Common Specialities
{{speciality.keyWord}}
Common Issues
{{issue.keyWord}}
Common Treatments
{{treatment.keyWord}}

Water, Sanitation And Health Tips

4 Do's Of Working During Pregnancy

Dr. Pranay Ghosh 87% (28 ratings)
MBBS, MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Diploma in Minimal Access Surgery, M.Med.Sci (ART), Specialist Training in Reproductive Medicine, Fellowship in Minimal Access Surgery
Gynaecologist, Delhi
4 Do's Of Working During Pregnancy

Pregnancy is one of the most wonderful, but exhausting times of a woman's life. There are a quite a few precautions you need to take and quite a few factors you need to consider before doing anything. Take for example working during pregnancy. Working while you're pregnant can be challenging, but if you keep these do's and don'ts in mind, it can become an easy task.

Do: Take Adequate Rest

The first few weeks of pregnancy can take a toll on your body. If your sleep schedule is off, you need to fix it and sleep for the usual 8-9 hours a day. If you undertake a lot of physically strenuous work or even if have a desk job, you need to take a break as it can get very taxing for you. To avoid work-related exhaustion and stress, take frequent breaks to give your body the rest it requires.  Speak to a doctor or trainer for simple stretches that will help you alleviate stress on your joints and keep you muscles relaxed.

Do: Be Smart About Your Work

Jobs that require heavy lifting must be avoided at all costs as they can give rise to severe complications during pregnancy. When you're pregnant you should also avoid work that regularly exposes you to radiation, harmful chemicals, lead and X-rays. Ask your supervisor to shift the sort of work you are doing as often it's illegal to continue working in conditions that actively harm your pregnancy.

Do: Take Multivitamins and Necessary Supplements

Work often doesn't leave you with enough time to take good care of yourself. You may end up skipping meals due to a hectic work schedule, which can lead to vitamin and mineral deficiencies. To keep the worst effects of this kind of a lifestyle at bay, make sure to take your multivitamins and supplements religiously and regularly.

Do: Be Super Hygienic

It is extremely important to maintain high standards of personal hygiene and sanitation during your pregnancy. This becomes even more important if you work in an environment that exposes you to infectious diseases, raw meats and children. Keep a hand sanitizer with you at all times, and make sure you don't ingest anything that has come into contact with contagions.

Don't: Go For Long Stretches Without Eating

Keeping your stomach empty during pregnancy can have a lot of unwanted effects ranging from bloating, acidity and gas to nausea and vomiting. Have a light breakfast and keep snacking on small portions of nutritious food throughout the day. Also, ensure that you maintain optimum fluid intake. The regular 8-10 glasses of water a day is an absolute must.

Don't: Be stressed

Stress during pregnancy can have damaging effects on your and your baby's health, severely affecting the physical and mental development of your unborn child. Avoid taking on extra work for the duration of your pregnancy. Lighten your workload as much as you can and make sure to take meditation and baby-safe yoga classes to keep your stress in check.

As long as you take these simple precautions, you can continue to work throughout your pregnancy. So, remember to follow these guidelines to ensure a safe and healthy experience for both you and your growing baby. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.

4532 people found this helpful

Working During Pregnancy - Know The Do's And Dont's

Dr. Nanda Kumar 90% (129 ratings)
MBBS, DGO
Gynaecologist, Mumbai
Working During Pregnancy - Know The Do's And Dont's

Pregnancy is one of the most wonderful, but exhausting times of a woman's life. There are a quite a few precautions you need to take and quite a few factors you need to consider before doing anything. Take for example working during pregnancy. Working while you're pregnant can be challenging, but if you keep these do's and don'ts in mind, it can become an easy task.

Do: Take Adequate Rest

The first few weeks of pregnancy can take a toll on your body. If your sleep schedule is off, you need to fix it and sleep for the usual 8-9 hours a day. If you undertake a lot of physically strenuous work or even if have a desk job, you need to take a break as it can get very taxing for you. To avoid work-related exhaustion and stress, take frequent breaks to give your body the rest it requires.  Speak to a doctor or trainer for simple stretches that will help you alleviate stress on your joints and keep you muscles relaxed.

Do: Be Smart About Your Work

Jobs that require heavy lifting must be avoided at all costs as they can give rise to severe complications during pregnancy. When you're pregnant you should also avoid work that regularly exposes you to radiation, harmful chemicals, lead and X-rays. Ask your supervisor to shift the sort of work you are doing as often it's illegal to continue working in conditions that actively harm your pregnancy.

Do: Take Multivitamins and Necessary Supplements

Work often doesn't leave you with enough time to take good care of yourself. You may end up skipping meals due to a hectic work schedule, which can lead to vitamin and mineral deficiencies. To keep the worst effects of this kind of a lifestyle at bay, make sure to take your multivitamins and supplements religiously and regularly.

Do: Be Super Hygienic

It is extremely important to maintain high standards of personal hygiene and sanitation during your pregnancy. This becomes even more important if you work in an environment that exposes you to infectious diseases, raw meats and children. Keep a hand sanitizer with you at all times, and make sure you don't ingest anything that has come into contact with contagions.

Don't: Go For Long Stretches Without Eating

Keeping your stomach empty during pregnancy can have a lot of unwanted effects ranging from bloating, acidity and gas to nausea or vomiting. Have a light breakfast and keep snacking on small portions of nutritious food throughout the day. Also, ensure that you maintain optimum fluid intake. The regular 8-10 glasses of water a day is an absolute must.

Don't: Be Stressed

Stress during pregnancy can have damaging effects on your and your baby's health, severely affecting the physical and mental development of your unborn child. Avoid taking on extra work for the duration of your pregnancy. Lighten your workload as much as you can and make sure to take meditation and baby-safe yoga classes to keep your stress in check.

As long as you take these simple precautions, you can continue to work throughout your pregnancy. So, remember to follow these guidelines to ensure a safe and healthy experience for both you and your growing baby. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.

4223 people found this helpful

6 Do's and Don'ts of Working During Pregnancy

Dr. Vandana Singh 86% (75 ratings)
MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Noida
6 Do's and Don'ts of Working During Pregnancy

Pregnancy is one of the most wonderful, but exhausting times of a woman's life. There are quite a few precautions you need to take and quite a few factors you need to consider before doing anything. Take for example, working during pregnancy. Working while you're pregnant can be challenging, but if you keep these do's and don'ts in mind, it can become an easy task.

Do: Get Adequate Rest

The first few weeks of pregnancy can take a toll on your body. If your sleep schedule is off, you need to fix it and sleep for the usual 8-9 hours a day. If you undertake a lot of physically strenuous work or even if have a desk job, you need to take a break as it can get very taxing for you. To avoid work-related exhaustion and stress, take frequent breaks to give your body the rest it requires. Speak to a doctor or trainer for simple stretches that will help you alleviate stress on your joints and keep you muscles relaxed.

Do: Be Smart About Your Work

Jobs that require heavy lifting must be avoided at all costs as they can give rise to severe complications during pregnancy. When you're pregnant, you should also avoid work that regularly exposes you to radiation, harmful chemicals, lead and X-rays. Ask your supervisor to shift the sort of work you are doing as often it's illegal to continue working in conditions that actively harm your pregnancy.

Do: Take Multivitamins and Necessary Supplements

Work often doesn't leave you with enough time to take good care of yourself. You may end up skipping meals due to a hectic work schedule, which can lead to vitamin and mineral deficiencies. To keep the worst effects of this kind of a lifestyle at bay, make sure to take your multivitamins and supplements religiously and regularly.

Do: Be Super Hygienic

It is extremely important to maintain high standards of personal hygiene and sanitation during your pregnancy. This becomes even more important if you work in an environment that exposes you to infectious diseases, raw meats and children. Keep a hand sanitizer with you at all times, and make sure you don't ingest anything that has come into contact with contagions.

Don't: Go for Long Stretches Without Eating

Keeping your stomach empty during pregnancy can have a lot of unwanted effects ranging from bloating, acidity and gas to nausea and vomiting. Have a light breakfast and keep snacking on small portions of nutritious food throughout the day. Also, ensure that you maintain optimum fluid intake. The regular 8-10 glasses of water a day is a must.

Don't: Be Stressed

Stress during pregnancy can have damaging effects on you and your baby's health, severely affecting the physical and mental development of your unborn child. Avoid taking on extra work for the duration of your pregnancy. Lighten your workload as much as you can and make sure to take meditation and baby-safe yoga classes to keep your stress in check.

As long as you take these simple precautions, you can continue to work throughout your pregnancy. So, remember to follow these guidelines to ensure a safe and healthy experience for both you and your baby.

4801 people found this helpful

Working During Pregnancy? Do's And Don'ts Of It!

Dr. Neelima Padmanaban 85% (35 ratings)
MBBS, DGO, DNB
Gynaecologist, Bangalore
Working During Pregnancy?  Do's And Don'ts Of It!

Pregnancy is one of the most wonderful, but exhausting times of a woman's life. There are a quite a few precautions you need to take and quite a few factors you need to consider before doing anything. Take for example working during pregnancy. Working while you're pregnant can be challenging, but if you keep these do's and don'ts in mind, it can become an easy task.

Do: Get Adequate Rest

The first few weeks of pregnancy can take a toll on your body. If your sleep schedule is off, you need to fix it and sleep for the usual 8-9 hours a day. If you undertake a lot of physically strenuous work or even if have a desk job, you need to take a break as it can get very taxing for you. To avoid work-related exhaustion and stress, take frequent breaks to give your body the rest it requires.  Speak to a doctor or trainer for simple stretches that will help you alleviate stress on your joints and keep you muscles relaxed.

Do: Be Smart About Your Work

Jobs that require heavy lifting must be avoided at all costs as they can give rise to severe complications during pregnancy. When you're pregnant you should also avoid work that regularly exposes you to radiation, harmful chemicals, lead and X-rays. Ask your supervisor to shift the sort of work you are doing as often it's illegal to continue working in conditions that actively harm your pregnancy.

Do: Take Multivitamins and Necessary Supplements

Work often doesn't leave you with enough time to take good care of yourself. You may end up skipping meals due to a hectic work schedule, which can lead to vitamin and mineral deficiencies. To keep the worst effects of this kind of a lifestyle at bay, make sure to take your multivitamins and supplements religiously and regularly.

Do: Be Super Hygienic

It is extremely important to maintain high standards of personal hygiene and sanitation during your pregnancy. This becomes even more important if you work in an environment that exposes you to infectious diseases, raw meats and children. Keep a hand sanitizer with you at all times, and make sure you don't ingest anything that has come into contact with contagions.

Don't: Go For Long Stretches Without Eating

Keeping your stomach empty during pregnancy can have a lot of unwanted effects ranging from bloating, acidity and gas to nausea and vomiting. Have a light breakfast and keep snacking on small portions of nutritious food throughout the day. Also, ensure that you maintain optimum fluid intake. The regular 8-10 glasses of water a day is an absolute must.

Don't: Be stressed

Stress during pregnancy can have damaging effects on your and your baby's health, severely affecting the physical and mental development of your unborn child. Avoid taking on extra work for the duration of your pregnancy. Lighten your workload as much as you can and make sure to take meditation and baby-safe yoga classes to keep your stress in check.

As long as you take these simple precautions, you can continue to work throughout your pregnancy. So, remember to follow these guidelines to ensure a safe and healthy experience for both you and your growing baby.
 

Working While Pregnant: 6 Do's And Don'ts Of It!

Dr. Parimalam Ramanathan 87% (45 ratings)
FRCOG (LONDON) (Fellow of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists), Certificate of Completion of Training (CCT) - Nephrology, MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology, DNB, MBBS
IVF Specialist, Chennai
Working While Pregnant: 6 Do's And Don'ts Of It!

Pregnancy is one of the most wonderful, but exhausting times of a woman's life. There are a quite a few precautions you need to take and quite a few factors you need to consider before doing anything. Take for example working during pregnancy. Working while you're pregnant can be challenging, but if you keep these do's and don'ts in mind, it can become an easy task.

Do: Get Adequate Rest

The first few weeks of pregnancy can take a toll on your body. If your sleep schedule is off, you need to fix it and sleep for the usual 8-9 hours a day. If you undertake a lot of physically strenuous work or even if have a desk job, you need to take a break as it can get very taxing for you. To avoid work-related exhaustion and stress, take frequent breaks to give your body the rest it requires.  Speak to a doctor or trainer for simple stretches that will help you alleviate stress on your joints and keep you muscles relaxed.

Do: Be Smart About Your Work

Jobs that require heavy lifting must be avoided at all costs as they can give rise to severe complications during pregnancy. When you're pregnant you should also avoid work that regularly exposes you to radiation, harmful chemicals, lead and X-rays. Ask your supervisor to shift the sort of work you are doing as often it's illegal to continue working in conditions that actively harm your pregnancy.

Do: Take Multivitamins and Necessary Supplements

Work often doesn't leave you with enough time to take good care of yourself. You may end up skipping meals due to a hectic work schedule, which can lead to vitamin and mineral deficiencies. To keep the worst effects of this kind of a lifestyle at bay, make sure to take your multivitamins and supplements religiously and regularly.

Do: Be Super Hygienic

It is extremely important to maintain high standards of personal hygiene and sanitation during your pregnancy. This becomes even more important if you work in an environment that exposes you to infectious diseases, raw meats and children. Keep a hand sanitizer with you at all times, and make sure you don't ingest anything that has come into contact with contagions.

Don't: Go For Long Stretches Without Eating

Keeping your stomach empty during pregnancy can have a lot of unwanted effects ranging from bloating, acidity and gas to nausea and vomiting. Have a light breakfast and keep snacking on small portions of nutritious food throughout the day. Also, ensure that you maintain optimum fluid intake. The regular 8-10 glasses of water a day is an absolute must.

Don't: Be stressed

Stress during pregnancy can have damaging effects on your and your baby's health, severely affecting the physical and mental development of your unborn child. Avoid taking on extra work for the duration of your pregnancy. Lighten your workload as much as you can and make sure to take meditation and baby-safe yoga classes to keep your stress in check.

As long as you take these simple precautions, you can continue to work throughout your pregnancy. So, remember to follow these guidelines to ensure a safe and healthy experience for both you and your growing baby.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2558 people found this helpful

Typhoid - Signs You Are Suffering From It!

MBBS, Diploma in Tuberculosis and Chest Diseases (DTCD), MD - General Medicine
General Physician, Delhi
Typhoid - Signs You Are Suffering From It!

Typhoid is as an acute illness commonly characterized by high fever and an impaired digestive system. This illness is caused by the bacterium ‘Salmonella Typhi’ and generally spreads from one person to another by means of food or water.

Causes of typhoid

  • Salmonella Typhi, the bacterium responsible for typhoid, primarily spreads on consumption of unhygienic street food and water.
  • Typhoid can also occur as a result of a poor sanitation system. In these cases, the bacterium spreads through fecal matters and the contaminated urine of the infected person.
  • Typhoid can also spread if you share the same food and water consumed by the infected person.

Symptoms 
The symptoms generally appear within 1-3 weeks, after coming in contact with the already infected individual. The ensuing fever and discomfort remains for about 3-4 weeks. The symptoms are:

However, in most of the cases, the symptoms tend to improve from the third week itself.

Treatment
The following treatments can be implemented in order to cure typhoid fever:

  • Doctors generally recommend a prescribed dosage of antibiotics in order to deal with the disease. 
  • Along with the prescribed dosage of antibiotics, the doctors recommend balanced consumption of various fluids such as natural fruit juices and water to restore hydration. A healthy diet packed with all the essential nutrients is another necessity that has to complement the dosage of antibiotics.
  • Choice of antibiotics should be Ceftriaxone, Cefixime, Azithromycin and Ciprofloxacin.

Complications

  1. The two most common complications are haemorrhage (including disseminated intravascular coagulation) and perforation of the bowel. Before antibiotics, perforation had a mortality of around 75%.
  2. Jaundice may be due to hepatitis, cholangitis, cholecystitis, or haemolysis.
  3. Pancreatitis with acute kidney injury and hepatitis with hepatomegaly are rare.
  4. Toxic myocarditis occurs in 1-5% of patients (ECG changes may be present). It is a significant cause of death in endemic areas.
  5. Toxic confusional states and other neurological and psychiatric disturbances have been reported.

Needs and Indications for Hospitalization-

Hospital admission is usually recommended if you have severe symptoms of typhoid fever, such as persistent vomiting, severe diarrhoea or a swollen stomach. As a precaution, young children who develop typhoid fever may be admitted to hospital. In hospital, you'll have antibiotic injections and you may also be given fluids and nutrients directly into a vein through an intravenous drip. Surgery may be needed if you develop life-threatening complications of typhoid fever, such as internal bleeding or a section of your digestive system splitting. However, this is very rare in people being treated with antibiotics. Most people respond well to hospital treatment and improve within three to five days. However, it may be several weeks until you're well enough to leave hospital.

Vaccines

Two types of vaccines are available

  • Injected
  • Oral 

The injected vaccine is more commonly used and  is also known as inactivated typhoid shot . It is injected in one single shot an it can easily provide protection against typhoid. This type is widely prevalent in cases where one has to travel to a typhoid infected place. However, one must be careful and should keep a tab as to what they eat or drink at the time of travelling. Also, this type of vaccine should not be administered on kids below 2 years old.

If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor.

7005 people found this helpful

Acute Diarrhoea And Homoeopathy

Dr. Himani Negi 95% (19987 ratings)
BHMS
Homeopath, Chennai
Acute Diarrhoea And Homoeopathy

Diarrhoea (or diarrhoea) is when you pass looser or more frequent stools than you do normally. It is one of the main symptoms of gastroenteritis, the other is vomiting. Gastroenteritis is inflammation of the stomach or intestine as a result of a bacterial or viral infection. Diarrhoea usually last for 2-4 days without the need for treatment, however, severe diarrhoea may be life threatening. This is due to fluid loss in watery diarrhoea, particularly in infants and young children, the malnourished and people with weakened immunity.

What causes diarrhoea?

In general, diarrhoea infections are spread through the consumption of contaminated food and water (hence diarrhoea after eating), by dirty hands, or direct contact with faecal matter. Many different types of bacteria viruses and parasites can cause gastroenteritis and subsequently diarrhoea. Some common ones include:

Bacteria. E. G. Salmonella or escherichia (e. Coli) viruses. E. G. Norovirus or rotavirusparasites. E. G. Giardia intestinal water,
Symptoms

What are the symptoms?

You may experience one or more of the following:

Watery stools
Upset stomach or cramps
Urgent need to use the toilet
Nausea and vomiting
Fever
Loss of appetite
Dehydration

Prevention tips

Safe drinking water:

Contaminated water is one of the most significant factors contributing to infectious diseases in developing countries. Make sure you have access to safe water and if storing water in your home be sure to keep the water vessel covered, don't allow anyone to directly touch the water or drink from the vessel and thoroughly rinse the vessel after every use. If you are unsure of the quality of your water, treat it before drinking.

Toilet hygiene:

Using a toilet for the safe disposal of human waste (urine and faeces) is an essential part of the preventing the spread of germs that can cause diarrhoea. Always use a toilet which is connected to the sewerage system or on-site sanitation system (e. G. Septic tank or seepage pit). Flush the toilet after use to make sure all faecal matter is removed and use a toilet cleaner and brush to remove any build-up on the inner surfaces of the toilet. It is also important to keep the area around the toilet clean and regularly touched surfaces (such as the seat, lid, the flush handle should be cleaned and disinfected regularly). Keep the toilet covered to prevent the transfer of germs by flies.


Cloths used to clean the toilet and toilet areas should not be used for cleaning other areas of the home.

Food hygiene:

Good food hygiene will help to prevent gastroenteritis and diarrhoea from food poisoning.

Clean and disinfect food preparation surfaces: after preparing food (especially raw meat, fish or eggs), clean and disinfect any kitchen surfaces that you’ve used. Dirty utensils, cutlery and crockery can be cleaned with detergent and hot water store raw and cooked food separately cook food thoroughly and evenly properly refrigerate food to stop the growth of bacteria

Take extra care when someone in your family is suffering from diarrhoea.

Avoid sharing cutlery, utensils, towels and other personal care items such as flannels and sponges with other household members those suffering from diarrhoea should avoid preparing food for others clean and disinfect your toilet, including the toilet seat and toilet flush, after each bout of diarrhoea remember to wash your hands thoroughly and regularly with soap and water, wait at least 48 hours after symptoms have cleared up before returning to work or school

Homoeopathy has a wonderful effect in controlling diarrhoea since it is the susceptibility which lets us fall prey to bacteria, which generally remain harmless to a healthy person thus treating the disease, not the bacteria and after completion of the acute episode person should go for constitutional homoeopathic treatment to become more resistant for future infections.
Some of more common remedies for diarrhoea are, mercurious solubilus, camphora, veratrum album, Bryonia, gelsemium, baptisia, Aethusa, chamomilla, phosphorus, thuja etc.

1 person found this helpful

Cyclone Titli - Ways To Manage Diseases It Can Cause!

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
General Physician, Faridabad
Cyclone Titli - Ways To Manage Diseases It Can Cause!

Cyclone 'Titli', which has has been categorised as a 'very severe cyclonic storm', hit the coastal Odisha region at a daunting speed of 140-150 kmph. The cyclone has already caused a lot of destruction in the region and the government has deployed NDRF teams to carry out rescue operations.

Titli, which means 'Butterfly' in English, has uprooted many trees and electricity poles but fortunately has yet not caused any casualties. India Meteorological Department has said that the cyclone will weaken gradually with the decreasing wind speed, but the aftermath of this cyclone can be very unpleasant for the people living near the coastal areas.

Where Titli has created a havoc in India, Hurricane Michael, a category 4 monster storm, has reached Florida. Over half-a-million have been either ordered or advised to evacuate as it inched closer to Panama City. It has already caused 14 deaths in Central America and is still going strong.

Such cyclonic storms and hurricanes not only disturb the normal life during their stay in the region but also lead to spread of various diseases.

Diseases which can spread:

Apart from the risk of serious mental trauma during the cyclonic period, the possibility of spread of water and vector-borne diseases also increase.

Following are the waterborne diseases it can cause:

  • Cholera
  • Hepatitis A
  • Amoebiasis
  • Typhoid fever
  • Cryptosporidiosis
  • Cyclosporiasis
  • Giardiasis
  • Microsporidiosis
  • Naegleriasis
  • Botulism
  • Campylobacteriosis
  • Dysentery
  • Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

Vector-borne diseases that can spread:

  • Chikungunya
  • Dengue fever
  • Lymphatic filariasis
  • Rift Valley fever
  • Yellow fever
  • Zika
  • Malaria
  • Lymphatic filariasis
  • Japanese encephalitis
  • Lymphatic filariasis
  • West Nile fever

Ways to prevent Vector-borne diseases:

Once the tragedy ends, people should ignore being in vegetated areas to avoid encounter with insects, like mosquitoes. People should wear protective clothing and avoid using perfumes which may attract mosquitos.

Pregnant women should also try not to go outside their houses during peak times of mosquito activity.

Here are some more preventive measures for vector-borne diseases:

  • Apply insect repellents to exposed by body parts as well as clothing
  • Do not apply it to wounds or irritated skin
  • Take a bath or wash your body after returning home
  • Wash the clothes after every single time you go out
  • Sleep in netted or screened area

Measures to prevent waterborne diseases:

Waterborne diseases transmit when contaminated water is used for purposes including drinking, washing uncooked vegetables, brushing teeth and washing dentures or contact lenses. Here are the other ways to prevent waterborne diseases:

  • Drink purified water only
  • If your area has sanitation problems, avoid coming in contact with outside water.
  • Do not use untreated water from a spring, river, lake or pond
  • Do not always consider boiled water safe for consumption as it does not contain chlorine to avoid recontamination
  • Avoid using ice cubes
  • Avoid eating outside
  • Maintain good hygiene by using soaps and sanitisers

The cyclonic storm will pass off soon but will create several issues that would require proper attention to be prevented. So, after surviving it, you must follow the above-mentioned measures to stay safe and healthy.

1 person found this helpful

10 menstrual hygiene tips every girl and woman should know!

Dr. Sangita Malhotra 88% (359 ratings)
MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Agra
10 menstrual hygiene tips every girl and woman should know!
10 menstrual hygiene tips every girl and woman should know!

Most of us go through our periods very secretively and don’t really bother to figure out if our practices are hygienic or not. At times, we may wear the same napkin for a whole day. Women is villages and smaller towns still use reusable unhygienic cloth during their periods. And since periods are considered unclean, they are not even allowed to use detergent for washing the soiled cloth well in some households.

Here are some tips to maintain hygiene during your periods, some of which you may not know about:

1.  Choose your method of sanitation:

Today there are a number of ways including the use of sanitary napkins, tampons andmenstrual cups to stay clean. In India, most unmarried girls prefer to use sanitary napkins. If you do decide to use a tampon remember that it is essential to choose one that has the lowest absorbency rate for your flow. While there are some women who choose to use either different types of sanitary napkins on different days of their periods or different methods of protection (like a tampon and a sanitary napkin), there are some who prefer to stick to one type and brand. The best tip here is to try and use one brand for one type of protection for a while to know if it helps your needs. Frequent switching between brands can make you uncomfortable since brands are as unique as you, they suit everyone differently.

2. Change regularly:

Menstrual blood – once it has left the body – gets contaminated with the body’s innate organisms. This rule applies for even those days when you don’t have much bleeding, since your pad is still damp and will have organisms from your vagina, sweat from your genitals, etc. When these organisms remain in a warm and moist place for a long time they tend to multiply and can lead to conditions like urinary tract infection, vaginal infections and skin rashes.

The standard time to change a sanitary pad is once every six hours, while for a tampon is once every two hours. That being said, you have to customize the changing schedule to your needs. While some women might have a heavy flow and would need to change more often, others will need to change less frequently. There are a few instances where your sanitary napkin or tampon might not be completely used – usually on days when you have a lesser flow – but you must change at regular intervals.

In the case of tampons it is very important because, if left inserted into the vagina for long periods of time it can cause a condition called TSS or toxic shock syndrome – a condition where bacteria infiltrate the body leading to severe infection that can send to the body into shock – that requires emergent treatment and can lead to serious complications and even death.  

3. Wash yourself regularly:

When you menstruate, the blood tends to enter tiny spaces like the skin between your labia or crust around the opening of the vagina and you should always wash this excess blood away. This practice also tends to beat bad odour from the vaginal region. So, it is important to wash your vagina and labia (the projecting part of female genitals) well before you change into a new pad. If you cannot wash yourself before you change make sure to wipe off the areas using toilet paper or tissue.

4. Don’t use soaps or vaginal hygiene products

The vagina has its own cleaning mechanism that works in a very fine balance of good and bad bacteria. Washing it with soap can kill the good bacteria making way for infections. So, while it is important to wash yourself regularly during this time, all you need to use is some warm water. You can use soap on the external parts but do not use it inside your vagina or vulva.

5. Use the right washing technique:

Always wash or clean the area in a motion that is from the vagina to the anus. Never wash in the opposite direction. Washing in the opposite direction can cause bacteria from the anus to lodge in the vagina and urethral opening, leading to infections. Read about urinary tract infections.

6. Discard your used sanitary product properly

It is essential to discard your used napkins or tampons properly because they are capable of spreading infections, will smell very foul. Wrapping it well before discarding it ensures that the smell and infection is contained. It is advised not to flush the pad or tampon down the toilet since they are capable of forming a block and can cause the toilet to back up. More importantly it is imperative that you wash your hands well after you discard your used napkin since you are likely to touch the used portion of the pad or tampon while discarding it.

7.  Beware of a pad rash

A pad rash is something that you might experience during a period of heavy flow. It usually occurs when the pad has been wet for a long time and rubs along the thighs causing it to chaff. To prevent this from occurring, try to stay dry during your periods. If you do have a rash, change your pads regularly and stay dry. Apply an antiseptic ointment, after a bath and before bed – this will heal the rash and prevent further chaffing. If it gets worse do visit your doctor who will be able to prescribe you a medicated powder that can keep the area dry.

8.  Use only one method of sanitation at a time

Some women who have heavy flow during their periods tend to use either (i) two sanitary pads, (ii) a tampon and sanitary pad (iii) a sanitary pad along with a piece of cloth. This might seem like a good idea, but it actually is not, changing regularly is a better option. Using two pads or a tampon and a sanitary pad is bad because the two pads absorb the blood and you don’t see that they are completely used up you are unlikely to change at regular and healthy intervals. This can lead to rashes, infections and in the case of tampons even TSS. Another consideration is that if one does use a piece of cloth as extra protection that cloth may not be the cleanest thing to put next to your private parts.  Lastly, the whole two pad structure is extremely uncomfortable and can leave you with a bad rash and an even worse temper.

9.  Have a bath regularly

To some it may seem like the most inane advice, but in some cultures it is believed that a woman should not bathe during her periods. This myth was based on the fact that in the olden days women had to bathe in the open or in common water bodies like a river or lake. But with indoor plumbing having a bath is the best thing you can do for your body during your periods. Bathing not only cleanses your body but also gives you a chance to clean your private parts well. It also helps relieve menstrual cramps, backaches, helps improve your mood and makes you feel less bloated. To get some relief from backaches and menstrual cramps, just stand under a shower of warm water that is targeted towards your back or abdomen. You will feel much better at the end of it.

10.  Be ready with on-the-go stuff during your periods

When you have your periods it is important to be ready. It is important to have extra sanitary pads or tampons properly stored in a clean pouch or paper bag, a soft towel, some paper tissues or towels, hand sanitizer, a healthy snack, bottle of drinking water, a tube of antiseptic medication (if you are using one).

Changing your pads/ tampons regularly is essential, so you will need extra. More importantly storing them properly so that they don’t get contaminated is as important as changing. Pads or tampons that remain in your bag without a clean pouch to protect it can also lead to infections like UTI (urinary tract infection) or vaginal infections. The soft towel can be used to wipe your hands or face if you wash them. Paper towels are the important to wipe off the excess water after you wash your private parts. It is best you don’t use toilet paper for this as it tends to shred and tear when it touches water. Your hand sanitizer is a very important factor here. You will need it to clean your hands and you can use it to clean the flush knob and tap faucet as well. The snack is a backup in case you feel weak or run down during the day and the bottle of water is to help you stay hydrated throughout the day.

Feeling extreme discomfort during periods or have irregular periods? Feel free to discuss your concerns privately with me.

Dr Sangita Malhotra
Gynaecologist
Vardan Nursing Home

106 people found this helpful

AntiBiotic Resistance on the rise very fast

Dr. Himanshu Shekhar 89% (517 ratings)
Post Graduate Diploma in Hospital and Healthcare Management, MD - Consultant Physician, Fellowship Critical Care Management
Internal Medicine Specialist, Faridabad
AntiBiotic Resistance on the rise very fast

In 5 Years, Threat Of Drug-Resistant Superbugs Doubles


A 72-year-old woman in Bengaluru consulted a hospital physician about a severe skin infection and fever. She had previously consulted a couple of general practitioners, who prescribed a course of penicillin for three days and fluoroquinolones—both antibiotics—for two days.

There was no relief.

So, the consultant ordered a culture sensitivity test of pus from the skin lesions to identify what was causing her ailment and figure out what antibiotics it would respond to.

Here’s what the report said:
Pathogen: Klebsiella pneumoniae
Susceptible to: No antibiotic
Resistant to: All antibiotics, including advanced drugs like fluoroquinolones, carbapenems and even the last resort combination usually reserved for severe cases of ICU infection, colistin-tigecycline.

With nothing to offer the patient, save a prescription for paracetamol to keep her fever in check, the doctor sent the patient home, and asked her to return after a week.

In such cases, sometimes, the body’s immunity kicks in and throws off the infection, the physician, Sheela Chakravarthy, consultant (internal medicine) at Fortis Hospital, Bengaluru, told IndiaSpend.

Sometimes, resistance to one or more drugs abates, allowing treatment to be resumed. Chances of that happening are greater at home, not in the hospital, which is a more infectious space where sepsis—a disproportionate and potentially life-threatening immune response by your body to an infection—could set in, she explained.

Most patients, however, succumb to the infection.

Chakravarthy faces situations where she has nothing to offer patients, not because they are suffering from terminal illnesses, such as some forms of cancer, but even when they present with what should be curable infections, “almost every day”, she said.

What Chakravarthy described is the consequence of rampant, inappropriate consumption of antibiotics, spurring the development of superbugs, as the recently released State of the World’s Antibiotics Report 2015 affirms.


India is fast becoming home to superbugs

Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus are three of the deadliest pathogens facing humanity, according to the World Health Organisation (WHO). And India is gradually but increasingly becoming home to multi-drug resistant strains of these pathogens, according to the State of the World’s Antibiotics Report 2015.

Escherichia coli is notorious for causing food poisoning and urinary tract infections.

In 2010, 5% of Escherichia coli samples in India were resistant to carbapenems, last-resort antibiotics for bacteria that are resistant to first-, second- and third-line drugs. By 2014, 12% of E. coli samples were similarly resistant.


Klebsiella pneumoniae causes pneumonia, septicaemia and infections in the urinary tract, lower biliary tract and at surgical wound sites, to name a few.

While 29% of Klebsiella pneumonia isolates were resistant to carbapenems in 2008, this increased to 57% in 2014.

For comparison, fewer than 10% of Klebsiella pneumoniae infections in Europe are carbapenem-resistant.

Staphylococcus aureus can cause skin and soft tissue infections, bloodstream infections, pneumonia and surgical site infections. A particularly nasty strain of, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is common in India and increasingly hard to treat.

MRSA was responsible for 40% of post-surgical site infections, according to a 2013 study by the Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College and Hospital, Aligarh.

Between 2009 and 2014, the incidence of MRSA in India has risen from 29% to 47%.

People with MRSA are 64% more likely to die than people with a non-resistant form of the infection, according to the WHO.

How ignorance is spurring the development of superbugs

“My understanding of antibiotic is that it stops bacteria growing in body…I think amoxicillin is for throat infection.”

–An urban participant of a study of perceptions about antibiotic use and resistance among urban and rural doctors, pharmacists and public in Vellore.

Mox, short for amoxicillin, has become a household word across India.

A little knowledge, however, is a dangerous thing. It encourages self-medication, even when medicine is unnecessary, such as when people suffer viral infections—against which drugs are ineffective. Most viral fevers dissipate on their own after a few days with rest, hot fluids and a check on the fever.

Consuming too many antibiotics contributes to pathogen drug resistance.

“Resistance is an outcome of accumulated use,” said Ramanan Laxminarayan, vice president, Research and Policy, Public Health Foundation of India, and director and senior fellow, Centre for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy, US, and co-author of the State of the World’s Antibiotic Report 2015.

Indians often rely on corner pharmacists, whose knowledge of dosages may be limited.

Here’s what a rural pharmacist participant of the aforementioned Vellore study said: “Amoxicillin, 6 tablets is to be taken [for full course].”

Amoxicillin’s full course depends on the kind and severity of bacterial infection.

When an antibiotic of lower strength or fewer pills than needed is prescribed, the body cannot fully eradicate the pathogen. Sensing it has come under attack, the bacterium responds by evolving into more resilient, antibiotic-resistant strains.

But with a course of antibiotics, say generic Amoxicillin, costing about Rs 160, close to a day’s wage in many states, and a doctor’s consultation costing anywhere between Rs 100 and Rs 1,000, more than a day’s wage in most places, patients are bound to cut corners.

Another Vellore study participant summed up the situation thus: “If I have money I go to hospital. If not, I get medicine from pharmacy shop. If I get better, I stop and keep for future use.”

Stopping a course of drugs mid-way also contributes to antibiotic microbial resistance.

In a 2015 study in Chennai, 70% respondents confessed to stopping the medication when they felt better. Only 57% completed the antibiotic course.

“Less is more”: the key to preserving antibiotic efficiency

Educate health professionals, policy makers and the public on sustainable antibiotic use, says the State of the World’s Antibiotics Report 2015.

That is sensible advice.

Denmark and Sweden boast of low rates of antibiotic use and near-zero rates of antibiotic resistance because the risks of antibiotic overuse are widely known.

Instituting regulations on antibiotic use has reduced the proportion of MRSA in Europe and the US by about a fifth over the last eight years.

India requires more stringent regulations for antibiotic use.

It isn’t enough to tell physicians that they should prescribe antibiotics only when essential to cure bacterial infections. The right way is to order a culture sensitivity test, which costs money, and the patience to wait for the result.

“Patients want instant and cheap relief, and are willing to shop around for a doctor who obliges,” said Dr Himanshu Shekhar, medical director, SCI International Hospital, New Delhi.

“Some judge doctors on how fast the prescribed medicine cures. Practice pressures lead many doctors to prescribe advanced drugs, without getting a culture-sensitivity test done.”

So, it’s also not enough to have 24 advanced antibiotics, including third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, carbapenems, and newer fluoroquinolones, under the ambit of Schedule H1 of the Drugs & Cosmetic Rules, 1945, with effect from March 1, 2014.

That means these drugs cannot be sold over-the-counter, but they are still freely prescribed.

Chakravarthy’s suggestion: “Make Schedule H antibiotics available only through hospitals and health centres.”

“Changing antibiotic usage behaviours is critical to preserve the efficacy of existing and new drugs,” proposed Laxminarayan.

India also sorely needs regulations to check antibiotic use in animals raised for human consumption, to meet the State of the World’s Antibiotic Report 2015 recommendation to reduce and eventually phase out sub-therapeutic antibiotic use in agriculture.

Sub-therapeutic use implies mixing antibiotics in animal feed to make them grow faster and to prevent infections from devastating the herd or flock.

India is among the world’s five biggest consumers of antibiotics for livestock. IndiaSpend has earlier reported increasing evidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in animals in India, and how this impacts humans.

“Using antibiotics to make animals fatter faster is a waste of a precious resource,” said Laxminarayan.

How surgeons contribute to antibiotic resistance

Surgical antibiotic prophylaxis refers to the prescribing of antibiotics before, during and after operations to prevent infection.

Between 19% and 86% of patients in hospitals in India receive “inappropriate antibiotic prophylaxis”, according to the State of the World’s Antibiotics Report 2015. A prophylactic is preventive treatment for a disease.

Ideally, antibiotic prophylaxis should be administered as a single dose within 60 minutes of the skin incision. However, a 2013 Mangalore-based study found timing adhered to in 22% of cases in a government hospital, 64.9% cases in a medical-college teaching hospital and 80.7% of patients in a tertiary care corporate hospital.

“Smart antibiotic prophylaxis also includes choosing narrow-spectrum antibiotics to target the organism most likely to present concerns based on the kind of surgery being performed, this avoids needless exposure to antibiotics for the other microbes and helps prevent resistance,” said Vimesh Mistry, assistant professor, Pharmacology, Baroda Medical College.

Staphylococcus aureus, which lives on the skin, is most likely to cause infection during surgery. But surgeons frequently make poor antibiotic choices.

“We found appropriateness of choice of antibiotic in 68% cases and 52% compliance with the in-house prophylaxis guidelines,” said Tanu Singhal, infectious diseases specialist, Mumbai, and co-author of another study on antibiotic prophylaxis conducted in PD Hinduja Hospital, Mumbai.

Other prophylaxis inaccuracies include the unnecessary prescribing of antibiotics, inaccurate dose and inaccurate duration of prescription.

“We logged 63% accuracy in prescription duration. Surgeons tend to prescribe antibiotics for too long fearing post-surgery infection,” said Singhal.

In the trade off between protecting the patient better and increasing the risk to society of a pathogen developing resistance, surgeons are choosing the former.

Needed: A back-to-the-basics approach to health

Reducing the need for antibiotics through improved water, sanitation and immunisation is another strategy recommended in the State of the World’s Antibiotics Report 2015.

“Vaccination against pathogens such as the diarrhoea-causing rotavirus and pneumonia-causing Klebsiella pneumoniae helps curtail antibiotic demand, thereby reducing the chances of resistant strains developing,” said Laxminarayan.

In Canada, the widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines for pneumonia in children has reduced the incidence of pneumonia caused by strains the vaccine covers.

However, just as antibiotic usage spurs the development of superbugs, vaccination is a double-edged sword.

Canada is seeing a rapid increase in the incidence of other strains of pneumonia not protected against by the vaccine.

So, it is better to focus on the basic constituents of health.

Making available clean drinking water and improving sanitation would prevent people from getting sick in the first place. India still has a lot to do on both these fronts.

Improving individual immunity is the best bet to ward off infections, and that is also achievable by healthier eating, exercising, healthier living and the better management of chronic conditions like diabetes and asthma that increase vulnerability to infections when they are not kept in check.


Dr Himanshu Shekhar
MD,Medicine
New Delhi
+919818433208
( Above Article , with My Inputs was published in a leading Health Magazine)
6 people found this helpful
Icon

Book appointment with top doctors for Water, Sanitation And Health treatment

View fees, clinic timings and reviews