A sudden cardiac arrest is not same as a normal heart attack. While a heart attack refers to the blocking of blood flow to the heart, a sudden cardiac arrest refers to when the heart stops beating unexpectedly. Sudden cardiac arrests occur without warning and often this condition is triggered by electrical malfunctioning in the heart that causes arrhythmia. When the heart stops beating, blood cannot be pumped to the brain and other organs and the person loses consciousness. If a patient does not receive immediate treatment, this could be fatal. Hence it is important to know what first aid a person experiencing a sudden cardiac arrest requires.
Help: Do not wait for someone else to help a person experiencing a sudden cardiac arrest. The first few moments after such an experience are critical and hence your decision to help is what could save the person’s life.
Call a Doctor: The first thing to do when you see someone experiencing a cardiac arrest is to call emergency and request an ambulance. If you do not have a phone available, ask someone else to do it.
CPR: After a cardiac arrest, it is essential to get the heart to start beating again as soon as possible. CPR or Cardiopulmonary resuscitation can save lives in this situation. If you are trained in this procedure, start with 30 chest compressions before checking the patient’s airway and performing rescue breathing. If you are not trained in CPR, ask the people around if anyone else is.
If no one around can perform CPR, start hands-only CPR. Make the person lie flat on their back and kneel next to their shoulders. Place the heel of one palm in the centre of the person’s chest with the other hand over it. Keep your elbows straight and position your elbows such that they are directly over your hands. Use your upper body weight to push down straight on the person’s chest and release. Try and achieve a rate of 100 compressions a minute. Continue until the person starts breathing again or medical help arrives.
Use an Automated External Defibrillator (AED)
If an AED is available, place the electrode pads on the person’s chest as shown in the diagrams that come along with the AED. Follow the visual and voice prompts. Do not worry if the AED shocks the patient as this electrical therapy can help restart the heart.
Hemorrhoids are either internal or external. An internalhemorrhoid is present deep inside the rectum and anus, whereas external hemorrhoids are located at the base of the skin surrounding the anus. These are lower than the internal hemorrhoids. When they swell, they can be felt at the anus, as they are present outside. They might cause itching, pain, or bleeding during passing stools.
Externalhemorrhoid can protrude outside the anus and this can be seen and felt as a hard painful lump. They usually behave differently as they are covered by regular skin and when swollen they are painful, resulting in the formation of skin tags that can be felt. This skin tags can cause difficulties while passing bowel movements which can further lead to secondary skin infections. If the pain is too much and unbearable, the doctor might suggest removal of the blood clot from the thrombosed hemorrhoid that will stop the pain. Although, hemorrhoids are helpful in controlling bowel movements, only when they develop lumps and swelling they are considered as abnormal and painful.
Causes of Haemorrhoids:
Basically,hemorrhoids are caused by swelling in anal or rectal veins. This swelling can occur due to many factors, such as obesity, pregnancy, straining or pushing while passing a bowel movement, standing and sitting for long period of time (especially on the hard or concrete floor), chronic constipation or acute or chronic diarrhea, colon cancer, rectal surgery, etc. One important causes of the development of haemorrhoidsis diet low in fiber, as this can cause constipation and this can contribute in causing haemorrhoids in two ways: it will lead to straining or pushing in the toilet, and it will aggravate the development of haemorrhoids by producing hard stools and lead to irritation and swollen veins.
Symptoms of External Haemorrhoids:
External hemorrhoids can be felt as a bulged lump at the anus. They cause a problem only when there is blood filled inside them, which is known as thrombosis. The thrombosed external hemorrhoid is very painful, tender, and it often requires medical attention.
Diagnosis and Treatment:
Most individuals discover the presence of hemorrhoids by feeling the lump at the anus while wiping themselves after using a toilet, they note bleeding on the toilet bowl or on toilet paper, or they feel protruded or prolapsed hemorrhoid at the anus after bowel movements.