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Cysts Removal Procedure
Treatment of Tonsils (Tonsillitis)
Hearing Aid Fitting
Treatment of Throat and Voice Problems
Earlobe Repair Procedure
Treatment of Sleep Disturbance
Nose Reshaping Procedure
Hearing Testing Techniques
Nasal And Sinus Allergy Care
Cochlear Implant Procedure
Ear Micro Surgery
Treatment Of Hearing Deficiency
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I am having headaches for 1 month. I feel dizzy almost every alternate day. Long visions are also not clear. Which doctor I should consult? Thank you.
Presently I am having the urge to clear my throat repeatedly. I do not not have any throat pain while talking or eating. There is only this urge to clear my throat repeatedly.
My throat is choked, paining and I can't speak properly. No coughing. Should I take antibiotic like augumentin or just gargle and wait for things to settle?
I'm 22 years old I am having suddenly having alcohol problems, I get rapid heartbeat, metallic taste in mouth, dizziness, red eyes after a drink, if I drink more these symptoms gets severe even vomiting. Please help me find a solution to this problem. I never had these kind of problems before.
Generally I suffer from breathing problem on bed as my nostrils get blocked when I prefer to sleep in A. C. Also I starts sneezing continuously when I wash my face with cold water in the morning after waking up. Tell what should I do get relief from this problem.
I am 12 year old boy, yesterday I ate ice cream at 12 at night and when I woke up I had a very sore throat and a runny nose.
I have been experiencing a lot of cough for quite some time. It feels like there is mucous stuck in my throat. How can I treat this. Can these be symptoms of LPR.
Swimmer’s ear is a condition, which is characterized by an infection in the outer ear. This infection usually stems from the water that remains in the ear after swimming, forming a moist environment that allows bacteria to grow and procreate. This condition can also develop if you happen to insert your finger or other foreign objects into the ears.
The symptoms of this disorder are usually mild in the beginning, but may worsen if left untreated. In its germinating stage, this condition exhibits symptoms such as itching in the ears and a watery discharge. If the disorder has progressed to an advanced stage, then the symptoms become slightly different. An intense pain on the particular side of the face, swelling in the ear and blockage of the ear canal are some of the common symptoms. In extreme cases, swelling of the lymph nodes and moderate to high fever can be indicative of this condition.
The causes of swimmer’s ear are bacteria that are found in soil and water. Your ears have a natural defense system against infections; glands in the ear secrete an acidic substance called ‘cerumen’ that kills the bacteria. The ear canal has a downward slope from the middle ear to the outer ear, thus allowing the water to drain out. Swimmer’s ear occurs when these defenses fail to work. This happens when there is excessive moisture in the ear canal, creating an environment for the bacteria to grow. In addition, certain factors such as swimming in dirty water, a narrow ear canal and excessive cleaning of the ear canal can lead to this condition.
The aim of the treatment is to prevent the infection from progressing and allow the ear to heal. The first step is to clean the ear canal so that the eardrops can reach the affected area. Once the ear is cleaned, eardrops are administered to get rid of the bacteria. The various medications that are used in the treatment of swimmer’s ear are:
1. Antibiotics: They are used to combat the bacteria that cause the infection.
2. Acidic solutions: It is used to restore the normal environment in the ear.
3. Steroids: These help in reducing the inflammation.
You may also be prescribed pain medications to treat the pain resulting from this condition. Try to avoid swimming till the condition heals completely. Make sure you aren’t inserting any foreign object in the ears as that may aggravate the situation further. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an ent-specialist.
In summers swimming is wonderful for soothing pitta dosha. Other water-based sports and ice-skating are also good choices. Leisurely evening strolls after the heat of the day is relaxing for both mind and body. An occasional moonlight walk soothing for pitta-ruffled emotions.
Sir I have small inflammations on the pharynx layer ie. Back to the throat. What is the cause of it? and which medicines that I have to take? please answer me sir.
I have never had any disease but yesterday I felt bit giddy. I checked my bp. It was 150/100 in right arm and 120/80 in another arm. I also felt palpitation. Now today I m bit better. Bp is now 130 /90 in right arm n 120/80 in left arm. I am studying most of the time. So I have a sedentary lifestyle. I dnt go for walk or exercise. I sit for most of the time. I m only 27 years old. What is the reason for this?
My husband is having severe pain in throat, doctors say its swollen tonsils, but inspite of taking antibiotics its still too painful for him to swallow even the saliva please do help me out Thnx.
My mother is 66 years old. BP and Sugar also. Few things which are disturbing her these days., Pain in legs, swollen feet, lot of vertigo when getting up or lying down, high pain in head, high BP. Pls help.
My wife age is 36 years old and she is frequently suffering from throat burning, vomiting and acidity since last 6 months. She tense too much. What could be the cause and what is the remeady.please suggest
Sinusitis: Management and Prevention
Sinusitis is infl ammation of the mucous membranes lining one or more of the paranasal sinuses. The various presentations are as folllows:
● acute sinusitis: infection lasting less than 30 days, with complete resolution of symptoms
● subacute infection: lasts from 30 to 90 days, with complete resolution of symptoms
● recurrent acute infection: episodes of acute infection lasting less than 30 days, with resolution of symptoms, which
Recur at intervals of at least 10 days apart
● chronic sinusitis: infl ammation lasting more than 90 days, with persistent upper respiratory symptoms
● acute bacterial sinusitis superimposed on chronic sinusitis:
New symptoms that occur in patients with residual symptoms from prior infection (s). With treatment, the new symptoms resolve but the residual ones do not.
Physical findings and clinical presentation
● patients often give a history of a recent upper respiratory illness with some improvement, then a relapse.
● mucopurulent secretions in the nasal passage
● purulent nasal and postnasal discharge lasting more than 7 to 10 days
● facial tightness, pressure, or pain
● nasal obstruction
● decreased sense of smell
● purulent pharyngeal secretions, brought up with cough, often worse at night
● erythema, swelling, and tenderness over the infected sinus in a small proportion of patients
● diagnosis cannot be excluded by the absence of such findings.
● these fi ndings are not common, and do not correlate with number of positive sinus aspirates.
● intermittent low-grade fever in about one half of adults with acute bacterial sinusitis
● toothache is a common complaint when the maxillary sinus is involved.
● periorbital cellulitis and excessive tearing with ethmoid sinusitis
● orbital extension of infection: chemosis, proptosis, impaired extraocular movements.
Characteristics of acute sinusitis in children with upper respiratory tract infections:
● persistence of symptoms
● bad breath
● symptoms of chronic sinusitis (may or may not be present)
● nasal or postnasal discharge
● facial pain or pressure
● nosocomial sinusitis is typically seen in patients with nasogastric tubes or nasotracheal intubation.
● each of the four paranasal sinuses is connected to the nasal cavity by narrow tubes (ostia), 1 to 3 mm in diameter; these drain directly into the nose through the turbinates. The sinuses are lined with a ciliated mucous membrane (mucoperiosteum).
● acute viral infection
● infection with the common cold or infl uenza
● mucosal edema and sinus infl ammation
● decreased drainage of thick secretions, obstruction of the sinus ostia
● subsequent entrapment of bacteria
A. Multiplication of bacteria
B. Secondary bacterial infection
Other predisposing factors
● foreign bodies
● congenital choanal atresia
● other entities that cause obstruction of sinus drainage
● dental infections lead to maxillary sinusitis.
● viruses recovered alone or in combination with bacteria (in 16% of cases):
● parainfluenza virus
● respiratory syncytial virus
● the principal bacterial pathogens in sinusitis are streptococcus pneumoniae, nontypeable haemophilus influenzae, and moraxella catarrhalis.
● in the remainder of cases, fi ndings include streptococcus pyogenes, staphylococcus aureus, alpha-hemolytic streptococci, and mixed anaerobic infections (peptostreptococcus, fusobacterium, bacteroides, prevotella).
Infection is polymicrobial in about one third of cases.
● anaerobic infections seen more often in cases of chronic sinusitis and in cases associated with dental infection; anaerobes are unlikely pathogens in sinusitis in children.
● fungal pathogens are isolated with increasing frequency in immunocompromised patients but remain uncommon
Pathogens in the paranasal sinuses. Fungal pathogens include aspergillus, pseudallescheria, sporothrix, phaeohyphomycoses, zygomycetes.
● nosocomial infections occur in patients with nasogastric tubes, nasotracheal intubation, cystic fi brosis, or those who are immunocompromised.
● s. Aureus
● pseudomonas aeruginosa
● klebsiella pneumoniae
● enterobacter spp.
● proteus mirabilis
Organisms typically isolated in chronic sinusitis:
● s. Aureus
● s. Pneumoniae
● h. Infl uenzae
● p. Aeruginosa
● migraine headache
● cluster headache
● dental infection
● trigeminal neuralgia
● water’s projection: sinus radiograph
● ct scan
● much more sensitive than plain radiographs in detecting acute changes and disease in the sinuses
● recommended for patients requiring surgical intervention, including sinus aspiration; it is a useful adjunct to
● used for diagnosis of frontal and maxillary sinusitis
● place transilluminator in the mouth or against cheek to assess maxillary sinuses, and under the medial aspect of the supraorbital ridge to assess frontal sinuses.
● absence of light transmission indicates that sinus is filled with fluid.
● dullness (decreased light transmission) is less helpful in diagnosing infection.
● used to visualize secretions coming from the ostia of infected sinuses
● culture collection via endoscopy often contaminated by nasal flora; not nearly as good as sinus puncture
● sinus puncture
● gold standard for collecting sinus cultures
● generally reserved for treatment failures, suspected intracranial extension, nosocomial sinusitis.
Treatment Nonpharmacologic therapy
● sinus drainage
● nasal vasoconstrictors, such as phenylephrine nose drops, 0.25% or 0.5%
● topical decongestants should not be used for more than a few days because of the risk of rebound congestion.
● systemic decongestants
● nasal or systemic corticosteroids, such as nasal beclomethasone, short-course oral prednisone
● nasal irrigation, with hypertonic or normal saline (saline may act as a mild vasoconstrictor of nasal blood fl ow)
● use of antihistamines has no proved benefi t, and the drying effect on the mucous membranes may cause crusting,
Which blocks the ostia, thus interfering with sinus drainage.
● analgesics, antipyretics.
● most cases of acute sinusitis have a viral cause and will resolve within 2 weeks without antibiotics.
● current treatment recommendations favor symptomatic treatment for those with mild symptoms.
● antibiotics should be reserved for those with moderate to severe symptoms who meet the criteria for diagnosis of
● antibiotic therapy is usually empirical, targeting the common pathogens.
● first-line antibiotics include amoxicillin, tmp-smz.
● second-line antibiotics include clarithromycin, azithromycin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefuroxime axetil, loracarbef, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin.
● for patients with uncomplicated acute sinusitis, the less expensive first-line agents appear to be as effective as the
Costlier second-line agents.
● surgical drainage indicated
● if intracranial or orbital complications suspected
● for many cases of frontal and sphenoid sinusitis
● for chronic sinusitis recalcitrant to medical therapy
● surgical débridement imperative for treatment of fungal sinusitis