An anal fistula, is also called as fistula- in -ano, it is a small channel that develops between the end of the large intestine called the anal canal and the skin near the anus. This is a painful condition, especially when the patient is passing stools. It can also cause bleeding and discharge during defecation.
Genesis of fistula-in-ano
Almost all anal fistulae occur due to an anorectal abscess that begins as an infection in one of the anal glands. This infection spreads down to the skin around the anus causing fistula-in -ano. The anorectal abscess usually leads to pain and swelling around the anus, along with fever. Treatment for anorectal abscess involves incising the skin over the abscess to drain the pus. This is done usually under local anesthesia. A fistula-in-ano happens when there is failure of the anorectal abscess wound to heal completely. Almost 50% of patients with an abscess go on to develop a chronic fistula-in-ano.
A clinical evaluation, including a digital rectal examination under anesthesia, is carried out to diagnose anal fistula. However, few patients may be advised screening for rectal cancer, sexually transmitted diseases and diverticular disease.
The only cure for an anal fistula is surgery. The type of surgery will depend on the position of the anal fistula. Most patients are treated by simply laying open the fistula tract to flush out pus, called Fistulotomy. This type is used in 85-95% of cases and the fistula tract heals after one to two months.
Other techniques like Fibrin glue and Bioprosthetic plug are also used to surgically treat anal fistulas. In the Fibrin glue technique, glue is injected into the fistula to seal the tract, after which the opening is stitch closed. Bioprosthetic plug is a cone shaped plug made from human tissue, which is used to block the internal opening of the fistula. After this stitches are used to keep the plug in place.
Whatever the surgical technique, one can experience minor changes in continence. Patients usually don’t require antibiotics after surgery but have to take pain medication. They may also have to use gauze to soak up drainage from anus. After surgery, patients should seek help if they have increased pain or swelling, heavy bleeding, difficulty in urination, high temperature, nausea or constipation.
Anal fissure, better known as fissures refer to tear or cracks in the lining of the anal canal. This results in extreme pain during and after bowel movements. At times, people might find blood in their stool due to this particular problem. As already mentioned the most common symptoms are pain, stool with blood in them, itchiness in the anal area and an uncomfortable situation while urinating, known as Dysuria.
The ayurvedic treatment through Panchakarma, especially Basti, which is a part of Panchakarma therapy involving elimination of toxins present in the lower colon through the usage of an Ayurvedic enema like milk, ghee.
Before going into the details about the part of Panchakarma treatment, Basti, let’s discuss about Panchakarma ayurvedic therapy.
Panchakarma is a process used to clean up body’s toxic materials, left behind by disease and poor nutrition. Generally our bodies have innate abilities to efficiently process and remove waste materials but with repetitive dietary indiscretions, almost no or poor exercise patterns, lifestyle, the digestive enzymes, hormones and agnis which regulate the body’s internal homeostasis become disorganized. This leads to the accumulation and spreading of toxins throughout the body, resulting in diseases. Digestive problem and constipation due to lack of food intake, containing fibres, while continuous consumption of high protein items invite the problem of constipation, thereby giving rise to fissures.
Panchamarma is a Sanskrit term that means “five actions” or “five treatments”. Through these five types of treatments, according to the needs and requirements of individuals, it removes the excess doshas and help rectify the imbalances in them and also eliminate harmful substances out of the body through it’s different organs like colon, sweat glands, lungs, bladder, urinary tract, stomach, intestines etc.
Remedies in Panchakarma for Fissures
Ayurvedic remedies are all very efficient and help in avoiding the need for surgery treatment in many of sufferers of Anal Fissure. These natural remedies can cure lot of ano-rectal issues and ensure normal bowel movements up to 90%.