1. Esophagitis: Prolonged acid or bile reflux (Gastroesophageal reflux disease GERD) from the stomach can cause injury to the lower esophagus and causing esophagitis. It can be either Erosive esophagitis or Non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). Gastroscopy is usually recommended to document the extent of the injury. Prolonged untreated GERD can cause Barret’s esophagitis, upper GI bleeding or Cancer of the food pipe. Diagnosis usually involves Gastroscopy, 24 hours Phmetry and Esophageal manometry. Medical treatment is very effective and cures almost 100% of patients. Many endoscopic methods are available for the treatment of GERD such as GERDX, Stretta, ARMS etc. Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication is the surgical treatment for GERD.
2. Difficulty in swallowing food (Dysphagia): It can be due to oesophagal stricture, cancer, webs, or motility disorders. Strictures require dilatation by SG dilators. Motility disorders are diagnosed by esophageal manometry.