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Benefits of Barley And Its Side Effects Tips

PCOS - How To Protect Yourself From Weight Gain?

Dt. Divita Dhingra 84% (10 ratings)
Diploma In Diet & Nutrition
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Delhi
PCOS - How To Protect Yourself From Weight Gain?

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common hormonal disorder among women of reproductive age. Polycystic means “many cysts,” and PCOS often causes clusters of small, pearl-sized cysts in the ovaries. The cysts are fluid-filled and contain immature eggs. PCOS affects one in 4 women.

What are the causes behind it?
While the exact cause of PCOS is unknown, doctors believe that hormonal imbalances and genetics play a role. Women are more likely to develop PCOS if their mother or sister also has the condition.
Overproduction of the hormone androgen may be another contributing factor. Androgen is a male sex hormone that women’s bodies also produce. 

PCOS Symptoms
PCOS is a syndrome disease defined by a collection of signs and symptoms. The symptoms of PCOS that one patient experiences can be very different from the symptoms of another patient. If you have two or more of the following symptoms, you need to have a thorough checkup to determine if you need PCOS treatment:

  • Irregular or missing menstrual periods
  • Infertility
  • Excess or unwanted body or facial hair growth
  • Thinning hair on the scalp
  • Weight problems, often including weight gain around the waist
  • Skin problems, including skin tags, darkening skin and acne

Does PCOS increase weight?
The answer is a ‘YES’. Most PCOS patients are overweight and are asked to exercise which helps control the symptoms but a lot many people have a completely normal body type.

What are the risks associated with PCOS-related weight gain?
No matter what the cause, weight gain can be detrimental to your health. Women with PCOS are more likely to develop many of the problems associated with weight gain and insulin resistance, including:

Many of these conditions can lead to heart disease. In fact, women with PCOS are four to seven times more likely to have a heart attack than women of the same age without the condition.

Benefit of Weight Loss with PCOS

Modest weight loss will not cure PCOS, but it will help. Weight loss can restore the normal function of the ovaries and result in normal hormone production. This may, in turn, lead to improvements in symptoms of PCOS, such as excess hair growth, acne or scalp hair loss.

Protect Yourself From Weight Gain

  • Eat Right: A healthy diet low in complex carbohydrates, moderate protein and low fat is important, as this can help regulate blood sugar levels. 
  • Exercise: Start doing low-to-moderate activities like walking or swimming for 30-to-90 minutes per day because exercise (even without weight loss) has been shown to lower or get rid of insulin resistance.
  • Lose Weight: The more overweight you are the more likely you are to be insulin resistant whether you have PCOS or not. Losing just 5% of your bodyweight will help lower your insulin resistance.
  • Avoid Stress: Don’t over stress yourself as it increases the blood pressure level in your body and can’t help to resist with PCOS. So, try to stay as calm as possible.
  • Get more sleep (at least 7-to-9 hours in a day): Not getting enough sleep can also make your insulin resistance worse, which in turn acquires you the weight.

DIET:

341 people found this helpful

Food Allergies - Know More About It!

Dr. Saibal Moitra 86% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MD Respiratory Medicine, Ph.D - Physiology, FCCP (USA)
Allergist/Immunologist, Kolkata
Food Allergies - Know More About It!

Every year, the emergency rooms at hospitals get flooded by cases of allergic reactions from food. According to a census, about 15 million Indians suffer from some kind of food allergy. The symptoms of food allergy may vary from itchy mouth to potentially fatal conditions like anaphylactic shock. Other symptoms of an allergic reaction can present themselves as difficulty in breathing, swelling of tongue, rashes and intestinal discomfort.

According to specialists, allergies to food can develop at any age, at any time. Hence, if you suspect a sudden allergic reaction to a food that you have consumed before without any problem, it is advised to consult your doctor.

Here is a list of the most common allergy-causing foods-

  1. Milk: Milk is the most common food that children and infants are allergic to. Milk allergy must not be confused with lactose intolerance wherein a person faces difficulties in digesting the sugar present in milk. The two conditions are not related. Milk allergy is the hypersensitivity reaction that happens in response to certain proteins present in milk and can be potentially deadly. Most children are seen to outgrow their allergy to milk.
  2. Wheat: It is a common misconception to confuse Celiac’s disease with wheat allergy. Wheat allergy exclusively occurs due to the hypersensitivity to the protein present in wheat alone. In Celiac’s disease, it is the gluten in the food they are hypersensitive to, which is also present in rye, barley and oats.
  3. Soy: Soy is a very common allergic food and most children seem to outgrow it by the age of 10. Most of the time, soy allergy is not too severe and the symptoms presented are mostly mild. Although, cases of anaphylaxis in reaction to soy have been reported. Soy and soy protein are very common ingredients found in food, hence it is advised to check the ingredients present before consuming it.
  4. Shellfish: This allergy usually does not go away and you are most likely to deal with all your life. Most people who experience allergies from shellfish are most likely to be hypersensitive to both crustaceans (lobsters, shrimps and crabs) and molluscs (mussels, oysters, scallops and clams). This type of allergy can become very intense and you must even avoid the steam produced from cooking shellfish. For some people, the mere contact with shellfish can trigger an allergic reaction.
     
2431 people found this helpful

Common Allergies - Foods That Can Trigger Them!

Dt. Ankita Bhargava 92% (2952 ratings)
Masters In Clinical Nutrition & Dietitics
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Bangalore
Common Allergies - Foods That Can Trigger Them!

Food is a very important part of your life as it provides all the necessary nutrients required by your body and is essentially, the fuel for all things to function within. However, many people may have aversion to certain kinds of food as it causes adverse reactions within their body. Let’s look at some of the common food allergies that people commonly report and how to identify them.

Allergies v/s Intolerances: ?It is important to note here that there is a significant difference between food sensitivities or intolerances and allergies. Sensitivities or intolerances cause adverse effects on your body inevitably when you consume certain types of foods. One such example is diarrhea, caused by ingesting cheese or milk by lactose intolerant people. However, allergies are caused when the immune system within your body mistakes harmless food as something that might harm you and thus tries to protect you from its effects. This results in reactions within your body which may be very painful and problematic.

Common foods that trigger allergies
Some of the common foods that trigger allergies are:
1. Peanuts
2. Shellfish
3. Other forms of tree nuts such as almonds, walnuts etc.
4. Gluten rich grains such as wheat, rye barley, oats
5. Certain types of fish
6. Eggs
7. Soy products
8. Milk (allergic reactions mostly occur within children)

Some other foods which have been known to cause allergies in rare cases are:
1. Meats such as pork, chicken, beef, mutton
2. Corn and corn products
3. Gelatin
4. Certain spices such as mustard, garlic and coriander among others
5. Certain seeds such as poppy, sunflower, or sesame

Symptoms of allergies
In certain cases, the allergies might manifest immediately, almost in a matter of minutes, within the body. However, in many cases, it may take a few hours for it to show up. The symptoms may range from mild to quite severe. Mild symptoms will make it quite hard to actually diagnose it as a food allergy.

Some of the milder symptoms could be:
1. Hives or eczema could form on your skin which may be very itchy. These would look like raised swollen areas that could be red, inflamed, and dry.
2. The inside of your mouth and ears may become itchy
3. You could suddenly develop a runny or a blocked nose and start sneezing or coughing.
4. Your eyes may become watery, red and itchy
5. You may develop a funny taste in your mouth
6. Others symptoms may include throwing up and even loose motions

Other severe forms of allergies can be caused mostly by shellfish and peanuts and other forms of nuts and fish. Symptoms in such cases would look like:
1. Uneven heartbeat
2. Difficulty in swallowing and breathing
3. Feeling of extreme weakness, confusion
4. Passing out or feeling light headed
5. The tongue, throat or lips may swell up
6. Chest pain

1706 people found this helpful

Does PCOS Increase Weight?

Ph.D Food and Nutrition , MSc - Dietitics/Nutrition
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Bangalore
Does PCOS Increase Weight?

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common hormonal disorder among women of reproductive age. Polycystic means “many cysts,” and PCOS often causes clusters of small, pearl-sized cysts in the ovaries. The cysts are fluid-filled and contain immature eggs. PCOS affects one in 4 women.

What are the causes behind it?
While the exact cause of PCOS is unknown, doctors believe that hormonal imbalances and genetics play a role. Women are more likely to develop PCOS if their mother or sister also has the condition.
Overproduction of the hormone androgen may be another contributing factor. Androgen is a male sex hormone that women’s bodies also produce. 

PCOS Symptoms
PCOS is a syndrome disease defined by a collection of signs and symptoms. The symptoms of PCOS that one patient experiences can be very different from the symptoms of another patient. If you have two or more of the following symptoms, you need to have a thorough checkup to determine if you need PCOS treatment:

  • Irregular or missing menstrual periods
  • Infertility
  • Excess or unwanted body or facial hair growth
  • Thinning hair on the scalp
  • Weight problems, often including weight gain around the waist
  • Skin problems, including skin tags, darkening skin and acne

Does PCOS increase weight?
The answer is a ‘YES’. Most PCOS patients are overweight and are asked to exercise which helps control the symptoms but a lot many people have a completely normal body type.

What are the risks associated with PCOS-related weight gain?
No matter what the cause, weight gain can be detrimental to your health. Women with PCOS are more likely to develop many of the problems associated with weight gain and insulin resistance, including:

Many of these conditions can lead to heart disease. In fact, women with PCOS are four to seven times more likely to have a heart attack than women of the same age without the condition.

Benefit of Weight Loss with PCOS

Modest weight loss will not cure PCOS, but it will help. Weight loss can restore the normal function of the ovaries and result in normal hormone production. This may, in turn, lead to improvements in symptoms of PCOS, such as excess hair growth, acne or scalp hair loss.

Protect Yourself From Weight Gain

  • Eat Right: A healthy diet low in complex carbohydrates, moderate protein and low fat is important, as this can help regulate blood sugar levels. 
  • Exercise: Start doing low-to-moderate activities like walking or swimming for 30-to-90 minutes per day because exercise (even without weight loss) has been shown to lower or get rid of insulin resistance.
  • Lose Weight: The more overweight you are the more likely you are to be insulin resistant whether you have PCOS or not. Losing just 5% of your bodyweight will help lower your insulin resistance.
  • Avoid Stress: Don’t over stress yourself as it increases the blood pressure level in your body and can’t help to resist with PCOS. So, try to stay as calm as possible.
  • Get more sleep (at least 7-to-9 hours in a day): Not getting enough sleep can also make your insulin resistance worse, which in turn acquires you the weight.

DIET:

2438 people found this helpful

How Ayurveda Can Help Manage Type 2 Diabetes?

Dr. Surjeet Kaur 89% (533 ratings)
MD - Ayurveda Scholar, Diploma In Skin Aesthetics, Cosmetology and Trichology, Diploma In skin aesthetics, Diploma In cosmetology, Diploma In Trichology, Diploma In Nutrition & Diet Planning, Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Trichologist, Mumbai
How Ayurveda Can Help Manage Type 2 Diabetes?

Although this disorder has been present among people since the inception of mankind, the rate of increase among the number of patients in recent years is alarming to say the least. The primary culprits are lifestyle issues such as bad diet, lack of physical exercise and stress. However, some people are genetically predisposed to it as well. Diabetes is a silent killer as complications caused by it are one of the largest killers on the planet.

The Ayurvedic route
Ayurveda has a long history of successfully dealing with this scourge dating back thousands of years. Diabetes is known as ‘Madhumeha’ and is often classified as ‘Maharoga’ as it causes multiple complications. The Ayurvedic route has many facets such as exercises, filtering toxins and balancing the ‘doshas’ through diet and herbs to control the effects of diabetes. Let’s look at some of the remedies for controlling and correcting symptoms of diabetes in Ayurveda.

  • Diet: This is one of the most important changes that you need to make in your life to control symptoms of diabetes. Certain food types are an absolute no-no in Ayurveda if you have diabetes while certain other types of food are encouraged as they help keep it in control.
  • Food types encouraged in Ayurveda: Amla, bitter gourd, fenugreek seeds (methi), spinach, jamun, drumsticks, garlic, turmeric, snake gourd, barley, wheat, tulsi, pepper, soya bean, cucumber and bel (Indian Bael) among others
  • Food types discouraged in Ayurveda: Processed sugar or any food that contains a high amount of it, unrefined sugar in large quantities, sugar cane juice, oil, jaggery, ghee, cakes, alcohol, foods rich in carbohydrates such as rice or rotis in excess quantities, curd, junk and oily foods, butter, cold drinks and sweets among others
  • Home Remedies and herbs: Ayurveda prescribes many forms of juices and concoctions which can be easily prepared at home to control blood sugar levels and also limit the symptoms. Some of the herbs and preparations used in the treatment of diabetes are mentioned below.
    • Bitter gourd juice or Karela taken early in the morning
    • A mixture of aloe vera gel and ground bay leaf (tez patta)
    • Banyan tree bark prepared in boiled water
    • Cinnamon powder boiled in water
    • Neem, turmeric and tulsi preparations
  • Yoga and exercises: Exercising and ensuring that the metabolism is kept active to check blood sugar levels is of utmost importance when you are diabetic. Yoga is one of the best methods to accomplish this. In general, light walking is prescribed but there are certain yoga poses which are especially beneficial for diabetes. Some of these are:
    • Shalabhasana or the locust pose
    • Ardha matsyendrasana or the half spinal twist pose
    • Peacock pose or Mayurasana
    • Katichakrasana or the waist rotating pose
    • Naddishuddhi Pranayama
    • Surya namaskar among others

However, it is important that you are proficient in the easier forms of yoga first and then have proper instruction before you try the harder poses.

4771 people found this helpful

Menopause - Homeopathic Medicines For It!

Dr. Chaitali Shah 86% (35 ratings)
BHMS, Ozone Therapy, CCH, Certificate Course in Palliative Care
Homeopath, Mumbai
Menopause - Homeopathic Medicines For It!

The disruption of the normal menstrual cycle after the age of about 45 years and the consequent loss of the ability to conceive is known as menopause. The associated symptoms of menopause are heat flushes, insomnia, weight gain, depression, nausea and fatigue. While hormone replacement therapy is the most common treatment to provide relief from menopausal symptoms, homeopathic remedies can be used for the same to give the patient a natural process of treatment without any side effects as opposed to hormone replacement therapy.

The following complementary measures along with homeopathic medicines may be used to treat menopause:

1. A balanced diet which provides optimal nutrition can be helpful. When one gets enough vitamins and minerals, the physical discomfort caused by the symptoms can be reduced greatly.

2. Excessive deposition of fat can interfere with the hormonal cycles and cause imbalances in the level of estrogen and progesterone. So, regular yoga and exercise can be helpful.

3. Phytoestrogen or dietary estrogen is a compound found in foods such as soybeans, oats, barley, carrots, fenugreek, rice etc. Phytoestrogen can provide natural relief from menopausal symptoms.

4. Amylenum nitrosum – Provides relief from profuse sweating, shortness of breath and palpitations.

5, Phosphorus – It can help with migraines, extreme sweating, numb hands, fast pulse, memory problems and dry and itchy skin. Foods high in phosphorus content are meat, fish, cheese, nuts and seeds of pumpkins, sunflowers etc.

6. Aurum metallicum Is used to get the tissues and organs to function normally again and control feelings of anxiety and claustrophobia.

7. Aconitum napellus – Is a flowering plant and its extracts can reduce panic attacks, heat flushes, over excitability and depressive symptoms.

8. Argentum nitricum Is a nitrate compound of silver which is used to control excessive bleeding in the pre-menstrual stages.

9. Belladonna – Is beneficial for a large number of symptoms such as headaches, fatigue, insomnia, frequent urination, osteoporosis, abnormal weight gain and other nervous disorders.

10. Bryonia alba – A flowering plant, is used as a remedy for vaginal infections, rashes and vaginal dryness that are common during menopause.

11. Natrum muriaticum – In small amounts, helps to reduce stress. Stress can cause problems in thyroid function, cognitive functioning, digestive system functioning and it can elevate blood pressure levels rapidly.

12. Nux vomica – Is a common homeopathic medicine for nausea, vomiting and indigestion. These problems are seen frequently in menopausal women, especially after meals at night.

These remedies mentioned are just examples to explain how Homeopathic medicines can help with menopause. However, one should never self-medicate without consulting a qualified Homeopathic Physician.

Tips To Choose Perfect Diet As Per Season!

Dr. Vaishali Gupta 87% (29 ratings)
PG Diploma In Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Jalandhar
Tips To Choose Perfect Diet As Per Season!

Do the frequent changes in the season really affect your body and food habits?

A big YES!

Selection of appropriate food according to seasonal change is very important for staying healthy. In modern times, most fresh fruits and veggies are available round the year, however, the nutritional content is much less in the non-seasonal fruits and vegetables. An update of your eating habits consistently is a must to stimulate energy level of your body.

Here are some key dietary behaviors that must be considered while choosing the perfect diet plan for different seasons-

- Cherish the novelty of Spring

In spring, the green leafy vegetables with their fresh, tender leaves represent the arrival of the new season. These must be added to your menu that must include such lettuce, parsley, spinach, basil and fruits like strawberries, apricot, blueberries, peaches, and cherries etc. Try to consume less amount of salt in this season.

- Take Delight in the cool squash of Summer
Due to excessive heat in the summers, it is recommended to adhere to the watery, cool and light diet. Include seasonal fruits like watermelon, plums, melons, cherries, vegetables such as tomatoes, cucumber, mint etc in your regular diet. Restore your energy with cool, refreshing drinks such as fresh juices, coconut water, milk shakes etc. Drink lots and lots of water during the summers.

- Relish the freshness of Raindrops
The Monsoon season comes with lots of lip smacking food items. In this season, many people face dyspepsia problems so pick up foods that are easily digestible. Avoid consumption of watery foods, heavy meals, meat and fish. Eat gram flour, brown rice, barley, corn, oats, garlic, ginger, turmeric, yogurt and fruits like pomegranate and apple.


- Savor the crisp sunshine of Autumn
Consumption of warm harvest food products is appropriate for this season. Veggies like onion, fenugreek, garlic, pumpkin and fruits such as banana, pears, apple, cranberries work well in this season. Spices, nuts and seasonings like cinnamon, mustard seeds, walnuts, and peppercorns are a must in the autumn months.

- Enjoy the warmness of Winter season
As soon as the cold winter seeps in, you must eat warm nutritional foods. In the winter months, the guiding principle is that the foods that are slow to grow are more warming than the ones that grow rather quickly. This means you can take foods like lamb, fish and chicken and root vegetables like onion, garlic, potato and carrots. You can also take sesame, corn, fenugreek and milk products that are good sources of nutrition.

In short just 'Eat by the season' to stay healthy!

2064 people found this helpful

Substitute Of Wheat!

Dr. Harshita Sethi 92% (192 ratings)
MD - Ayurveda, CIY, Guru Shishya parampara, BAMS
Ayurveda, Gurgaon

Many of us developing aversion towards wheat or roti made up by wheat, this could be due to their pitta predominant body constitution or gluten intoletance /wheat allergy / tendency of acidity after consuming wheat based products which later on gets cinverted to irritable bowel syndtome.Commonly available choices to replace wheat mesls are rice, corn and oats 

Other grains which are full of all nutrients are quinoa, polenta, karmut, spelt, barley,Millet and amaranth.

1 person found this helpful

Paralysis - The Ayurvedic Approach For It!

Dr. Jaiminikumar S Rasane 91% (192 ratings)
Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS), Diploma in Naturopathy & Yogic Science (DNYS)
Ayurveda, Pune
Paralysis - The Ayurvedic Approach For It!

The temporary inability to move one’s own limbs or speak is known as paralysis. Paralysis is triggered by problems with the body’s nervous system and affects the functioning of muscles all over the body. This condition can affect a single limb, the right or left side of the body, or the complete body. A paralytic attack is often caused by a stroke or damage in the nervous system. It can also be caused by exposure to radiation or toxins, autoimmune diseases, tumours and spinal cord trauma. Recovery from a paralytic attack depends on the causes and the extent of the injury that triggered it. With some types of paralysis, partial or even complete, recovery is possible.

Symptoms-
The main symptom of paralysis is the inability to move part of your body, or not being able to move at all. It can start suddenly or gradually. Sometimes it comes and goes. Paralysis can affect any part of the body, including:

  • the face
  • the hands
  • one arm or leg (monoplegia)
  • one side of the body (hemiplegia)
  • both legs (paraplegia)
  • both arms and legs (tetraplegia or quadriplegia)

The affected part of the your body may also be:

  • stiff (spastic paralysis), with occasional muscle spasms
  • floppy (flaccid paralysis)
  • numb, painful or tingly

Ayurveda is an alternative system of medicine that can be quite effective when it comes to treating paralysis. Ayurveda has negligible side effects and hence can be used to treat adults and children alike. This system of medication does not look only at the physical symptoms but also the mental and spiritual well-being of the patient as well.

Some ways to treat paralysis with Ayurveda are as follows:

  1. Vata-pacifying dietEat light meals that are easily digestible and pick warm foods over cold food. Avoid barley, rye and millet and include plenty of vegetables like asparagus, beets, okra and carrots in your diet. Also avoid bitter and pungent flavours, but pick food that is sweet, sour or salty to balance the body’s vata.
  2. Ayurvedic massageWarm herbal oils are sued for Ayurvedic massages. These oils and the action of massaging them into the skin have a number of health benefits associated with it, including the treatment of paralytic attacks. Some Ayurvedic massages that could be beneficial to paralysed patients are abhyanga Ayurvedic massages, padabhyanga and pizhichil.
  3. Medication: Along with lifestyle changes, Ayurvedic medication also plays a role in the treatment of paralysis. Some popular Ayurvedic remedies for paralysis are rasnadi quath, medicated castor oil, pippali mula, vatavidhwamsana rasa, chopcheeni churna, ashwagandha churna, brihat vatachintamani rasa, ashwagandha churna and rasaraja. While some of these medicines are to be taken orally, others may need to be administered through the nostrils as part of nasyam Ayurvedic treatments and others via an enema as part of sneha vasti. Drinking 20–40 ml of radish oil twice a day and a mixture of black pepper powder, sunti and honey is also said to be beneficial in treating paralysis. However, one must keep in mind that recovery from paralysis is very slow and hence patience is a must.
3299 people found this helpful

Kidney Stones - Know Changes That Can Help!

Dr. Priyanka.D.Raheja 83% (44 ratings)
M.Sc - Food & Nutrition, Bsc
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Mumbai
Kidney Stones - Know Changes That Can Help!

Kidney stones are caused when certain minerals of your urine are retained and not wholly released, causing them to amalgamate and form a stone. Passing kidney stones is one of the most painful experiences you may face physically. Its magnanimity is often compared to childbirth, and those who are suffering from kidney stones dread having this experience.

If you are yet not affected by kidney stones and do not want to, read to know what dietary changes you can undergo to prevent it.

1.  Drink a lot of water
On an average, a person must be drinking at least 3 liters of water every day. If you live in a more hot and humid climatic area, your water intake must be even more than that, so that on an average, 2.5 liters of urine is passed throughout the day, which decreases the chances of unnecessary retention of minerals from the urine and release them more easily from the body.

2.  Continue eating calcium containing foods
It is a common misconception that calcium accelerates the formation of kidney stones. Calcium is digested in the intestine. Only the calcium which is excess and cannot be digested in the intestines are sent to the kidneys. Continue consuming calcium rich foods unless your doctor prescribes you against it. Make sure your diet includes enough dairy products such as milk, cheeses, etc, or other calcium rich foods like oats and broccoli.

3. Limit intake of oxalic acid
Oxalic acid is mostly found in food obtained from plants. It restricts the absorption of calcium in the intestines and as a result, more calcium is passed into the kidneys; thus forming calcium oxalate, or oxalate stones. Try to avoid foods like rhubarb, Swiss chard, nuts, tea, sweet potatoes, etc; mainly leguminous plant products.

4. Decrease the ingestion of sodium salts, sugar and meat protein
Salts and sugars, mainly found in packaged foods to prevent them from expiring, increase the release of calcium and oxalates into the blood, which thus increase the chances to develop kidney stones. Meat contains fibers which affect certain nutrients in the kidney, thus aggravating the formation of stones.

5. Increase the consumption of insoluble fibers
Insoluble fibers are those rough fibers which are not soluble in water during the process of digestion. They are found in rice, wheat, barley, etc, and are found to decrease calcium absorption in the kidney. They attach themselves to the calcium and oxalates, which enable them to be released as stool instead of urine.

4741 people found this helpful