In such lockdown time we are seeing more and more cases of leg pain and cramps later diagnosed to have clots in veins of leg which happens due to inactivity and sedentary lifestyle plus dehydration due to summer. We tend to not exercise during lockdown time. So be careful. Keep doing stretching exercises for legs and drink lots of water
An occasional tingling sensation in the hands or feet is normal and probably happens to everybody. But if this happens at a higher intensity or frequency than the normal amount and if it is accompanied by pain, it needs attention.
Commonly called the “pins and needles” feeling, it is irritating and distracting. Sometimes, this is a symptom of more complicated underlying issues. For this reason, this problem should not be ignored, even if it doesn’t seem like much of a problem.
A tingling sensation anywhere in the body is usually the result of pressure on the nerves in that area. The hands and limbs having several nerve endings at the fingertips and toes are often at the receiving end of this sensation even if another part of the leg or arm is under pressure.
In rarer cases, this feeling might be more frequent or chronic. Sometimes, it might not even happen as a result of direct pressure. This is when the symptoms need more attention because it indicates the beginning of nerve damage. This might be the result of various causes like:
Injury affecting the nerves
Exposure to toxins
Neurological disorders like Parkinsonism
Peripheral artery disease
The onset of a stroke
Disc bulges in spine
The pain and tingling are itself a symptom of possible neurological problems. But usually, it is just a result of the nerves being under pressure. If the symptom occurs in the absence of pressure, and it occurs frequently, it is likely that it is indicating a different health condition called peripheral neuropathy. It comes with a set of other symptoms like:
Most of the time, slight pain and some tingling in the hands and legs is not an indication of some complicated health condition. There are other simple causes like:
Alcoholism, anxiety, and vitamin deficiency need to be treated. Once this is done, the pins and needles sensation will be gone. During pregnancy, light stretching in the earlier stages and some comfortable massage during the advanced stages help avoid the tingling sensation.
Relieving the Symptom with Physiotherapy-
Treatment of this symptom involves the treatment of the cause. The wide range of possible causes needs to be diagnosed either by method of confirming the possible cause or ruling out the others.
If there is no grave underlying medical cause, physiotherapy is helpful in getting rid of the symptom. No medication is required if there is no complication involved. Also, the symptom should not be allowed to stay if it manifests frequently. Physiotherapist will use Exercise therapy like the knees to chest exercise, hamstring stretch, opposition stretch, backward bending of the spine, erect postures of the spine and the child’s pose help getting rid of the pain and tingling.
Chronic Venous Insufficiency is an abnormal condition of the leg veins. It occurs when either the walls or the one-way valves of the veins cannot work effectively. This
makes it difficult for the veins to send the impure blood from the legs to the heart. This results in impure flowing backward and collecting at places in the veins. It can
cause swelling, pain, and changes in skin and over time may lead to ulcers in legs.
Causes of Chronic Venous Insufficiency
Veins return impure blood from all parts of the body to the heart. In the case of legs, the impure blood has to flow upwards to the heart. The natural coordination between contractions of feet and calf muscles with every step helps to push the blood upward. The veins have one-way valves to ensure that impure blood does not flow back up into the veins.
● If the valves in the veins somehow get damaged or weakened, the impure blood starts backing up. This results in Chronic Venous Insufficiency.
● Blood clots in the deep veins can also precipitate this disease. Blood clotting in the deep veins of the legs is a disease which is known as Deep Vein Thrombosis. Nearly 30% of people with Deep Vein Thrombosis develop this disease.
● Vascular malformations and Pelvic tumors may impair the natural coordination of muscles and lead to failure of leg valves in holding the weight of impure blood. This may lead to swelling of legs and Chronic Venous Insufficiency. Damaged or weakened valves may result from aging, extended standing or sitting, reduced mobility or a combination of all. If either the valves or the walls of veins become so weak that the veins cannot ensure normal blood flow, it leads to higher blood pressure in the veins for extended periods of time leading to Chronic Venous Insufficiency.
Who Is At Risk?
CVI occurs frequently in people aged over 50 years, and it affects women more than men.
CVI is a gradual development. The earlier it is diagnosed, the better are the chances of recovery. Complexities of treatment increase with the disease progression. This is why early recognition of the symptoms can be a game changer. Waiting for the problem to go away would aggravate the problem. Early intervention would ensure a rapid recovery. This is why one needs to have a fair idea of the symptoms. The symptoms include:
● Swelling in ankles and lower legs, mostly after sitting or standing for extended periods.
● Tiredness or pain in the legs
● Varicose veins
● Changes in the appearance of the skin of legs
● Itching or flaking skin on the legs
● Ulcers in legs
Chronic Venous Insufficiency demands a combination of treatments to bring the situation under control. With the help of compression stockings, regular movement, and exercise, one can help the leg veins to push the blood up. If there are ulcers, the doctor may also recommend antibiotics to prevent infections. For blood clots, the doctor may also prescribe blood thinners. However, if the situation does not come under control despite these measures, the doctor may go for surgery that includes vein repair, vein transplant, vein bypass, vein ligation, etc.
There are many treatments available for Chronic Venous Insufficiency. However, it is
always advisable to consult a doctor before opting for any treatment.
Shin splints' is a condition, which is characterized by pain in the shin bone, the bone that is present in front of the leg. Shin splints tend to occur quite frequently in runners and dancers as their activities tend to stress the shin bone.
Causes: When excess force is applied to the shinbone, it may result in swelling of the muscles, causing pain and inflammation. It may also occur from stress reactions to fractures in the bone. Cracks tend to develop due to constant application of force in the bones. If the area is not well rested then these cracks will not heal and ultimately lead to a complete fracture.
Some other causes of shin splints are:
The symptoms of shin splints are:
Treatment: The basic treatment for shin splints is the RICE (rest, ice, compression and elevation) protocol. It means allowing the leg to rest, applying ice packs and wearing compression bandages. It is recommended to take rest and not exert the leg beyond a certain point to limit the damage. The complications that may result from shin splints are compartment syndrome, where there is buildup of pressure in the muscle. In some cases, where the muscle tears off from the bone, a surgerymay be required to treat this condition.
Leg cramps is a very common condition which is characterized by tight and painful leg muscles. The calf muscles are the most commonly affected; it can spread further down to your thighs and feet. Once the cramping gets better, you might experience a tender leg coupled with a numbing feeling for a few minutes.
The causes of leg cramps are varied. If it is caused due to an underlying condition, it is known as secondary leg cramps. The causes of secondary leg cramps include vigorous exercises, pregnancy and usage of certain medications. The cramps cause the muscles of the leg to shorten and contract, thus making you lose control of the affected muscle.
How can homeopathy help?
Homeopathy is a system of medicine which is very holistic in nature. The goal of homeopathy is to focus on the causes of a disorder rather than just curing the symptoms. Homeopathic remedies do not yield any side effect unlike the conventional treatments. Apart from treating the symptoms, homeopathic remedies also help improve your overall wellbeing.
There are many homeopathic remedies that can be used to treat leg cramps. The remedies are focused on treating any underlying condition that may be causing these leg cramps, apart from relieving the symptoms. The first step of the treatment is to diagnose the condition, which is done by a trained practitioner. You will be asked questions pertaining to the cramps and your diet. Once the diagnosis is complete, the medications are prescribed based on the diagnosis.
There may be certain dietary restrictions that you may have to follow for the medicines to work at their optimum best. This system of medicine might also require you to not carry out any form of heavy work that involves the legs as rest is required to boost the process of recovery.
The various Homeopathic offerings are:
Leg bypass surgery is needed when the patient suffers from peripheral artery disease. PAD is a very common condition in elderly people, where the rate of flow of blood to the limbs (in this case, the legs) is reduced due to narrowing of the blood vessels.
Causes and risk factors-
The narrowing of the blood vessels occurs due to excess calcium accumulation and fat deposits in the walls of the arteries. The following are the risk factors of PAD-
The condition may be life-long or can last for years.
The following are the signs and symptoms of PAD, which suggest you should consider having a leg bypass surgery-
• Pain in the legs, especially when walking • Pain in the buttocks • A sore on a foot/leg that does not seem to heal • Thinning of the skin on the legs • Loss of hair on the legs • Tingling, weakness, or numbness in the legs • One or both the feet/legs may feel cold • The feet or legs may appear bluish, pale, or dark reddish in colour
You should get yourself checked by a specialist in the initial stage, or else the condition may get worse and affect your day-to-day activities.
Vascular surgery for PAD in the legs:
Vascular surgery is a surgical sub-specialty, which manages vascular system disorders- disorders of the veins, arteries, and lymphatic circulation- by surgical reconstructions, minimally invasive procedures, and medical therapies.
The most commonly used surgical procedure is the leg bypass surgery. The surgery aims to reroute the supply of blood around an obstructed artery in one of the legs.
How is leg bypass surgery performed?
The surgeon performs leg bypass surgery using a graft (usually made of plastic tube) to bypass or replace the blocked portion of the artery. On some occasions, the graft may be a vein or blood vessel taken from the patient’s body (usually, the other leg).
During the surgery, the surgeon will first administer anaesthesia so that you are not able to feel pain or discomfort. He/she will make an incision over the portion of the blocked artery. After carefully removing the skin tissues, the surgeon will place clamps on each side of the narrowed artery and sew the grafts in place. The surgeon will ensure that the flow of blood in your lower extremity (legs) is good. An arteriogram (an X-ray of the arteries/blood vessels) is recommended to make sure that the graft is working fine after the leg bypass surgery.
For most people, leg bypass surgery helps improve the flow of blood in the arteries. The prognosis is better if underlying medical conditions like diabetes are controlled.
The sciatic nerve is one of the largest nerves in the body. It goes from the lower back all the way down to the base of the leg. When there is a disorder associated with the sciatic nerve, it is known as Sciatica.
Sciatica, however, does not necessarily need a surgery or a very elaborate procedure to fix the problem. Most commonly, it is treated simply by practicing a number of simple exercises. Here are some of the most common exercises prescribed to treat Sciatica:
What are leg ulcers?
Sometimes an injury, even a minor one can result in a break or rupture of the skin of the leg. This rupture allows air to reach the underlying tissues and muscles unhindered. Along with air, harmful bacteria too are exposed to the tissues. This causes an infection.
Usually, this broken skin and small infection heal by themselves in a few days. However, sometimes, because of some other medical conditions, the skin does not heal; in fact, the rupture becomes wider and sores begin to form. This is called a leg ulcer.
What causes leg ulcers?
The most common cause of leg ulcers is a problem with the veins of the legs. Malfunctioning veins are responsible for about 80% of all leg ulcers. When the veins in the injured site do not work, blood begins to pool there and this interrupts the flow of blood to the tissues and muscles. That means they stop receiving the oxygen and other nutrients that are needed to stay healthy. This ultimately leads to the formation of ulcers.
In rare cases, a problem of the arteries leads to leg ulcers. Sometimes leg ulcers can be triggered by other medical conditions like-
How can you tell that your injury has deteriorated into an ulcer?
Leg ulcers are accompanied by certain symptoms-
• The injury keeps oozing pus
• It refuses to heal
• The wound area seems to expand
• The legs become swollen
Diagnosis of leg ulcers:
Treatment for leg ulcers:
It is important to seek treatment for leg ulcers because for relieving the intense pain and to stop them from recurring and to prevent further infections.
• Veins intervention: This is a non-invasive vascular procedure. The doctor first determines just how functional your veins are. If functionality is low, then you may have to undergo an endovenous ablation procedure where the doctor uses radiofrequency ablation or laser ablation to collapse the faulty vein with heat.
• Surgery for leg ulcers: surgery may be necessary if the ulcers do not respond to other non-invasive procedures. Generally, doctors advise a procedure called debridement. During this surgery, the surgeon removes the damaged tissues, bone fragments and remnants from dressings. When the area is cleaned, it triggers the production of new platelets and this prompts healing and growth of new tissues.
Leg ulcers can get infected and invite a host of other complications unless you seek treatment for it.
Many times children complain of pain in their legs, especially after routine age-appropriate activities. Growth pains among children occur often and it is important to gain an insight into it while also dispelling the varied notions that parents usually have.
Firstly, it is important to know what growth pain is. Growth pains are the pains experienced by children of growing age, generally between 3 to 10 years. However, it is a treatable condition.
Furthermore, growth pain is a diagnosis of exclusion, which means, only when all the common pathologies that could happen to the child as per his/her age have been excluded can he/she be diagnosed to be suffering from growth pains.
As with all other medical conditions, it is very important to note down the history. The parents usually come into the clinic or hospital with complaints that their child feels pain in the legs as the day ends. However, these kids start their day normally, without any pain. They are usually able to perform various physical activities as per their age. Even their physical examinations are almost always normal and so are their hematological parameters. There are various conditions specific to the growing age like bone infections, nutritional deficiencies and some benign lesions of long bones, which present with similar symptoms as growth pains. Hence, there is a need for a thorough clinical examination.
Though the etiology of growth pains is not clear, it is known that when children grow there is a differential growth rate in the muscles and bones, which means that the bones grow at a higher rate than muscles. This causes muscular shortening leading to stretching of muscles, which in turn becomes painful. Thus, physiotherapy plays a very important role in alleviating the symptoms of growth pains.
But, as we know, not all the children suffer from growth pains implying there are some other causative factors which are poorly understood. There is a muscular fatigue theory which says that muscle fatigue happens due to physical activities in children which also explains growth pains to some extent.
The red flag signs that should ring a bell and demand further investigations are:
1 if your child wakes up in the middle of the night and/or is unable to sleep properly due to pain.
2 if the pain is constantly present throughout the day and the child is unable to perform physical activities as per his/her age which he/she was doing before.
3 if there is a decrease of more than 10% of weight in the last 3 months.
These above findings warrant an immediate visit to a pediatric orthopedic as early as possible.
As far as treatment is concerned, if everything else is ruled out and the child has been labeled as having growth pains, be rest assured that the child will grow out of it after some time. The importance of physiotherapy, which includes both muscle stretching and strengthening, in these situations simply cannot be overstated. Meanwhile, giving anti-inflammatory medicines, hot fomentations and massage to the sore muscles during the period of pain always.
A blood clot in the leg is termed as Deep Vein Thrombosis or DVT. This blood clot can be fatal because it usually blocks the passage of blood to the heart by damaging the one way valves of the veins. This can also reach other organs like the lungs in which situation the case becomes complicated and may also lead to death. There are various ways of preventing the onset of these clots. Follow these points to know more.
* Blood Thinners: Prolonged hospital stay and a major surgery like joint replacement can lead to blood clots in the legs or DVT. Therefore, it is imperative to ask your doctor about a prescription for blood thinners which can help in better blood flow despite minimal motion in the legs or stiffness.
* Compressions Stockings: If you have been in the hospital for a prolonged period or suffering from leg paralysis, then the risk of blood clots is greater than most others. You can make use of compression stockings which will help in preventing clots by holding the area tight so that the blood is forced to pump and flow. These should be used every time you are admitted to the hospital.
* Exercise: It is important to keep moving in case you are travelling in a long flight that is over four hours long. Also, you can try certain mild exercises in case you have a long standing condition of pain or cramping in the leg muscles and joints. From simple toe flexes to muscle strengthening exercises like the heel or towel hook, you can ensure that the tightening action makes your muscle firm so that the blood clots do not have a chance to form. You may also need to lose weight in case you are overweight so that you can alleviate the risk of these clots.
* Water: Staying hydrated is something that we all need to follow in any case, but it is especially important if you are risk of developing blood clots in the legs. Drinking plenty of fluids is a natural way of thinning the blood, especially if you have been in bed or travelling for prolonged periods.
* Loose Fitting Clothing: You may want to wear loose fitting clothing when you are travelling or in the hospital so that you do not end up unnecessarily compressing an area in a way that will be detrimental for the blood flow there. Wearing loose clothing ensures that the blood flow carries on as per its normal routine without any blockages.
It is important to remember the above points so that you keep blood clots in the legs at bay.