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I'm 61 years my diabetes is under control I have done sonography of whole abdomen and found that prostate gland is enlarged in size, 4.6 x3. 7x3. 6 cms in size Post-void residue size seen=6 cc Prostate volume=33. 0 cc Prostate weight approx =36.3 gms Pls let me know what to do I have taken flodart plus for three month now pls suggest me. During night time l have to pass urine three to four times.
Gastric (stomach) cancer occurs when malignant cells form in the lining of the stomach. By far, it is known to be the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths not only in Asia but also worldwide. Though it can affect both male and female populace, it is seen more commonly in men and in people aged 50 years or older.
Type: Gastric cancers can present as one of the following types -
- Adenocarcinoma: Begins in the glandular cells lining the inside of the stomach. This forms a majority of the stomach cancers.
- Lymphoma: Begins in immune system cells present in the walls of the stomach. Occurrence of lymphoma, in the stomach, is rare.
- Carcinoid Tumor: Begins in hormone producing cells of the stomach. Occurrence of carcinoid cancer, in the stomach, is rare.
- Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST): begins in nervous system cells of the stomach. Occurrence of GIST, in the stomach, is rare.
Gender: It affects both male and female populace.
Etiology: The factors that are associated with increased risk of gastric cancer include the following mostly –
- ‘Helicobacter Pylori’ bacterial infection in the stomach is a common cause of gastric cancer of both the intestinal (expanding) & diffuse (infiltrative) type. Furthermore, studies indicate that high salt intake is synergistic with H. Pylori infection in the manner that it is likely to increase the risk of gastric cancer that is induced by H. Pylori bacteria.
- Smoking, consuming alcohol, red meat, salty/ smoked/ processed foods, low intake of fruits and vegetables, diets rich in nitroso compounds, eating foods contaminated with aflatoxin fungus etc all.
- Atrophic gastritis characterized by chronic stomach inflammation is known to increase the risk multi-fold. Chronic gastric inflammation can lead to atrophy of the gastric mucosa, metaplasia, dysplasia and finally carcinoma.
- History of pernicious anaemia, gastric ulcers, adenomatous gastric polyp etc all.
- Family history of gastric cancer. Several familial syndromes that have been associated with a pre-disposition to gastric cancer include familial adenomatous polyposis, Lynch syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and e-cadherin mutation (diffuse type)
- Blood group A, Obesity etc all are known to be associated with diffuse or cardia gastric cancer.
- Low socioeconomic status - persistent lifestyle issues/ irregularities including high stress coupled with an improper diet/ dietary pattern.
- Epidemiological evidence is indicative of a risk or pre-disposition to gastric/ stomach cancer for people suffering from diabetes mellitus (DM).
- Very high dose ionizing radiation exposure is an uncommon risk for gastric cancer.
Features: There are often no early stage symptoms. Early stage symptoms, if any, are non-specific and are likely to be ignored, thus delaying the diagnosis most often. Hence, gastric/ stomach cancer is often detected at an advanced stage where the disease is either locally advanced or metastatic. The various presentations (of signs & symptoms), by stage (early or advanced), of gastric cancer are as enumerated below:
Early Stage – can present with one or more of the following non-specific symptoms/ signs -
- Dyspepsia (Indigestion),
- Stomach/ Epigastric discomfort,
- Bloated feeling after eating,
- Mild Nausea/ Vomiting,
- Blood in Vomit (Haematemesis),
- weight loss (Cachexia)
- Occult blood in stool/ Melaena,
- Advanced Stage – presents with one or more of the following symptoms/ signs -
- GI Bleeding with black tarry stools (Melaena),
- Persistent Nausea/ Vomiting,
- Blood in Vomit (Haematemesis),
- Early Satiety,
- Loss of Appetite (Anorexia),
- Weight loss (Cachexia),
- Persistent pain in the abdomen,
- Fluid build-up in the peritoneal cavity (Ascites),
- Edema of the lower extremities,
- Liver Enlargement (Hepatomegaly)/ Jaundice,
- Difficulty swallowing food (Dysphagia)
- Screening: Is generally recommended for asymptomatic populations in high incidence areas or as surveillance for high risk individuals. The goal of screening, as usual, is to be able to detect & diagnose gastric cancer at an early stage which is potentially curable. It is mostly endoscopic/ radiologic.
Diagnosis: Following are the diagnostics employed in gastic cancer -
- Physical Examination: May be remarkable for palpable abdominal mass, weight loss (cachexia), abdominal distension, ascites, hepatomegaly, lower extremities edema and lymphadenopathy for gastric cancers in the advanced stage. For early gastric cancers, however, physical examination is largely uninformative.
- Blood: Hb- may be low, ESR – raised, tumor markers CEA & CA-19-9 could be raised sometimes in adenocarcinoma but are not frequently elevated. Abnormal blood test results may be indicative of malignancy, but a follow-up gastroscopy/ biopsy is always the gold standard for accurate diagnosis.
- Stool: Occult blood may be +ve
- Barium Meal X-Ray: Could show a filling defect at the site of the carcinoma/ cancer growth.
- Gastroscopy/ Biopsy: Clinches the diagnosis.
- Endoscopic Ultrasound: Maximizes tumor staging as it helps determine the depth of invasion of the tumor.
- CT Scan: Of chest, abdomen & pelvis helps detect metastatic disease, if any, and also helps stage the disease (TNM) appropriately.
- Bone Scan: Helps detect osseous metastasis (bone mets), if any.
- Treatment: Conventional treatment includes surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy as contextually appropriate. Surgery (i.e. gastrectomy either sub-total or total), with an adjuvant chemotherapy and/ or radiotherapy as contextually relevant, is the only treatment that is known to cure the disease in light of the prognostic indicators as briefly enumerated in the section below. Chemptherapy and/ or radiation alone cannot be curative. Mostly, it can improve symptoms, and may prolong survival. Simultaneously, an adjunctive or integrative naturopathic treatment with suitable complementary & alternative medicines (CAM) too can help improve clinical outcomes and facilitate recovery as feasible contextually.
Prognosis: For gastric cancer is variable. Preventive measures, earlier diagnosis and right early treatment is key for an effective therapeutic management & better prognosis. Like most other cancers, the chances of cure for an early stage gastric cancer are more. The cure/ recovery chances are influenced by the grade, stage of cancer, recurrence and the patient’s general health & vitality etc all. Distal tumors are known to be cured more often than the proximal ones. Again, intestinal-type gastric cancers are known to have a better treatment outlook in comparison to the diffuse-type gastric cancers.
Prevention: Rightly said, prevention is always a better choice. Although genetic risks are difficult to modify, still an adherence to a relative Mediterranean diet, maintaining an ideal body weight and an active lifestyle with due emphasis on regular exercising, de-stressing and relaxation is highly recommended for reducing the risks of many cancers including gastric cancer. A healthy eating plate comprises essentially a low fat diet, fibre rich foods including whole grain cereals, green leafy vegetables cooked using healthy vegetable oils, fresh fruits of all colours as seasonally available and healthy proteins/ fats including fresh fish, poultry, beans, nuts etc all. The consumption of alcohol, if any, has to be strictly in moderation, and is best avoided in a high risk scenario. Smoking is to be avoided too. Again, red meat, butter, refined grains, sweets, sugary drinks including carbonated beverages and other high calorie foods etc all, if any, are to be taken sparingly. Not only it is important to eat healthy, but also it is equally important to eat properly. Insufficient chewing, eating until full, eating meals within a short time etc all are best avoided so as to ease off digestive burden on the stomach/ other organs in the GI tract. Last but not the least, consumption of clean and filtered water, natural probiotics like freshly prepared yogurt/ butter milk, maintenance of cleanliness & hygiene including oral hygiene etc. all can help guard against H. Pylori infections. Breastfeeding is known to be protective against H. Pylori infections too.
I'm 29 years old. I have fat balls under my skin. May be they called neurofibroma or a some thing how to get rid of them is surgery the only remedy. Please let me know.
Causes and symptoms of Head and Neck Cancer
My name is Dr. Manish Julaha and I practice Head & Neck Oncosurgery. Today I'll tell you some facts about Head and Neck cancer how to predict them early. So in India approxiately 1.2 million cancer patients are detected every year, and out of this one thirds of the number occur in head and neck, mainly oral cavity and throat. And this is a very big number if you compare with rest of the countries because head and neck cancer they account for less than 10% in western countries and less than 4% in U.S. So what is the cause of such high number of head and neck cancers in India. It is mainly the use of tobacco and another sad fact about head and neck cancer in India is that majority of the patients, you can say more than 65% are present in stage 3 or stage 4. And we say cancer is curable if it is detected early and when patients presents to us in such late stages it effects all the paramaeters like overall survival, treatment outcome, side effects, functional outcome, quality of life everything is affected. And when patients come in early stage, the treatment is less invasive with less side effects and the functional outcome is very good and the chances of recurrence is very less.
So what can we do to detect head and neck cancer at the earliest. We can do this if we've the knowledge of the signs and symptoms which hint towards the head and neck cancer and by doing self examination. So what are the early signs and symptoms. They're mainly any ulcer in the oral cavity which dosen't heal in three weaks or any lump in the lung or oral cavity, any red or white patches in the oral cavity, or there maybe unexplained earache or nasal blockage, mainly on one side, specially with blood stained mucous discharge, ill fitting of denture because of any swelling in the gums. So, these are the early signs and symptoms. If we find any such thing we should take expert opinion. And by doing self examination we can detect head and neck cancer at the earliest. I would say all those people who're at a high risk of getting head and neck cancer they should do the self examination at least once a month. So who're the people who're at high risk of getting head and neck cancer. Most importantly those who use tobacco in any form, then elderly people above the age of 45 and people who have exposure to ionizing radiation in past, and people who have had head and neck cancer in the past they're at high risk of getting a second cancer so they should also be very careful.
Now, how to do this self examination. It is very simple, to do this you've to stand in front of the mirror and you've to feel both the lips, upper lips and lower lips, using your thumb and index finger feel both the lips and by pulling them outward you've to see the inner lining of the upper lip and lower lip and also you have to look at the upper gums and lower gums. And using your thumb and index finger pull your cheek and look at the inner lining of your cheek on both sides and look for any ulcer or lump or any red or white patches. Now just open your mouth and say "aaa" and while saying "aaa" just look at the throat and also at the roof of the mouth. Then by touching your tongue on the back of upper teeth have a look at the under surface of the tongue and the floor of mouth. Then pull your tongue outward and look at it's upper surface, by moving the sideways look at the sides also. Again look for any ulcer or lumps or any red or white patches and you have to examine your neck also. Just by standing straight palpate below the jaw bone and above the collar bones, and by moving the head backwards look for any asymmetry of the neck, if there is any fullness on one side as compared to the other side, there maybe some lump. If you find any such thing just take expert opinion.
Thank you very much for watching this video and contacting through Lybrate . Thank You.
I am 26 yers old, non smoker non drinker, I eat healthy too. From one and half year I have a small lump on mu right nipple, it does not go, few girls told me its normal, But I am scared now, I do not see any other symptoms, no pain or swelling or any rashes. And my left breast does not have any lump.
What are the real causes of Cancer disease? I have observed that even people who don't smoke & chew tobacco are developing cancer at a faster pace. And is there a way to avoid it completely by changing lifestyle & food habits?
What are the symptoms of skin cancer. If a person suffer from the skin cancer. How can he will be safe from the skin cancer and what is the limit of the skin cancer.
My father is 66 year's old and he was fight a gainest prostate cancer and spread in bones also resent psa is 12.6, so please advice for me a doctor's splesition opinion what can I do or I will taken treatment as continue.
I am 26 years female married for 1 and half years. 8 years back when I was 17yr old I had undergone chemotherapy for gem cell tumour and my left ovary is removed surgically. I had given 6 cycle of chemotherapy totally. 4 cycle before the operation and 2cycle after the operation. Chemotherapy is given as an a injection. Which is a combination of cisplatin (30mg each day in a cycle of 5 days) and etosid (150mg each day in cycle of 5 days). I would like to know what is my chance for being pregnant? does this chemo which I undergone can cause infertility.
A fifty-four years old Marwari patient from Assam presented with progressive jaundice and intermittent episodes of abdominal pain for three months. CT scan of abdomen showed a small (1.5 x 1.5 cm) mass in the bifurcation of common bile duct which is causing biliary tract obstruction and hence jaundice. Portal nodes were not enlarged and there was no lesion in the liver parenchyma. At presentation, serum bilirubin level was high (14.7 mg/dl). Endoscopic biopsy and brushing cytology was adenocarcinoma and clinic-radiological diagnosis was ‘Klatskin tumour’.
- Metallic stenting was done to relieve jaundice and after stenting serum bilirubin level came down rapidly. PET scan showed increased uptake in the biliary duct region mass without any sign of metastasis. He was evaluated and planned for treatment with robotic radiosurgery. He was treated using robotic radiosurgery (CyberKnife) with high precision radiotherapy technique after fiducial placement (gold seeds) near the tumour. After one year, the patient had no obvious complain, liver function (no jaundice) was normal and CT scan evaluation showed completed resolution of the mass.
- Klatskin tumour is an uncommon tumour that arises from the bifurcation of common bile duct in the abdomen (duct that drains bile from liver). Patients usually present with progressive (increasing) persistent jaundice followed by pain in the upper abdomen. Surgical excision is the mainstay of treatment. However, surgery is not possible in majority of the patients owing to the location of the tumour, high jaundice and medical condition. Chemotherapy may not be an optimal option in majority of the patients as they present with high jaundice. Majority of such patients with poor medical condition are treated with only supportive care and prognosis is dismal (survival for a few months only).
- Patients with metallic stent have relief from jaundice but unfortunately in a few weeks time, the stent gets blocked with tumour growth. Patients again present with high jaundice and have severely impaired quality of life. They complain of severe itching of entire body, loss of appetite and succumb due to impaired liver function from high jaundice/obstruction. The treatment is to have a longer ‘jaundice-free period’ which in turn improves quality of life and possibly survival function as well.
- Stereotactic body radiation therapy’s high dose radiation ‘sterilizes’ the metallic stent and bile duct region. It is assumed that with radiation therapy, blockage of bile duct and stent is delayed and patients have longer jaundice-free period.In Klatskin tumour, CyberKnife allows to deliver high dose of radiation in a short duration to the target without significant morbidity. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Oncologist.
Cancer indicates the growth of certain unusual cells, generally uncontrolled in nature, in any part of your body. It may also refer to a malignant tumor and it can affect any organ or any part of your body. There are many different cancers accordingly, such as lung cancer, bladder cancer, skin cancer or blood cancer. Ayurveda offers effective measures for preventing cancer.
Read on to find more about the tips and get better prepared to fight this killer:
- According to Ayurveda, having fresh foods can help you to prevent cancer. Consuming more of green leafy vegetables and fresh fruits may prove to be helpful.
- Avoiding fat based foods or fried foods can be effective in preventing cancer. Strike off hydrogenated fats (such as cookies, peanut butter, crackers etc) or saturated animal fats from your diet.
- Exercising on a regular basis may be very helpful. Stretching exercises, walking, breathing exercises and aerobics are considered to be useful preventive measures for cancer.
- Meditation and yoga are also effective ways to prevent cancer. These can help you to reduce stress and remain calm.
- Drinking green tea regularly can be very useful for killing any growth of cancerous cells in your body and thus help you to prevent cancer.
- Cutting down on foods with higher quantities of sugar can help you to prevent cancer.
- Include foods replete in vitamin D and vitamin C or citrus foods as these help to combat many kinds of cancer.
- Incorporate spices like turmeric in your daily cooking regimen. The 'curcumin' present in turmeric coupled with a few other accompanying properties can help to prevent the growth of cancer cells in your body.
- Garlic, whether consumed raw or cooked, can help you to fight the killer that cancer is. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Ayurveda.