Hepatic Encephalopathy Health Feed

What Is Hepatitis C?

Dr.Prashant K Vaidya 90% (18372ratings)
Diploma In Gastroenterology, Diploma In Dermatology, BHMS
Homeopath, Hyderabad
What Is Hepatitis C?

Hepatitis C is a viral infection that causes liver inflammation, sometimes leading to serious liver damage. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) spreads through contaminated blood.

Signs and Symptoms :

Causes :

  • Hepatitis C infection is caused by the hepatitis C virus. The infection spreads when blood contaminated with the virus enters the bloodstream of an uninfected person.
  • Globally, HCV exists in several distinct forms, known as genotypes. The most common HCV genotype in North America and Europe is type 1. Type 2 also occurs in the United States and Europe, but is less common than type 1. Both type 1 and type 2 have also spread through much of the world, although other genotypes cause a majority of infections in the Middle East, Asia and Africa.
  • Although chronic hepatitis C follows a similar course regardless of the genotype of the infecting virus, treatment recommendations vary depending on viral genotype.

Diagnosis:

Screening for hepatitis C
If an initial blood test shows that you have hepatitis C, additional blood tests will:

  1. Measure the quantity of the hepatitis C virus in your blood (viral load)
  2. Identify the genotype of the virus
  3. Doctors typically use one or more of the following tests to assess liver damage in chronic hepatitis C.
  4. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE).
  5. Transient elastography.
  6. Liver biopsy
  7. Transient elastography

Prevention :

  • Stop using illicit drugs, particularly if you inject them. If you use illicit drugs, seek help.
  • Be cautious about body piercing and tattooing. If you choose to undergo piercing or tattooing, look for a reputable shop. Ask questions beforehand about how the equipment is cleaned. Make sure the employees use sterile needles. If employees won't answer your questions, look for another shop.
  • Practice safer sex. Don't engage in unprotected sex with multiple partners or with any partner whose health status is uncertain. Sexual transmission between monogamous couples may occur, but the risk is low.
1 person found this helpful

What Is Hepatitis C?

Dr.Sathish Erra 92% (21083ratings)
BHMS, Diploma in Dermatology
Sexologist, Hyderabad
What Is Hepatitis C?

Hepatitis C is a viral infection that causes liver inflammation, sometimes leading to serious liver damage. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) spreads through contaminated blood.

Signs and Symptoms :

Causes :

  • Hepatitis C infection is caused by the hepatitis C virus. The infection spreads when blood contaminated with the virus enters the bloodstream of an uninfected person.
  • Globally, HCV exists in several distinct forms, known as genotypes. The most common HCV genotype in North America and Europe is type 1. Type 2 also occurs in the United States and Europe, but is less common than type 1. Both type 1 and type 2 have also spread through much of the world, although other genotypes cause a majority of infections in the Middle East, Asia and Africa.
  • Although chronic hepatitis C follows a similar course regardless of the genotype of the infecting virus, treatment recommendations vary depending on viral genotype.

Diagnosis:

Screening for hepatitis C
If an initial blood test shows that you have hepatitis C, additional blood tests will:

  1. Measure the quantity of the hepatitis C virus in your blood (viral load)
  2. Identify the genotype of the virus
  3. Doctors typically use one or more of the following tests to assess liver damage in chronic hepatitis C.
  4. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE).
  5. Transient elastography.
  6. Liver biopsy
  7. Transient elastography

Prevention :

  • Stop using illicit drugs, particularly if you inject them. If you use illicit drugs, seek help.
  • Be cautious about body piercing and tattooing. If you choose to undergo piercing or tattooing, look for a reputable shop. Ask questions beforehand about how the equipment is cleaned. Make sure the employees use sterile needles. If employees won't answer your questions, look for another shop.
  • Practice safer sex. Don't engage in unprotected sex with multiple partners or with any partner whose health status is uncertain. Sexual transmission between monogamous couples may occur, but the risk is low.
1 person found this helpful

Ayurveda Remedies For Hepatic Encephalopathy!

Dr.Srinivasa Debata 93% (598ratings)
Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS), BTCM, DTCM
Ayurvedic Doctor, Bargarh
Ayurveda Remedies For Hepatic Encephalopathy!

Hepatic encephalopathy is a condition associated with liver cirrhosis. It refers to an abnormal level of consciousness caused by liver failure when toxins start building up in the brain as the damaged liver is unable to remove them from the body. It happens due to the diversion of the portal blood into the systemic circulation and is experienced by patients who have advanced stage of liver dysfunction. It is also a result of the impact of neurotoxic substances, which take a seat into the body after cirrhosis or portal hypertension sets in.

Some of the signs and symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy include disturbed sleep pattern (awake during the night and sleepy during the day), edema of legs, jaundice, ascites, low appetite, fatigue, amnesia, disturbed mind, personality changes, lethargy, pain in the abdomen, loss of memory, coma, and seizure. Hepatic encephalopathy is diagnosed through CT scan, liver function tests, and liver biopsy. Since it is a complicated stage of liver failure, multiple and advanced tests are necessary to establish that it is indeed hepatic encephalopathy. Allopathic medicines, especially antibiotics, are prescribed to treat this condition but they are harsh on the body and also have side effects. On the other hand, Ayurvedic remedies are free from side effects and also bring lasting relief in this disorder.

So, here are some effective natural remedies to treat the condition.

  1. Tamra Bhasma: A copper-based Ayurvedic remedy, tamra bhasma is ash powder made from copper. It is known to have a tonic-like effect on the liver. It flushes out the toxins accumulated in the liver. It also increases the secretion of bile in the liver and gall bladder. It is very effective in treating symptoms of low appetite. It also aids digestion.
  2. Echinacea: This Ayurvedic herb is a natural immunizer that boosts the immune system. It is anti-inflammatory and antibiotic in nature and thus, provides relief to the liver. It also enhances the secretion of enzymes in the body and improves blood circulation too. It restores the normal liver functions.
  3. Guggul: A natural detox herb, guggul removes the accumulated toxins in the liver by increasing the secretion of urine in the human body.
  4. Bhumyamalaki (Phyllanthus Niruri): It protects the liver against infections and rejuvenates it by cleansing the toxins sitting inside. It is very helpful in ascites, jaundice, and abdomen pain.
  5. Virechana (Panchakarma): This detoxifying Ayurvedic therapy is beneficial in cases of earlier stages of hepatic encephalopathy. In this remedy, the patient is administered a purgative concoction made of herbs that induce vomiting and removes toxins from the liver. Later, the patient is given a steam bath, kept under observation for a few days and then discharged.

Hepatic encephalopathy is a serious disease of the liver that can turn fatal if not diagnosed and treated on time. The above mentioned Ayurvedic remedies are known to be helpful in treating this condition but one must always take advice from an Ayurvedic practitioner before going for any of these remedies. Self-medication can be dangerous and proper diagnosis is a must."

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Sir my eosinophil is count 17 how do I reduce it ?is it cause for concern? Does steam inhalation reduce eosinophil count?

Dr.Rajesh Choda 93% (8665ratings)
Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurvedic Doctor, Zirakpur
Sir my eosinophil is count 17 how do I reduce it ?is it cause for concern? Does steam inhalation reduce eosinophil co...
Susceptible to allergens. Inhalers will be, once started, will be your long life partner. On the other hand you may go for immune enhancers and anti allergies of herbs which give results in medium term, not overnight. May consult on private chat.
1 person found this helpful
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इओसिनोफिलिया के लक्षण, कारण, इलाज, दवा, उपचार |

MBBS, MD - General Medicine
General Physician, Hyderabad
इओसिनोफिलिया के लक्षण, कारण, इलाज, दवा, उपचार |

इओसिनोफिलिया एक ऐसी स्थिति है जब आपके रक्त में इओसिनोफिल के सामान्य स्तर से अधिक पाया जाता है। इओसिनोफिल्स एक प्रकार की बीमारी से लड़ने वाली श्वेत रक्त कोशिका हैं। इसे कई बार सामान्य भाषा में स्नोफीलिया कहा जाता है। यह स्थिति अक्सर परजीवी संक्रमण, एलर्जी प्रतिक्रिया या कैंसर का संकेत देती है। आपके रक्त में उच्च स्तर के इओसिनोफिल्स कई जगहों पर पाए जा सकते हैं खून में (रक्त इओसिनोफिलिया) या संक्रमण या सूजन (ऊतक इओसिनोफिलिया) के स्थान पर ऊतकों में भी हो सकते हैं।

ऊतक इओसिनोफिलिया लैब टेस्ट की प्रक्रिया के दौरान लिए गए नमूनों में या कुछ तरल पदार्थों के नमूनों में पाया जा सकता है, जैसे कि नाक के ऊतकों से निकलने वाला बलगम। यदि ऊतक इओसिनोफिलिया हो तो भी रक्तप्रवाह में इओसिनोफिल का स्तर सामान्य होने हो सकता है। आज हम इस लेक में इओसिनोफिलिया के लक्षणों और कारणों पर चर्चा करेंगे। साथ ही साथ इसका निदान और उपचार कैसे किया जा सकता है पर भी विमर्श करेंगे।

इओसिनोफीलिया के कारण

इओसिनोफिल्स आपकी प्रतिरक्षा प्रणाली में दो भूमिका निभाते हैं:

  • इओसिनोफिल्स शरीर पर हमला करने वाले संक्रमण परजीवी या विदेशी पदार्थों को नष्ट करना। ये विदेशी पदार्थों का सेवन कर सकते हैं। वे परजीवी संक्रमण से संबंधित पदार्थों से लड़ते हैं जिन्हें इम्यून सिस्टम पहचान कर नष्ट करने का निर्देश देता है।
  • सूजन को नियंत्रित करना- इओसिनोफिल्स सूजन को बढ़ावा देने में मदद करते हैं, जो प्रभावित या संक्रमित जगहों को अलग करने और नियंत्रित करने में लाभकारी भूमिका निभाता है। लेकिन कभी-कभी सूजन आवश्यकता से अधिक हो सकती है, जिससे परेशानी के लक्षण हो सकते हैं या ऊतक क्षति भी हो सकती है। उदाहरण के लिए, इओसिनोफिल अस्थमा और एलर्जी के लक्षणों में महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका निभाते हैं, जैसे कि हे फीवर। अन्य प्रतिरक्षा प्रणाली विकार भी चल रही (पुरानी) सूजन में योगदान कर सकते हैं।

इओसिनोफिलिया तब होता है जब आपके शरीर में एक विशिष्ट साइट पर बड़ी संख्या में इओसिनोफिल बढ़ जाता है या जब अस्थि मज्जा बहुत अधिक इओसिनोफिल पैदा करता है। यह विभिन्न कारकों के कारण हो सकता है, जिनमें शामिल हैं:

कई स्थितियों के कारण आपके रक्त में इओसिनोफिल की संख्या बढ़ जाती है। कुछ स्थितियां, जैसे मौसमी एलर्जी, अस्थमा और दवाओं के प्रति प्रतिक्रिया बहुत आम हैं। यह स्थितियां बहुत गंभीर नहीं होती हैं। संक्रमण, विशेष रूप से परजीवियों से, इओसिनोफिलिया को भी जन्म दे सकता है। प्रतिरक्षा प्रणाली में समस्याएं भी इओसिनोफिलिया का कारण बन सकती हैं, जिसमें ऑटोइम्यून रोग जैसे इंफ्लेमेटरी बाउल रोग, ऑटोइम्यून मायोकार्डिटिस, वास्कुलिटिस और सारकॉइडोसिस शामिल हैं। इन कोशिकाओं को अनुपयुक्त बनाने वाले रक्त कैंसर भी ईोसिनोफिलिया का कारण बन सकते हैं। आनुवंशिक परिवर्तन जो वंशानुगत होते हैं वो भी इओसिनोफिलिया का कारण बन सकते हैं।

एटोपी

एटोपी एक प्रकार की प्रतिक्रिया है जो शरीर में होती है। आमतौर पर, एटोपी अस्थमा, मौसमी एलर्जी (एलर्जिक राइनाइटिस भी कहा जाता है), और एक्जिमा को संदर्भित करता है। किसी के लिए इनमें से एक से अधिक चिकित्सीय स्थितियों का होना असामान्य नहीं है, क्योंकि वे संबंधित हैं। ये हल्के से मध्यम इओसिनोफिलिया के कुछ सबसे सामान्य कारण हैं, खासकर जब एक बच्चे में इओसिनोफिल अधिक होता है। इसी तरह, खाद्य एलर्जी से भी ईोसिनोफिल की संख्या बढ़ सकती है।

इओसिनोफिलिक एसोफैगिटिस

इओसिनोफिलिक एसोफैगिटिस (ईओई) एक विकार है जो ईओसिनोफिल द्वारा एसोफैगस में फैलता है। यह एक टिश्यू इओसिनोफीलिया है। ईओई से पीड़ित लोगों में से लगभग 50 प्रतिशत के रक्त में ईोसिनोफिल की संख्या भी बढ़ जाती है।

कैंसर

कई कैंसर हैं, विशेष रूप से रक्त कैंसर, जो इओसिनोफिल की संख्या बढ़ाने के लिए जाने जाते हैं। इसके अलावा लिंफोमा, ल्यूकेमिया, कोलोरेक्टल कैंसर,फेफड़ों का कैंसर भी एक बड़ी वजह हो सकती है।

इओसिनोफीलिया के लक्षण

यदि कोई इओसिनोफिलिया से ग्रस्त है, तो लक्षण बढ़े हुए इओसिनोफिलिया कितना बढ़ा है इसकी गिनती के हिसाब से हो सकते हैं। इओसिनोफिल की गिनती ही लक्षणों को निर्धारित करती है। यदि  इओसिनोफिल की संख्या थोड़ी बढ़ गई है तो आपको कोई लक्षण नहीं हो सकता है। वरना कुछ लक्षण निम्न प्रकार के हो सकते हैं।

  • खरोंच
  • खुजली
  • डायरिया, पैरासाइट  संक्रमण के मामले में
  • दमा
  • बहती नाक, खासकर अगर एलर्जी से जुड़ी हो
  • एक पुरानी इओसिनोफिलिया खांसी
  • सांस फूलना या सीढ़ियां चढने में हलकी सांस फूलना
  • अगर आपको ईसोफेगस में टिश्यू इओसिनोफिलिया  है तो आपको खाना निगलने में तकलीफ हो सकती है
  • इसके अलावा उल्टी लगना
  • भोजन फंस जाना
  • सीने में जलन होना
  • एंटासिड का असर ना होना भी हो सकता है।

इओसिनोफिलिया के प्रकार

इओसिनोफिलिया को इओसिनोफिल की संख्या (एब्सॉल्यूट इओसिनोफिल काउंट) द्वारा वर्गीकृत किया जा सकता है।

  • माइल्ड: 500 - 1500 सेल प्रति माइक्रोलीटर (एमसीएल)
  • माडरेट: 1500 - 5000 सेल/एमसीएल
  • गंभीर: 5000 से अधिक सेल/एमसीएल

ईलाज

अब तक हम जान चुके हैं कि इओसिनोफिलिया बढ़े हुए इओसिनोफिल गिनती के लिए चिकित्सकीय शब्द है। इओसिनोफिल्स एक प्रकार की श्वेत रक्त कोशिका हैं। इसका स्तर बढ़ना  एक अंदर ही अंदर विकसित हो रही स्वास्थ्य संबंधी समस्या का सुझाव दे सकता है। इओसिनोफिलिया की पहचान के बाद,डाक्टर कारण की पहचान करने की दिशा में काम करना शुरू करते हैं। कभी-कभी, इसके लिए हेमेटोलॉजिस्ट के पास रक्त की जांच करानी पड़स कती है। यदि समस्या किसी दवा के बाद हो ती है और दवाओं को बंद करने के बाद आपकी इओसिनोफिल गिनती सामान्य हो जाती है, तो आमतौर पर यह माना जाता है कि इसका कारण दवा थी।

इओसिनोफिलिया का इलाज इसके लक्षणों पर आधारित होगा। विकल्पों में शामिल हैं:

  • ऑबजर्वेशन- यदि आपका इओसिनोफिलिया माइल्ज (हल्का) है, तो जांच को कई बार दो तीन बार काराया जा सकता है। कुछ दिन रुकने के बाद फिर से जांच हो ती है और अगर समान्य स्तर आ जाता है तो किसी दवा की जरुरत नहीं होती है।
  • दवा बंद करना- यदि कोई दवा बढ़े हुए इओसिनोफिल काउंट का कारण है तो इसे रोक कर देख जाता है। यदि स्तर सामान्य आ जाय तो माना जाता है कि दवा के कारण ही इओसिनोफिलिया की समस्या थी।
  • अस्थमा, एक्जिमा और एलर्जी के लिए थेरेपी
  • परजीवी संक्रमण के लिए एंटी पैरासाइट दवाएं
  • हाइपर-इओसिनोफिलिक सिंड्रोम के इलाज के लिए स्टेरॉयड जैसे प्रेडनिसोन आदि

I have gear problem, esophagitis grade b .les lax the endoscopy was done yesterday. What food items should I follow?

Dr.N S S Gauri 95% (148337ratings)
Bachelor of Unani Medicine and Surgery (B.U.M.S)
Unani Specialist, Kanpur
I have gear problem, esophagitis grade b .les lax the endoscopy was done yesterday. What food items should I follow?
sootshekhar ras 1 tablet twice a day pittari avleh 10 gm twice a day relief in 3-4 days and for complete cure take it for 60 days only avoid spicy and oily food
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Doctor. I am neethu 26 year old women. I am suffering from esophagitis part b (gear) .whats the remedies for this problem.

Dr.Pahun 95% (30184ratings)
Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Sexologist, Jaipur
Doctor. I am neethu 26 year old women. I am suffering from esophagitis part b (gear) .whats the remedies for this pro...
Take soothshekhar ras 2 tablets twice a day empty stomach regularly. For proper diagnosis and prescription accordingly, you can also consult.
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Increased percentage of eosinophil has something to do with covid-19? It is 15 now normal ranges between 0-6! how to get this to normal?

Dr.Pahun 95% (30184ratings)
Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Sexologist, Jaipur
Increased percentage of eosinophil has something to do with covid-19? It is 15 now normal ranges between 0-6! how to ...
Highly potent antiviral medicines are there, in ayurveda. Don't worry, u can also consult. Take care.
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I was wondering what are the long term damage pfb may cause to someones skin. I know avoid shaving is the answer but can I get answers I can how to my superiors I am in the navy and they are changing the instruction requiring every man to shave no matter their skin condition. Either that or get kicked out. I just want to write a letter to the navy, because this new instruction is affecting a lot of people and the navy does not care. Getting a doctor opinion and facts will definitely help my letter and help with the facial hair war that has been happening for years. Thank you for your time. And I forgot to mention the other options is to get laser hair removal and no man would be willing to do this.

Dr.Himanshu Vats 91% (648ratings)
BHMS, Training In Emergency care, Certificate in Good Clinical Practice, PG Diploma in Public Health Management, SPR (Skills for Psychological Recovery), Certification in Human Rights & Health
Homeopathy Doctor, Delhi
I was wondering what are the long term damage pfb may cause to someones skin. I know avoid shaving is the answer but ...
This condition usually occurs with those having curly hairs. There are a few things you may do to avoid getting skin bumps and rash: Shave with the grain of the beard and do not stretch the skin. Use only one stroke over each area of the beard. Use of an electric shaver may also help the condition because it does not cut as close as blades do. Use the electric razor on high setting to avoid close shaving and prepare beard with electric razor pre-shave. Do not stretch the skin while shaving and shave with the grain of beard growth. Avoid multiple repetitions of strokes in the same area. Do not press razor head hard against the skin. Shave every other day. Use skin moisturisers at the end of your shave and that should help soothe the skin to a greater extant.
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Esophgeal (Food Pipe) Disorders - Some Briefs About Them!

MBBS, MD - Internal Medicine, DM - Gastroenterology, Fellowship in Advanced endoscopy, Fellowship in Endoscopic Ultrasound(EUS), Observer fellowship in NBI and ESD, Fellowship in Hepatology
Gastroenterologist, Bhopal
Esophgeal (Food Pipe) Disorders - Some Briefs About Them!

1. Esophagitis: Prolonged acid or bile reflux (Gastroesophageal reflux disease GERD) from the stomach can cause injury to the lower esophagus and causing esophagitis. It can be either Erosive esophagitis or Non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). Gastroscopy is usually recommended to document the extent of the injury. Prolonged untreated GERD can cause Barret’s esophagitis, upper GI bleeding or Cancer of the food pipe. Diagnosis usually involves Gastroscopy, 24 hours Phmetry and Esophageal manometry. Medical treatment is very effective and cures almost 100% of patients. Many endoscopic methods are available for the treatment of GERD such as GERDX, Stretta, ARMS etc. Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication is the surgical treatment for GERD.

2. Difficulty in swallowing food (Dysphagia): It can be due to oesophagal stricture, cancer, webs, or motility disorders. Strictures require dilatation by SG dilators. Motility disorders are diagnosed by esophageal manometry.

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Esophagectomy - Why Is It Required?

Dr.Shantanu Tiwari 88% (51ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, DNB ( General Surgery ), Fellowship in Minimal Access Surgery, Senior Residency Training Program (Surgical Oncology)
General Surgeon, Raipur
Esophagectomy - Why Is It Required?

The surgical procedure to remove the oesophagus (the tube between your stomach and mouth), partially or completely, and reconstruct it by using a section of the large intestine or stomach is called esophagectomy.

Esophagectomy is commonly used to treat oesophageal cancer.

Uses:

Early-stage oesophageal cancer is frequently treated with an esophagectomy. Other than that, esophagectomy is also performed to treat oesophageal dysplasia (a condition in which cells in the oesophageal lining are precancerous or likely to develop cancer if not promptly treated).

Esophagectomy is commonly performed when cancer has spread to the stomach, lymph nodes or associated organs.

Some other conditions which require esophagectomy include:

  1. Oesophageal trauma.

  2. Swallowing of cell-damaging, or caustic agents such as lye.

  3. Problematic stomach disorders that make the passage of food to the stomach difficult.

  4. A previously performed esophagectomy was unsuccessful.

Procedures:

There are three ways a surgeon may perform an esophagectomy, which include:

  • Transthoracic Esophagectomy (TTE)

In this type of procedure, the incision is made on the chest. A TTE is mostly used to treat the following conditions:

    • Cancer present only in two-thirds of the oesophagus

    • Barrett’s oesophagus (Abnormal cell transformation in the lower oesophagus)

    • Damage to the oesophagus by swallowing a caustic agent

    • Reflux esophagitis (stomach acids return to the oesophagus) complications

  • Transhiatal Esophagectomy (THE)

In THE, the incision is made from the end of the breastbone to the bellybutton. THE is performed for the following conditions:

    • To remove the cancerous oesophagus

    • To tighten or narrow the oesophagus in order to make swallowing easier

    • To fix issues in the nervous system

    • To repair frequent gastroesophageal reflux

    • Correct a hole in the oesophagus caused by any caustic agent

  • En Bloc Esophagectomy

In this procedure, the oesophagus, part of the stomach and all the lymph nodes in the abdomen and chest are removed. The incisions are made in the abdomen, chest and neck; the stomach will be reshaped and brought up to the chest to put back the oesophagus.

Potentially curable tumours are treated by en bloc esophagectomy.

Outlook:

Recovery time of esophagectomy is three weeks approximately. You are allowed to go back to your regular diet after a month. You might find that you are eating smaller portions as your stomach size is reduced.

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Hi I am 36 years old and suffering from erosive esophagitis, I have been prescribed sompraz d 20 twice a day for one year can we take medicine for one year will it not have any negative impact on our health.

Dr.T Lakshmikanth 87% (29ratings)
MS - General Surgery, MBBS, Fellowship in Laparoscopic & Advanced Laparoscopic surgical, Fellowship in Surgical Gastroenterology
Gastroenterologist, Hyderabad
Hi I am 36 years old and suffering from erosive esophagitis, I have been prescribed sompraz d 20 twice a day for one ...
Kindly look for the intensity of symptoms. Whether you were tested for h.pylori. Look if you are positive for hiatus hernia or lax esophageal sphincter. You may require esophageal manometry to look for the severity of reflux. Try taking the same medication at night before dinner and see the result.
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Gangrene - All You Must Know About It!

Dr.Milind Ruke 87% (13ratings)
MBBS, MS - General Surgery, Certified Wound Specialist, Trainer in Podiatry Surgery, Fellowship in Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Surgery, Wound Management, CAQ (Hyperbaric Medicine), Post Graduate Certificate course in Diabetic Foot
Diabetic Foot Surgeon, Mumbai
Gangrene - All You Must Know About It!

Gangrene is an extremely serious condition in which there is an acute shortage of oxygenated blood to the tissue in the body resulting in tissue necrosis or death. Most of the times, it is seen that Gangrene affects the extremities externally, like feet or hands, but it might also affect the body internally and severely damaging the internal organs.

Types of Gangrene-

There are majorly two broad categories of Gangrene: Wet and Dry.

  • Wet Gangrene: In this type of fatal Gangrene, there is swelling of the skin along with the appearance of blisters, often accompanied by the formation of pus. It is associated with injuries in diabetic patients. Sometimes, Dry Gangrene deteriorates and manifests itself into Wet Gangrene. This type spreads more quickly from the affected area to other parts of the body due to infection.

  • Dry Gangrene: Also referred to as mummification, it develops slowly and is often associated with chronic diabetes. Skin becomes shriveled, dry and dark in color, and it feels cold to touch due to tissue death. Moreover, it is also associated with injuries in diabetic patients, with vascular diseases, and with Raynaud’s Disease. Usually, it does not get infected, but if it does, it gets converted into the more dangerous Wet form.

Symptoms-

Symptoms of Gangrene include-

  • Discoloration of the skin leading to its darker and shinier appearance accompanied by shedding of the skin

  • The appearance of a swollen, pus-filled blister in case of Wet type

  • Pain in the affected area leading to loss of sensation or numbness and subsequently leading to an inability to move the affected part

  • Cold when touched

  • Loss of pulse

Diagnosis-

A physical examination for diagnosing Gangrene is often followed by tests of tissue, blood, and discharge for getting to know the type of infection. In case of extreme severity, especially when internal organs are involved or if Gangrene seems to be deep-seated, X-Ray, CT scans, and MRIs might be recommended for ascertaining the extent of the disease.

Treatment-

Since Gangrene is associated with tissue necrosis, the only available approach to treatment is the removal of the dead tissue.

  • Also referred to as debridement, surgical removal of the dead tissue prevents infection from spreading. Sometimes, amputation (severing the affected part) might also be required.

  • Maggot Therapy is another method which is sometimes followed. Maggots from the larvae of fly bred in sterile conditions in the laboratory are placed on the affected area. They consume for food the dead and infected tissue without causing any harm to healthy tissue.

  • Intravenous antibiotics help in preventing infection from spreading.

  • Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy involves an increase in pressure and oxygen supply to the affected tissue for its healing and to curb infection.

Take Away-

Gangrene, or tissue death, is a life-threatening condition which can be treated through surgery, Maggot therapy, intravenous antibiotics or Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy.

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