made in the abdomen. The liver is then removed and replaced with a healthy one. Once the procedure is completed, the surgeon closes the incision with stitches.
Once the procedure is done with, you are kept in the intensive care unit for a few days. The doctor will monitor your progress and put you on medications. After the recovery, you will have to undergo check-ups at regular intervals. You may also have to take medications such as immuno suppressant to prevent your immune system from attacking the liver. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
We live in an age where every single individual, more or less, is exposed to the risk of cancer. It is probably an unfavorable lifestyle we lead that deprives us of good health. This might alarm many but considerable changes in lifestyle can help you realize cancer as a preventable disease. Cancer does not only make you undergo severe suffering but it also affects your friends and family. The pallor of misery spreads wider than you think.