Central Nervous System (CNS)
CNS (Central Nervous System) comprises of the brain and the spinal cord. The brain is the most important and complex organ in the human body. It consumes about 20% of the oxygen that we breathe. There are hundreds of thousands of well-connected neurons in the brain. The brain is protected by the skull. The spinal cord is connected to the back of the brain and it runs up to the lumbar region of the back.
Brain and the spinal cord are protected by a three-layered membrane and it is called meninges. The central nervous system has a great impact in controlling our emotions, movements and thoughts. It will affect our breathing, body temperature, production of hormones, heart rate and many other functions. Optic never, retina and other parts are connected to the brain directly.
CNS diseases are trauma, infections, degeneration, tumours, structural defects, stroke and an autoimmune disorder. The signs and symptoms vary from one disease to another disease.
Symptoms of CNS (Central Nervous System)-
The structure and function of the spine or brain will be affected when a person is suffering from CNS.
Some of the symptoms are listed below:
- Persistent headache
- Pain in the face
- Pain in the back
- Pain in the arms or legs
- Unable to concentrate
- Loss of feeling
- Memory loss
- Loss of muscle strength
- Slurred speech
- Sensitivity to light, sound and smell
- If a person is suffering from a migraine, there will be frequent vomiting and nausea. The person experiences trouble in vision by finding flashing lights. The sensitivity to sound, light and smell is obvious. The patient may experience speech issues as well.
- Brain tumours will lead to trouble in memorizing things. The patient suffers from poor thinking and cognitive skills. The other symptoms are seizures, headache, and problem in walking, seeing, hearing and talking. There will be mood swings, weakness and nausea.
- Multiple sclerosis will affect the brain and spinal cord cells which are integral for the functioning of the nervous system. The symptoms that are prominent with this condition include weakness of muscles, visual disturbances, sensation (pricking to numbness) and trouble in thinking and memory.
- If there are spinal cord disorders, there will be a change in reflexes. The other symptoms are a loss of bowel movement or bladder, partial or incomplete paralysis, and severe back pain. The general weakness is profound in patients suffering from spinal cord issues.
- If there are blood clots or blocking of the blood vessel, a person might suffer from a stroke. In addition to dizziness and weakness, there will be sudden numbness in various parts such as an arm, leg and face. The person suffers from a severe headache, trouble with understanding or speaking and problem in walking. A person may lose balance and coordination as well.
Causes of CNS (Central Nervous System)
- The injury to the brain or the spinal cord will lead to disability. The disability is based on the section of the spinal cord or brain affected by the injury
- Microorganism or virus will lead to infection. The infection can spread in several ways. There are some infections that affect the spine or the brain directly. Cryptococcal meningitis, malaria and leprosy are some of the infections affected by either virus or bacteria.
- If a person is affected by Parkinson’s disease, there will be degeneration of the spinal cord or brain. The dopamine-producing cells will degenerate on a gradual basis.
- Due to birth defects, parts of the brain or spinal cord are not formed properly. The structural defects will lead to various kinds of complications.
- There are cancerous and non-cancerous tumours which affect the central nervous system. The symptoms and damage are based on the area affected the body.
- If a person is suffering from the autoimmune disorder, the healthy cells in the body will be destroyed. The nerve’s insulation (myelin) will be affected when a person is suffering from acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. In this process, the white matter in the body will be eliminated.
- The blood supply to the brain will be interrupted which is called a stroke. When the cells are exposed to the lack of oxygen, the tissue will die and irreversible damage will take place.
How CNS (Central Nervous System) is diagnosed?
- CNS infection should be diagnosed to determine the right kind of therapy to overcome the condition.
- To diagnose the CNS disorder, the doctor will take the complete medical history of the patient. After the physical exam, various kinds of diagnostic procedures are implemented to figure out the disorder.
- Computed tomography scan (CT scan or CAT scan) – It is a diagnostic imaging procedure which uses x-rays and computer technology to figure out the disease. Horizontal as well as axial images of the body will be taken in various angles. It is possible to collect detailed pictures of the body including bones, organs, muscles and fat.
- Electroencephalogram (EEG) is used to record the brains electrical activity through the electrodes.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses magnets, radiofrequency, and a computer to record detailed images of organs and structures of the body.
- The metabolic activity of cells will be measured with Positron emission tomography (PET)
- Electrodiagnostic tests are used to evaluate and diagnose muscle disorders and motor neurons. The electrical activity and muscle response will be recorded.
- Arteriogram will be used to detect the blocks in arteries.
- Spinal tap or lumbar puncture will be done to measure the pressure in the spinal canal and brain. Cerebral fluid will be collected and the possibility of infection will be found.
- A die will be injected into the spinal canal to obtain the accurate picture of the structure through x-rays. This procedure is called Myelogram.
- Blood flow in case of stroke will be analyzed with the neurosonography by using high-frequency sound waves.
- Ultrasound (sonography) uses high-frequency sound waves and computer. Images of blood vessels, organs, tissues will be captured very accurately. The internal organs, as well as their functions, can be assessed with ultrasound.
- Prevention is considered for certain conditions such as a stroke. Most of the other conditions can be focused on the post-infant phase of life. The risk factors for neurological conditions should be avoided. The risk factors include inherited biological traits such as genetic predisposition.
- The behavioural and biological factors will play an important role in preventing the condition
- Temperature and climatic conditions and geographical variations will help in managing the condition in a better way
Treatment of CNS (Central Nervous System)
- If you are suffering from depression, you will want to undergo psychotherapy. You will want to take the help of psychologist, psychiatrist and trained medical professional to overcome the disorder. You will learn new ways to overcome various challenges and changes that depression affects.
- If a person is suffering from sleep disorder due to CNS, the rehab management is based on the type of disorder. In most of the cases, the doctors recommend good sleep hygiene. The routines to go to bed will be changed so that there is a possibility to optimize the sleep. Patients are advised to avoid naps and they should exercise on regular basis. Coffee should be avoided before bedtime. The exercising should be avoided before going to bed. Some patients are required to use medications and devices to overcome insomnia and breathing issues.
- With the help of family members, patients can change their sleep-related issues. The patient should go through the counselling if the sleep affects the work-life balance.
- The birth defects of the CNS will be overcome through the surgical procedures. There will be defects in the structure of the brain and the spinal cord. There are various kinds of disorders and medical conditions which come under minor to major categories. In the case of microcephaly, the brain growth will be affected. With spina bifida, the spinal cord will not form properly.
- If a person is suffering from Parkinson’s disease, the muscles will become stiff. There will be difficulty in the initiation and the muscles will become slow. The patient will find it difficult to maintain the balance and posture. The issues include urination problems, constipation, sleep problems, loss of smell, dementia and depression. In addition to general measures to overcome the condition, physical and occupational therapy will be implemented by medical professionals. Some patients will be benefited through the deep brain stimulation.
- The root cause of CNS disorders that arise due to tumours will be diagnosed before offering the treatment. There are chemically induced tumours, brain tumours formed due to oncogenic viruses and other factors. Certain conditions occur in children as well as adults. Doctors will explore various options including brain chemotherapy to overcome the condition.
- There is no cure for autism and it is a permanent condition. By implementing the right kind of therapy, the disruptive behaviour can be managed in the best possible way. By imparting special education, the person will become independent. If the autism is diagnosed earlier, the treatment can be initiated quickly and there will be better results. The autism varies from one person to another person. Hence, the required treatment varies as per the condition.
- The stroke in a newborn baby or children is called as cerebral venous thrombosis. It will lead to a blood clot in the venous sinuses of the brain. The flow of blood from the blood to various parts of the organs will be affected. Cerebral venous thrombosis should be taken up as a medical emergency and the patient should be admitted into the hospital immediately. In addition to IV fluids, the patient will get medications to treat blood clots and seizures.
- Attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADHD) is a behavioural disorder in children. The disorder affects 3% to 7% of children. There will be a tendency to be hyperactive and the patient will be impulsive and will not pay attention. There will be behavioural and academic difficulties in a person suffering from ADHD. The treatment options for ADHD include psychological intervention, medication, special counselling and support groups.
- There is a difference between CNS and peripheral nervous system. Even though CNS and peripheral nervous system are interconnected, the peripheral nervous system is connected outside the brain and spinal cord.
- Stroke, migraine, brain tumours, multiple sclerosis and spinal cord disorders are common CNS disorders. As per the research, there are more than 600 neurological disorders. The way the disorder affects the human body should be understood and the most appropriate treatment should be offered to the patient. The recovery and normalization of the patient are based on several factors. The condition and cause should be detected at an early phase so that the patient will get the best treatment and the condition can be managed in the best possible way.
- If there are neurological issues, there will be an impact on the movement, swallowing, speaking, breathing and learning difficulties. The functioning of the brain, nerves, spinal cord and nervous system will be affected.
Myths Related to CNS (Central Nervous System)
Myth #1: CNS disorders can be treated very efficiently – Even though most of the neuropsychiatric diseases do not have well-defined etiopathogenesis, there has been great progress on their causes. There are factors that affect genetics as well as the environment. The condition can be managed in a very efficient way by offering medication and family support.
Myth #2: CNS disorders will lead to social isolation – Patients suffering from CNS disorders should get the best support from the family and friends. There should be a broadminded approach to deal with the patients. With the institutional and community support, the social isolation can be avoided.
CNS diseases or CNS disorders are a group of neurological disorders which affect the structure of the brain or spinal cord. Your vital signs are controlled by CNS. Your ability to see, talk, move, smell and think will be affected by CNS. If a patient is suffering from neurodegenerative disease, there will be an impact on the family and society as well. Hence, early diagnosis will help in offering the best treatment to overcome the condition. In most of the cases, the condition can be managed even though there is no permanent cure for those conditions.
ADHD or Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder refers to those psychological disorders, which significantly alter a child's behavior and considerably affects his or her relationships with others. This condition is seldom preceded by perceptible symptoms and even when they do, they are difficult to decipher.However some of them are:
Those children who suffer from the attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome tend to be encapsulated in their own subjectivity. Though this does seem harmless apparently, this tendency may lead them to be insensitive to other's needs and wants.
2. Emotional outbursts
ADHD makes children extremely susceptible to frequent emotional outbursts and makes them erratic.
3. Difficulty in concentration
Children who suffer from ADHD face extreme difficulty in concentrating or focusing on things. Many a times they fail to repeat what was told to them.
There might be several causes which can contribute to the development of this disorder. Some of them are:
1. A drastic change in the child's lives
A sudden or a drastic change like the divorce of parents may severely affect the child and maim him emotionally. This may lead to the development of this disorder.
Though always associated with adults, depression can be and is common among children as well. In such instances, a consequent development of ADHD is highly plausible.
3. Bipolar disorder
Bipolar disorder refers to excessive and incomprehensible mood swings. Many children suffer from it in their early lives, making them susceptible to ADHD.
Notwithstanding the ambiguity and the erratic nature of the disorder, there might be preventive measures which parents might adopt to deter the outbreak of the disorder. Some of them are:
1. Less use of preservatives
Parents must be careful about what their children eat. Those foods which contain a certain amount of preservatives tend to aggravate the disorder thereby causing more harm than good.
2. Consider alternative forms of medications
Another way of dealing with this problem is by exploring other forms of medications and not sticking to one form. In this respect, practicing yoga may be very beneficial.
How Homeopathy Can Help?
Unlike conventional medicine, homeopathy seeks to treat each child as an individual. There is no homeopathic Ritalin. Each child is assessed as the unique person they are. The remedy must reflect everything about the child. A detailed history is fundamental to the correct choice of remedy. The homeopath will ask about the health of the child and the family, the pregnancy and delivery, early development, vaccinations, life events, schooling, favourite foods, drinks to mention just a few points. The more information gathered, the easier it is to find that tailor-made remedy.
Bringing up a child with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is very different from traditional child-rearing. Keeping up with usual household activities and making house-rules almost seems impossible when you have a hyperactive child around.
Recognizing the signs of ADHD in your child-
Children/young adults with ADHD encounter the following traits-
Sometimes, coping up with your child’s behavior can be really frustrating, but there are ways to make life easier.
How to raise a child with ADHD-
There is no denying the fact that children with ADHD are functionally different from others. While they can still learn what is socially acceptable and what is not, ADHD does make them prone to impulsive behavior.
Depending on the severity and symptoms of the disorder in the child, parents should adopt various approaches. First, you will need to modify your own behavior in order to alter and manage your child’s behavior.
Apart from behavioral management, parents are also advised to adopt certain habits such as-
Children, especially those with ADHD, often imitate the behavior of a parent/family member. It is therefore important that as parents, you remain calm, composed and relaxed during tough times. Intent Healing helps you prepare beforehand so you are confident in raising your child with ADHD with ease.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
The tendency for the development of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, which is more popularly known as ADHD, during the months of pregnancy is growing with each passing day. The main reason behind this is the increased exposure to the digital devices. This disorder is characterized by some specific characteristics, the most common ones being the inability to concentrate on anything and being hyperactive at all times of the day. People tend to show impulsive actions in all cases.
But the good news is that the researchers have come up with some possible solutions to ADHD during pregnancy with the help of which it can be prevented-
In the months of pregnancy, when your body is vulnerable to the outside factors that are harmful, you must stay extra vigilant and take all the precautions necessary to ensure that your child does not develop ADHD. Maintain your diet and don’t skip your checkups. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Concentration problems and trouble in focusing on one task at a time can be termed as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder or ADHD, in rare and severe cases. While most of the cases are identified in one's childhood, it has been seen that many cases persist into adulthood while still others go completely undiagnosed. This mental health disorder comes with a number of symptoms and management methods. Read on to know more.
Symptoms: While many patients suffering from this disorder may not display any obvious symptoms at a young age as children are supposed to be brimming with energy, the symptoms for adult ADHD, start to show up in a more obvious fashion. Wavering concentration and low levels of focus along with disorganised living with impulsiveness are the first signs of adult ADHD. Such adults also have trouble when it comes to finishing one task at a time, or even focusing on a task for a prolonged period of time. Bouts of impatience and excessive activity can also show up as symptoms, while restlessness is a quality that most of these patients seem to possess.
Diagnosis: The diagnosis of this condition is slightly difficult because most adults may complain of some or the other symptoms related to this condition at some point in their lives. Anxiety and mood swing related symptoms can help in diagnosing the condition in a better manner. If the condition ends up disrupting your normal life, work, socialising and behaviour in general, then you may want to see a doctor regarding the same, so that proper diagnosis may take place.
Causes: While genetic predisposition is said to be the foremost cause of this condition, especially when it continues well into adulthood, there are various environmental factors that may also have a significant bearing on the onset of the condition. Exposure as a child increases the risk of falling prey to this condition. Also, when there are problems with the central nervous system during the developing years, the patient may start to develop symptoms connected with this disorder later on.
Treatment: Stimulants and other medication like anti-depressants, nonstimulant amphetamine are also used for treating this condition along with therapy and psychological counselling for better organisation in life.
ADHD refers to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, which is a brain-related condition found among preschoolers, children, teenagers and in many cases extends well into adulthood. These individuals have significant impairment in academics as well as social situations and interpersonal relations. The child has difficulty sustaining attention, phases of hyper activeness and cannot control his/her impulses which make their day to day life at school and home difficult.
The symptoms of this disorder among children can be categorized under three headings.
Hyperactivity which includes
Inattention, which can be divided into symptoms like
10-12% of school children before puberty are affected by one or more types of ADHD. ADHD especially hyperactivity is more prevalent in boys than in girls, with the ratio up to 9:1. Inattention and poor concentration are more commonly seen amongst girls. The rate of ADHD in parents and sibling of children with ADHD is 5-10 times higher than in the general population.
The probable causes of ADHD among children are,
1. Neurodevelopmental changes - Poorly developed activity of the brain particularly in the areas that control attention and concentration cause ADHD. This causes an imbalance in the neurotransmitters or the chemicals important for brain functioning and development.
2. Genetic Factors - genetic studies show that ADHD is largely hereditary in nature with a heritability of 75% approximately.
ADHD is one of the commonest behavioral disorders that are found in mostly school going kids. In fact, this kind of trouble might affect kid's ability quite adversely. There are a few signs with the help of which ADHD in kids can be easily detected and some of the commonest ones are emotional turmoil, unfinished tasks, squirm and fidget, low focus careless mistakes and other related ones.
Both interpersonal relationship and schooling success can be hampered to a great extent with this kind of mental disorder. This is why the kids facing the mentioned signs need to be thoroughly diagnosed medically so that the doctors can recommend best treatments that can provide fastest recovery and that too safely and easily.
Best tips for tackling ADHD in kids:
One of the most vividly studied mental disorders in the child psychiatry branch is the ADHD disease. ADHD also known as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a commonly observed mental disorder in children. As the name suggests this mental disorder is directly or indirectly linked to the inability of children in reacting to the environmental stimuli and inattentive. This is a serious disorder in children which could jeopardize the future of the child and in turn, everyone who is linked with the child.
According to the experts in this field, they say that each case of ADHD comes with some newer symptoms however; there is a repetitive pattern of some symptoms which helps in diagnosing the disease in children.
Symptoms of the ADHD disease in children:
Children with the ADHD disease are self-centered and inconsiderate about the needs of their near and dear ones. Since they are self-absorbed they will not care about the ongoing business of anyone and will choose to interrupt them while they might be busy doing anything. These children are not good at waiting, such as- they will not be able to wait in lines for class activities or at a takeaway order. Such children are unable to keep their emotions in control, that is, they will not wait for the appropriate time and surrounding for showing their emotions. They could get angry anywhere and anywhere and would start crying whenever they want. They will have a habit of fidgeting with things and will not want to sit idle even for a second.
An ADHD child will not be able to focus appropriately, that it, their mind will always stay distracted from things going on around. They will rather want to avoid an activity, task or question which takes the mental effort of their own, such as mathematics or puzzle. These children will have a short memory, or say, a tendency of forgetting things within a span of few minutes. This is also due to their lack of focus and attention at the work they are doing. One can easily spot an ADHD child who is daydreaming and even speaking whiles the respective daydreaming episode. These children will not be organized. A child suffering from ADHD will not be able to dress themselves up, in other words, they might be incapable of putting things together or realizing what goes where?
Such children will show their deficiencies and incapability everywhere. For example, their forgetful memory will not only be shown at home but also in school.
What should you do if you observe these signs and symptoms in your child?
This is one of the most commonly asked questions by the frightened parents of an ADHD patient. But the fact is that ADHD is curable and one should not be scared of facing it and cause a delay.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Attention deficit/hyperactivity issue (ADHD) is a mental condition that is marked by a continuous example of inattention as well as hyperactivity-impulsivity that meddles with the working or advancement of that person. Inattention implies that a person gets distracted from tasks, lacks focus and is not concentrating on the task at hand. Hyperactivity implies that a person tends to move around continuously, especially into situations in which it is not needed. Impulsivity implies that a person makes hurried decisions without thinking about them and that may have negative outcomes or risky consequences.
Here are a few ways with which you can treat ADHD.
Therapy: Along with medicines, certain treatments can be valuable in treating ADHD in children, teenagers and grown-ups. Therapy is helpful in treating other problems as well. For example, anxiety or nervousness issue that may show up with ADHD. The types of the therapies that might be used are as follows.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Attention deficit manifests as
Taking a long time to start doing things and rarely finishing them eg homework.
Hyperactivity manifests as
Impulsivity manifests as
How common is ADHD?
Nowadays adhd is very common affecting 5 percent of school children. It is seven times more commoner in boys.
What causes adhd and how can it be cured?
No one knows exactly but a neurochemical called norepinephrine is abnormal which gets corrected by adhd medication leading to improvement in the symptoms allowing the child to lead a normal life and removing the academic handicap that these children often face. Behavior therapy focussed on improving behaviours helps a lot.