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Liver Cancer Health Feed

Liver Transplant Surgery - Situations Where Is It Required!

Dr. Ankur Garg 89% (489 ratings)
M. Ch., FEBS, MBBS, MS - General Surgery
Liver Transplant Surgeon, Delhi
Liver Transplant Surgery - Situations Where Is It Required!

A liver transplant surgery is a procedure by the virtue of which the doctors remove the liver in that cases where it becomes non-functional or does not function appropriately. In this process, the malfunctioning liver is substituted with the healthy liver obtained from a living donor.

Liver transplant surgery has been performed in the medicine for more than 30 years and it has been observed that this surgery is successful and the patients who undergo liver transplant are able to live healthy lives.
Liver transplant is usually performed in the cases where the liver failure could not be treated by other alternative medical treatments available and cancerous conditions. There can be either acute liver failure or chronic liver failure. The Liver transplantation is more often performed in order to treat the chronic ailments.

In Adults

  1. In the cases of adults, one of the major causes of getting liver transplantation done is liver cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is a medical condition where there is a gradual deterioration of liver and severe chronic illness may lead to malfunctioning of the liver.
  2. The blood flow across the liver can be blocked due to the dominance of the scar tissue over healthy tissue.
  3. There can also be other reasons for cirrhosis which include the attack of viruses like hepatitis B and C, the alcoholic liver disease due to excess intake of alcohol, increase in the fat proportion in the liver, Autoimmune disorders of liver or you can say, hereditary diseases such as hemochromatosis and Wilson’s disease.
  4. When the alcohol intake increases rapidly, then the patients do need a liver transplant but if the person controls the intake of alcohol, then improvements can be observed significantly and the patients may even survive for a long time even without getting the transplant done. But in certain cases, even after abstaining from alcohol, the damage is untreatable and healthy liver tissue cannot be restored, in such cases, liver transplant becomes a compulsion.

In children

  1. In the case of children, biliary atresia is the most prominent reason for the liver transplant surgery. It is a very rare condition wherein the bile duct that connect the liver and the small intestine is either blocked or absent in newborn babies. Hence, the function of bile ducts, i.e. removal of bile juice from the liver gets hampered and obstructed bile leads to cirrhosis. The digestion of the food could not be carried out properly.
  2. There can be several other reasons for liver transplantation such as the cancer in the liver or benign tumors that can be present in the liver. When a patient suffers from liver cirrhosis, the chances of acquiring the primary cancer increase by multiple times. The likelihood increases furthermore in those patients who have liver disorders along with hepatitis B. Mostly, after liver transplant surgery, patients are able to live their life normally, but if the cancer starts spreading to other body parts from the liver, then liver transplantation is not the solution.
1874 people found this helpful

Bile Duct Cancer - Signs And Symptoms Associated With It!

Dr. Anuj Gupta 89% (708 ratings)
Post Graduate Certficate in Ksharsutra & Ano-Rectal Diseases, BAMS, IMA Ayush , Vaidratnam kerala
General Physician, Gurgaon
Bile Duct Cancer - Signs And Symptoms Associated With It!

Cholangiocarcinoma (Bile duct cancer), like any other cancer, leaves a person physically, mentally and emotionally drained. It has been mostly found to affect people above 60 years of age. The signs and symptoms associated are so common that very few people consult a physician. A delayed diagnosis implies delayed treatment. This goes on to aggravate and complicate the situation further. One needs to be a little alert. Any symptoms, no matter how common, should not be taken lightly. Look for the early signs and symptoms and bile duct cancer can be fully cured.
Signs and symptoms associated with Cholangiocarcinoma
Bile duct cancer can be Extrahepatic (occurs in the duct outside the liver) or Intrahepatic (cancer develops within the smaller ducts inside the liver). It must be noted that Intrahepatic Bile duct cancer and Liver cancer are different.
-      Bile duct cancer results in blocking the bile duct. This blockage severely effects the secretion of bilirubin and bile from the liver. Thus, the secretions (bile and bilirubin) which are supposed to flow into the intestine move back into the bloodstream. An elevated level of bilirubin in the blood gives rise to a condition, known as Jaundice (a condition resulting in yellowing of the eyes and the skin). The problem lies in the fact that many other factors can equally contribute to Jaundice. Consulting a physician at the earliest is the best resort.
-      A sudden or drastic weight loss and loss of appetite is an alarming sign of Cholangiocarcinoma.
-      Excessive itching can be an indication of something as big as bile duct cancer. Itching can be an outcome of the increased bilirubin (blood) reaching the skin.
-      At an advanced stage of Cholangiocarcinoma, a patient may experience severe abdominal pain.
-      At times, the tumour in the bile duct might exert immense pressure on the nearby organs. This can give rise to an enlarged abdominal mass. Bloated feeling is also very common amongst the patients.
-      An unusual change in the colour of the stool and urine should not be neglected. The elevated bilirubin level from the intestine is usually eliminated out of the system through the urine.  Thus the stool appears lighter and the urine a shade darker.
-      A cholangiocarcinoma patient can, at times feel nauseated. Fever is also a common but an extremely important indication.

Bile duct cancer or cholangiocarcinoma can lead to many other complications. 

2971 people found this helpful

Liver Cancer - Its Symptoms And Diagnosis!

Dr. Swarup Kumar Ghosh 90% (82 ratings)
MD - Bio-Chemistry, MF Homeo (London), DHMS (Diploma in Homeopathic Medicine and Surgery), BHMS
Homeopath, Kolkata
Liver Cancer - Its Symptoms And Diagnosis!

Why and when to do liver cancer test?
The liver is a pyramid-shaped organ in our body that lies just below the right lung. It is the largest organ inside the human body. This vital organ is divided into right and left lobes and performs a number of functions. It makes bile necessary to digest fat, makes various proteins used by the body for a number of other purposes, breaks down toxic materials in the blood that are later removed by the body as waste, helps in blood clotting and stores certain nutrients absorbed from the intestine. Thus liver is primary to the healthy functioning of the human body. Liver cancer test in India when cancerous cells form in the liver, it is known as liver cancer. Primary liver cancer is cancer that starts in the liver tissue; whereas cancer that starts in some other site and spreads to the liver is classified as the secondary liver cancer. Varied methods & techniques are available to treat liver cancer.

Diagnosis: After examining your health and learning about family history, your doctor may tell you to go for one or more of the following tests for diagnosing liver cancer:

  • Liver biopsy: Liver biopsy is done in order to remove a tissue sample from the suspected site in the liver. This tissue sample is analyzed under the microscope to confirm the presence of cancerous cells. Biopsy of liver laparoscopic biopsy, needle biopsy, and surgical biopsy are the different types of biopsies done.
  • Blood tests: You may need to perform some blood tests like liver function tests (LFTs). Besides these, if a suspicion of liver cancer arises, doctors check the level of alphafetoprotein (AFP) in the blood. The level of AFP is usually found higher in people with primary level cancer; although there are cases of people with liver cancer having normal levels of AFP. Again the ratio of des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin is also checked.
  • Ultrasound: Imaging tests are done to find suspicious sites that may be cancerous and also to know whether cancer has spread. Ultrasound uses sound waves to create an image on a video screen. This test can show tumors in the liver and these tumors are later tested for cancer if required.
  • Computed tomography (scan): During a ct scan for diagnosing liver tumors, cross-sectional images of the abdomen are taken. Information regarding the shape, size, and location of the tumors in the liver or nearby blood vessels can be known which help the doctors plan certain treatments. Sometimes some contrast material may be used that aims to outline the intestine in order to avoid confusion regarding tumors. You may be given oral contrast or intravenous (iv) contrast.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): The difference between ct scan and MRI is that the latter uses radio waves and strong magnets instead of x-rays used by the former. Through waves and magnetic rays, certain images of the inside of the liver are taken. Your doctor can provide you contrast material if needed.
  • Angiography: During an angiography, a contrast dye is injected into the bloodstream to know about the arteries supplying blood to a liver. This test is used for both surgical and non-surgical purposes.

Symptoms:
Liver cancer does not have any symptoms, of its own. However, the tumor causes some symptoms and these symptoms appear in the later stages of cancer. Sometimes these symptoms may show up in the early stages also. The common symptoms are mentioned below:

  • Loss of appetite
  • Vomiting
  • Abdominal pain
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Fever, yellowing of the skin and eyes (due to jaundice)
  • Itching
  • Feeling full while eating
  • Wasting (cachexia)
  • Increased swelling of the belly and feet
  • Feeling of a mass under the ribs on the right side

Symptoms of liver cancer sometimes some tumors in the liver build hormones that influence other organs. These hormones may cause certain signs like low blood sugar levels, high cholesterols levels, enlarged breasts, high counts of red blood cells and high levels of calcium in the blood. If you have any of the symptoms at any stage of your life, you must consult your doctor right away to avoid unnecessary complications.

Stages:
The stages of liver cancer tell the doctor how far cancer has spread. Once the stage is determined, individualized treatment plans can be designed. There are different staging systems for this cancer, but all doctors across the globe do not follow the same system. The American joint committee on cancer (ajcc) is the commonly accepted method for staging liver cancer. According to this system, the stages can be evaluated on the basis of three main factors like:

  • Tumor (t): It stands for the size and number of the original tumor.
  • Lymph node (n): It describes if there is any cancer present in the nearby lymph nodes.
  • Metastasis (m): It indicates whether cancer has spread to other parts of the body like lungs, bones etc.

Besides these, the letter x and a number (0-4) are also assigned to these factors. For instance, t1, t2, t3 and so on; a higher number refers to increasing severity. And the letter x indicates that no information could be gathered. Liver-cancer-stages-medifee

Usually, the size and number of the tumor (s) and whether cancer has spread to blood vessels or lymph nodes are the important criteria for staging liver cancer. Here a brief description of the 4 stages of liver cancer is described:

Stage 1: In stage 1, there is only one tumor and there is no growth of cancerous cells in the blood vessels, any other organs of the body or lymph nodes.

Stage 2: In this stage, there is a single tumor and it has started growing into the blood vessels. Again there may also be more than one tumor which is less than 5cm and have not grown into the blood vessels. In either of the case, cancer may be described to be in stage 2.

Stage 3: In this stage, 3 things can happen. Stage 3a refers to more than a single tumor and at least one of them is larger than 5 cm. But the cancerous cells have not grown in the lymph nodes or any other part of the body. Stage 3b refers to cancer that has grown either into the portal vein or hepatic vein. Again, there is no growth of cancerous cells in any part of the body or lymph nodes. Stage 3c describes the stage where cancer has spread into organs of the body that are close to the liver, like pancreas but not to lymph nodes or any distant organs.

Stage 4: Stage 4a refers to the phase where there can be more than one tumor of any size in the liver. Also, the cancerous cells may have spread to other organs around the liver and also blood vessels. Cancer has spread to lymph nodes but not to other body parts. Stage 4b is the phase when cancer has spread to another part of the body. The tumor is any size and may be more than one. It may have spread to the blood vessels and other organs around the liver. There may or may not be any presence of cancerous cells into the lymph nodes.

Doctors may follow any of the two staging criteria mentioned above or even go for some other staging processes. 

1 person found this helpful

Sir mere father ko liver cancer hai Lucknow mein doctors bol rhe hai ki kuch nahi ho sakta iska koi treatment ho sakta hai kya please rply.

Dr. Jatin Soni 94% (39975 ratings)
MBBS
General Physician, Mumbai
Treatment depends on the stage of cancer and if there is no metastasis than liver transplant can be considered but to be decided after clinical examination
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Sir mere father ko liver cancer hua hain or wo lungs ir gall balldar me poch gya h kya app meri help mrenge mujhe kya krna hain.

Dr. Guru Prasad Mohanty 87% (102 ratings)
MD - Radiotherapy
Oncologist, Vadodara
Sorry to know about your father. My guess from your information might be GallBladder Cancer spreading to Liver and Lungs than the other way. Kindly discuss the case with a Radiation or Medical Oncologist for further guidance.
1 person found this helpful
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My elder sister has been admitted in Kolkata Medical collage with a problem of liver metastasis after having a full abdomen CT scan. He had some problem of osteoporosis of spine which has been detected after a MRI is done but in MRI it is also reported the same thing that metastasis of tumor. Doctors over there are still under searching the source of this tumor which has been scattered. Report of Endoscopy has given the same symptom. Now doctor is advising to have colonoscopy by 5th September i.e. Day after tomorrow. My question is: should we now consult with an oncologist though medical college is suspecting but not sure that it is a case of oncology.

Dr. Nikhilesh Borkar 93% (827 ratings)
MBBS, M.S. General Surgery, M.R.C.S. England, M.Ch. Surgical Oncology, DNB Surgical Oncology, FEBS Surgical Oncology, DNB General Surgery, MNAMS, FMAS, FIAGES, FAIS, FICS, FEBS Breast Surgery, FACS, Fellowship IFHNOS & MSKCC USA, Fellowship in breast and oncplastic Surgery
Oncologist, Mumbai
Colonoscopy may be worth doing. Liver mets can be from tumour of pancreas, colon, stomach, gall bladder, lung, Breast and rarely melanoma I would suggest a biopsy of liver and IHC to get an idea about the primary. Other test to do is pet ct scan Some also get an upper GI and colonoscopy Feel free to contact me directly if you want to discuss this further.
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Does cardus marianus work for liver cancer patients who got chemotherapy earlier which not showed much improvement?

Dr. Jatin Soni 94% (39975 ratings)
MBBS
General Physician, Mumbai
As of now plan for palliative treatment and cardus marianus can be given but after clinical examination
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Can Liver Cancer Be Found Early?

MCh - Surgical Gastroenterology/G.I. Surgery, MBBS, MS - General Surgery
General Surgeon, Noida
Can Liver Cancer Be Found Early?

Screening is used to look for cancer before you have any symptoms or signs.If you know you have  risk factors for liver cancer such as cirrhosis most commonly caused by alcohol abuse, other causes are Obesity, NAFLD, and diabetes, viral hepatitis (types B and C), too much iron in the liver from a disease called hemochromatosis, and some other rare types of chronic liver disease,then it is extremely important to talk with your doctor about whether you should be regularly screened for liver cancer.Finding a cancer before any symptoms have developed will increase the chance of successful treatment, Screening options include testing the blood for a substance called alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), which may be produced by cancer cells, or having imaging tests like an ultrasound.

 

1 person found this helpful

What is the Life of stent in the bile duct (intestine) the patient having tumor there. And if this cancerous tumor is not treated then what are the chances of survival of the patient?

Dr. Sandeep Nayak 90% (44 ratings)
MBBS, DNB Gen Surgery, DNB Surgical Oncology
Oncologist, Bangalore
Plastic stent works for 3 weeks. A metal stems for 6 months. If the cancer is operable, better to get surgery done. That is the only curative option.
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Who Is Not The Right Candidate For Liver Transplant Surgery?

Dr. Rajiv Lochan 85% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MS - General Surgery, FRCS (edinburgh), MD - R & D, FRCS Intercollegiate
Liver Transplant Surgeon, Bangalore
Who Is Not The Right Candidate For Liver Transplant Surgery?

The liver has a significant role to play in metabolism and digestion. The failure of a liver can lead to significant health issues. There are some causes for liver failure, which cannot be treated with medications. In these people, a transplant, which is replacing the diseased or injured liver with another liver, is the only definitive treatment option.

Some conditions which can require a liver transplant are:

Types of transplant:

  • Living donor transplant: In some patients, partial liver can be removed from a close family member and transplanted into the affected individual. The liver is known for its regeneration ability, and over time, will grow in the recipient.
  • Cadaveric transplant: Immediately after death, a liver can be removed and transplanted.

While the concept of a transplant sounds quite convincing and appealing for those with a severe liver disease, it is also important to note that not all would qualify for a liver transplant. The conditions which would disqualify a recipient are discussed below:

  • Significant heart disease: Those with severe coronary artery disease, valvular disease, cardiomyopathy, aortic stenosis, and cardiomyopathy are not candidates for a liver transplant.
  • Severe lung disease: Those with poor lung perfusion do not qualify for a liver transplant.
  • Advanced age: Greater the age, lesser the survival rates. So, people aged more than 70 are usually not considered for a transplant.
  • Obesity: A person with a BMI of more than 35 is often not a good candidate for a transplant. The overall health should be managed in these people.
  • Malnutrition: On the other extreme, severely malnourished individuals are also not considered for a transplant.
  • HIV infection: A person who is HIV-infected does not qualify for a liver transplant.
  • Substance abuse: Anyone who is actively abusing alcohol and/or substances is definitely removed from the list for a transplant.
  • Metastasis: If a patient is looking for a liver transplant due to hepatic cancer, it is essential that the cancer is contained. If it has spread to various parts, then containing it would be difficult, and a transplant may not succeed.
  • Multisystem organ failure: Other than heart and lungs, even people with poor renal function are not ideal candidates for a liver transplant.

A detailed liver recipient evaluation assessing the severity of liver disease, chances of survival, and overall health are done before a person is listed for liver transplant. This evaluation ensures a better success rate with the transplant.

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