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One of the skin’s main functions is protection, and one of the ways it does that is by producing sebum. During teenage and early adolescent years, there is a release of excessive sexual hormones, which also leads to excessive sebum production. This clogs the pores, leading to accumulation of sebum within the skin layers. There are also bacteria trapped within this, leading to infections. Symptoms could include blister formation with pustules, redness, and severe pain. In people with naturally oily skin, this can be a major problem, with large acne which may leave marks when healed.
Excessive hormones (androgens).
In girls, correlation with menstrual cycles, pregnancy, and polycystic ovaries, indicating an association with increased hormone levels.
Management: As it is easy to identify if you are prone to developing acne, steps should be taken to avoid developing acne or reducing its severity once they appear.
- Touching acne is a strict no-no. There is a great tendency to keep picking at it, but this should be avoided as the infection can spread to other unaffected areas.
- Using a cold towel or soft cotton cloth can help in soothing the area
- Ice cubes can also be used on the acne. This will also reduce blood supply and curtail increase in severity
- Acne is proven to be an indication of stress, and so stress management is very essential.
- Keep calm by various methods – meditation, music, yoga, exercise
- A regular exercise routine also is very helpful. The sweating during the exercise helps in clearing up the pores and keeping the skin clean. Sebum is more often cleared out this way, leading to reduced acne
- Lifestyle (sleep and diet): A healthy eating pattern with reduced oily foods and sugars and more amounts of fresh foods is highly helpful. A good amount of sleep is also beneficial for overall skin health.
- Garments which come in touch with facial skin like pillow covers should be washed with gentle soap
- Regular skin care routine should be maintained including frequent washing, regular moisturising, and periodic exfoliating.
- Avoid too many chemicals and adhere to a regimen using as many natural substances as possible.
- Mild gels or lotions like tretinoin, tazarotene, and adapalene are useful in controlling acne
- Topical antibiotics like clindamycin or erythromycin combined with benzoyl peroxide may also be used if more severe
- Birth control pills are also used to regulate hormonal levels in some women.
- Scars can be treated with laser light therapy, dermabrasion, chemical peels, or steroid injections
- Remember that acne is a part of growing up, and will naturally reduce after the growing years.
Congenital Heart Disease refers to a problem in the structure of heart that is present at birth. It is one of the most common types of birth defect. The defects can arise at the walls of the heart, the valves of the heart and could also take place at the arteries and veins close to the heart. The disease causes great impact in changing the normal flow of blood through the heart.There are many different types of congenital heart defects, ranging from simple ones having no symptoms to complex defects, which are severe and life-threatening symptoms.
- Congenital heart defect generally is detected in women at the time of ultrasound during pregnancy. In case the doctor comes across abnormal heartbeat, he may further investigate by conducting certain tests in the form of echocardiogram, chest X-ray or MRI scan.
- This problem might be seen even in newborn babies, due to which they might experience:
- Skin, fingers, lips and toes which are bluish in colour
- Experience problem breathing
- Low weight at the time of birth
- Chest Pain
There might be other symptoms as well, which may not develop till many years after birth. The symptoms are:
- Abnormal heart rate
- Frequesnt dizziness
- Swelling might be seen at certain parts of the body
Causes behind congenital heart disease
Developmental problem in the heart’s structure at an early stage is usually the reason behind congenital heart disease. This defect acts a hindrance to the normal flow of blood through the heart, thus affecting people’s breathing to some extent. Though there is no surety as to why there is a problem in the development of heart, some of the suspected causes are:
- Any of the family members might be having heart problems.
- Some prescribed drugs at the time of pregnancy tend to put a child at a higher risk for developing this problem of congenital heart disease.
- Consumption of alcohol or if you take drugs which are not prescribed by doctor during pregnancy, can lead to an increase in the risk of a child getting diagnosed with a heart defect.
- Women who have had viral infection during the first three months of pregnancy are more susceptible towards giving birth to children having heart defects.
How to treat congenital heart disease?
Like any other heart disease, treatment for congenital heart disease also depends on the type and extent of the defect.
- There are certain medicines which allow the heart for function more efficiently, while others can be used to prevent blood clots from forming and also put a check on irregular heartbeat.
- Implantable heart devices like implantable cardioverter defibrillators can prevent this particular defect by regularising an abnormal heart rate.
- Catheter procedure followed by doctors where they insert a thin tube into a vein in the leg and move up to the heart, then use small tool by threading through the catheter to rectify the defect.
- Some rare cases, when the heart disease is too complex to fix, doctor may form heart transplant surgery.
The dark pigmentation, also known as hyperpigmentation is a condition whereby there is an elevated production of melanin, the pigment responsible for the skin color. The hyperpigmentation can be an extremely unpleasant and annoying experience affecting the overall appearance of a person.
What triggers the hyperpigmentation of the skin?
- The hormonal imbalance can be an underlying factor responsible for the increased production of the melanin by the melanocytes. It is a well-known fact that the use of birth control pills can elevate the estrogen and progesterone level. The increased estrogen level acts as a catalyst, triggering an upsurge in the melanin production.
- The dark pigmentation can also be a hereditary trait that runs in the family.
- In some, if not all people, increased exposure to the sun rays can trigger a skin inflammation leading to hyperpigmentation.
- The problem can also stem from skin allergies that may result in an inflammatory response, eventually giving rise to the skin pigmentation.
- Certain medications such as chemotherapeutic drugs, anti-seizure drugs, non-steroidal drugs, or hormone therapy can act as catalysts resulting in dark pigmentation.
- Skin damage caused by eczema or identical dermatological conditions can also lead to pigmentation of the skin.
Natural remedies to reduce the dark pigmentation
While medications and treatments may be available to reduce the hyperpigmentation of the skin, most people opt for the natural remedies which prove to be equally effective, if not more. Mentioned below are some natural remedies that have produced amazing results in the case of hyperpigmentation.
- Many people with skin pigmentation or blemishes have benefited immensely from the use of potatoes. Just cut a potato in two halves and sprinkle some water on the exposed side. Now take this exposed side of the potato and gently rub it on the affected skin area. Keep it for about 10 minutes and then rinse it off with lukewarm water. Regularly use this for about a month (three to four times daily).
- Apple cider vinegar can also work miracles in the case of dark pigmentation. Take water and apple cider vinegar (about 3-4 tablespoons each) in a bowl. Apply this mixture on the affected skin area and then wash off with water (lukewarm) after 5 minutes. For the maximum results, the mixture should be used twice daily.
- Lemon, known for its bleaching properties can also be used to treat the pigmentation. Take lemon juice and turmeric powder (1 tablespoon each) in a bowl and apply it on the affected skin every night before retiring to bed. In the excitement, however, do not forget to rinse it off with water after 15 minutes.
- You can also use lemon juice (1 whole lemon) and organic honey (2 tablespoons) mixture on the skin. Wash it off after 15 minutes and skin pigmentation will be a thing of the past. Use this regularly (twice daily).
- The regular use of aloe vera gel (2 tablespoons) and raw honey (1/2 tablespoon) can also work wonders to reduce the pigmentation. The mixture applied should, however, be rinsed off with lukewarm water after 20 minutes.
What is an Endocrine Surgery?
It is a surgery of one or more endocrine glands. Endocrine glands are glands which secrete hormones and control function of almost all the cells in the body. It is a surgical subspecialty. It includes surgery of endocrine glands, such as the thyroid gland, the parathyroid gland, the adrenal gland, glands of the endocrine pancreas, and some neuroendocrine glands.
Which are the Clinical Conditions that require Endocrinal Surgeries?
The conditions which require endocrinal surgery are as follows:
- Thyroid disorders: Underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism), overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism), thyroid nodules, goiter, thyroid cancer, and thyroid cyst
- Parathyroid disorders: Primary hyperparathyroidism
- Adrenal gland disorders: Conn syndrome, pheochromocytoma, adrenocortical cancer, or Cushing's syndrome
- Diseases of pancreas: Insulinomas, gastrinomas, or type 1 diabetes
- Diseases of the pineal gland
- Disorders of the pituitary gland
Which surgeries are included in it?
Surgeries can be minimally invasive, such as laparoscopic surgeries or open surgeries. It includes following surgeries:
- Surgical removal of the thyroid gland (thyroidectomy) either as a part of the gland (lobectomy or hemithyroidectomy) or the whole gland (total thyroidectomy)
- Surgical removal of the parathyroid gland (parathyroidectomy)
- Surgical removal of the adrenal gland (either laparoscopic removal or open surgery)
- Adrenalectomy (i.e., surgical removal of the adrenal gland)
- Pancreatic surgery (simple tumor enucleation to larger resections)
- Surgical removal of the pineal gland (pinealectomy)
- Surgical removal of the pituitary gland (hypophysectomy or transsphenoidal surgery)
What Care needs to be Taken Preoperatively?
Following tests need to be done prior to the surgeries:
- Complete blood count
- Kidney profile
- Serum electrolytes
- Blood group
- Blood sugar
- ECG (for the patients who are 40 years and older)
- Chest X-ray (for the patients who are 60 years and older)All the tests need to be done 24 hours before the surgery.
After completing the tests, the doctor will evaluate the reports and will advise undergoing surgery accordingly.
Which medication needs to be adjusted?
Medications which need to be adjusted before the surgery are as follows:
- Aspirin, ibuprofen, and vitamin E should be stopped one week prior to surgery unless otherwise directed by the doctor.
- Dosages of coumadin, steroids, and/or insulin need to be adjusted or substituted by another medication before surgery.
What are the complications of surgery?
Following are the most common complications:
- Infection due improper aseptic precautions
- Bleeding from the surgical wound
- Change in a patient’s voice and swallowing difficulty
- Low thyroid function
- Hypoparathyroidism (low blood levels of calcium caused by the removal of the parathyroid)
- Formation of seroma (swelling caused by a collection of fluid beneath the incision site)
Excessive bleeding during menstruation is the bane of countless women’s lives worldwide. Your doctor will classify your periods as heavy if you bleed enough to soak a pad every hour for several consecutive hours.
Passing large clots during menstruation and a period that lasts over seven days also are counted as excessive menstrual bleeding. Apart from messing up with daily activities, heavy bleeding or menorrhagia can also lead to anaemia which in turn causes shortness of breath and fatigue.
Hormonal imbalance is a big cause. If you are a teenager, you can easily have an imbalance in oestrogen and progesterone leading to heavy periods. This imbalance also easily presents in menopausal women.
- Hormonal imbalance can also be seen if there is a problem in ovarian function.
- Fibroids are another cause of heavy bleeding. Non-cancerous tumours of the uterus are another cause. Fibroids mostly occur during childbearing years.
- Miscarriages or ectopic pregnancies that occur in fallopian tubes are another cause of heavy bleeding.
- Use of medicines that thin blood in people with heart problems
- Intrauterine devices or IUDs used for birth control can also cause heavy bleeding.
- Pelvic inflammatory disease, PID, which is an infection of the uterus, fallopian tubes, and other organs of the reproductive system, can cause heavy bleeding.
- Cervical, uterine and ovarian cancers can also cause this symptom.
- Low platelet counts that can prevent normal blood clotting due to liver, kidney, or thyroid disease.
The doctor will examine you and determine the cause of the heavy bleeding. And depending on the cause, treatment will be carried out. There are a few medicines that are prescribed for menorrhagia like:
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like Ibuprofen to cut down on blood loss and minimise the pain
- Hormone therapy can be done for stabilising hormones as well as the lining of the uterus and regulate the menstrual cycle
- Inserted IUD can also be removed in case the bleeding is too excessive
Surgery can also be considered depending on your case history. One of the following surgical procedures is usually recommended
- Dilation and curettage - D&C involves dilating the cervix or the entrance of the uterus and cleaning the lining of the uterus.
- Hysteroscopy - A long, thin scope is inserted into the uterus through the vagina and the doctor is able to see and simultaneously remove uterine masses that may be causing heavy bleeding.
- Hysterectomy - If all else fails, the uterus is removed. This puts a stop to a woman’s chances of having a baby ever.
Heavy bleeding should not be ignored as it puts you at risk of iron-deficiency anaemia which can affect your whole body.
When the reproductive glands produce scant to no hormones like oestrogen or testosterone, then it is known as hypogonadism. These hormones are important for controlling secondary sex characteristics like development of breasts in women and testes in men and growth in pubic hair. Sex hormones are also required for the roles they play in menstrual cycle in women and sperm production in men.
Hypogonadism is curable with the right medicines.
Types of Hypogonadism
1. Primary hypogonadism: In this type, there are not enough sex hormones in your body because of a problem in your gonads (testis or ovary). In primary hypogonadism, the gonads do receive the message from the brain to produce sex hormones but cannot produce them.
2. Central/Secondary hypogonadism: In this type, the brain is wherein the problem lies. The pituitary gland and hypothalamus located in the brain do not work properly.
What causes Hypogonadism
The causes of hypogonadism can be classified according to their types.
In primary hypogonadism, the causes are:
2. Autoimmune disorders
4. Kidney and liver disease
In central hypogonadism, the causes are:
1. Anorexia nervosa
3. Bleeding in the pituitary area
5. Taking certain medicines (for example, glucocorticoids and opiates)
6. Anabolic steroids (alternatives to human testosterone)
8. Genetic problems (example: Kallmann syndrome- unable to start or complete puberty)
Symptoms associated with Hypogonadism
Symptoms of hypogonadism in females include
1. Lack of menstruation
2. Changes in mood and energy
3. Body hair loss
4. Lack of sex drive
5. Milky discharge from breasts
Symptoms of male hypogonadism include
1. Body hair loss
2. Loss in muscles
3. Abnormal growth in breasts
4. Low libido
Cholesterol is a fatty, waxy substance which is found naturally in the blood and is produced by the liver. It is essential for the formation of cell membranes and is an important component of Vitamin D and steroid hormones. But if you are eating food that is rich in fat then you are ingesting cholesterol in an amount that is more than what your body needs.
Though cholesterol is important for the normal functioning of the body, it needs to be kept within a normal range.
What are the risk factors associated with Cholesterol?
High levels of cholesterol can increase the risks of cardiovascular diseases and result in a stroke or heart attack. A blood test is the only method that can be used to diagnose high cholesterol but a genetic pre-disposition towards high cholesterol can increase the risks as well. Also, a person’s age, blood sugar levels, whether or not he/she smokes, are also contributing factors. High level of cholesterol does not typically have any symptom that can be identified by an individual, it usually results in a medical emergency that leads to its detection.
How Homeopathy can help cure cholesterol?
Homeopathy can help reduce the levels of cholesterol by treating the underlying condition. By treating the liver, it stops the excess production of cholesterol and reduces the risks of any severe medical condition.
Homeopathy helps attain and maintain normal levels of cholesterol and thereby helps detoxify and enhance the immune system. It also helps regulate cardiovascular functions and helps maintain a healthy circulatory system.
What are the benefits of Homeopathic treatments for Cholesterol?
Homeopathic treatments offer a permanent solution to the problem of elevated cholesterol levels. But there are also other benefits that homeopathy offers-
Long lasting Effects-
Though conventional options of treatment might provide you with immediate results, homeopathy offers long lasting results. Homeopathic treatments tackle the condition at its roots thereby providing permanent results. It also prevents the reoccurrence of the condition. Homeopathic treatments are also tailored to the patient’s needs by taking into consideration factors such as age, medical history, pre-existing allergies.
No side effects-
Homeopathy uses components which are natural and as such have next to no side-effects. They can be administered to patients across all age-groups. They contain low doses of medication and can be safely used by elderly patients and pregnant women.
Extremely effective for long lasting and chronic conditions, homeopathy helps treat diseases and conditions promptly from its roots.
Other Heart Problems and its Homeopathic Medication
Although heart ailments are usually common in people over 45 years, many young adults these days are susceptible to such conditions owing to poor dietary plans and sedentary lifestyles. According to experts, over 70% of the Indian population die from heart disorders.
The most common types of heart ailment prevalent in Indians are listed below-
- Heart attack- the most common, predominant cause of death associated with cardiovascular diseases. This occurs when the supply of blood to your heart is completely stopped. This happens abruptly, without any probable signs. Hence, it is also called the ‘silent killer’. Certain risk factors like smoking and diabetes escalate the chances of having a heart attack.
- Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) - also known as ischemic heart disease, this type of cardiovascular disease is caused due to accumulation of plaque in the arteries of your heart. As a result of this, the arteries become blocked or constrict and the blood vessels fail to supply blood to your heart. Coronary Artery Disease is primarily responsible for sudden cardiac problems like heart attack. Symptoms may include- chest pain, tightness or heaviness on the chest, shortness of breath, dizziness.
- Cardiomyopathy- refers to the condition where the heart muscles become weak or hardened. This makes it difficult for the heart to pump blood to the rest of the body. Initial symptoms are- fatigue, breathlessness, irregular heartbeat etc. Usually men are diagnosed with this condition due to excess alcohol consumption.
- Arrhythmia- is a condition characterized by irregular, rapid heartbeats. When the electrical signals in your heart muscles are disturbed or interrupted, your heart beats abnormally. Rapid irregular heartbeats are normally triggered by anxiety attacks or stress.
Role of homeopathy in treating various heart problems-
Homeopathy medications have been in use for over several decades. Homeopathy medications help dissipate deposited cholesterol in the blood vessel, thereby reducing signs and risk of a heart attack. Many genetic cardiovascular dispositions like congenital heart defect, angina and its related symptoms like chest pain, dizziness are treated with homeopathic medications such as Arnica Montana and Cactus grandiflorus. Many surgeons recommend administration of Arnica after a surgery because it reduces pain and helps you recover faster.
Cardiovascular surgeries can adversely affect your health. For instance, certain medications or surgery procedures like open heart surgery usually have many side effects and complications associated with it. But homeopathy is a safe mode of treatment as it involves the usage of natural substances to treat various heart health conditions, so there are very few or absolutely no side effects. Self-medication is harmful. Take treatment under guidance of qualified homeopathic physician.
Teeth may be lost due to various reasons - decay, periodontal disease, age, trauma, etc. Whatever the reason, losing a tooth causes some side effects, as noted below:
- Reduced chewing efficiency, thereby affecting nutrition
- Aesthetics, more effect if front teeth are lost
- Structural support to the face - puckering can happen
- Overall nutrition affected
For someone who has lost a tooth or teeth, dentures are a boon. There are various options for people, and choice can be made based on economic, cosmetic, and overall health conditions.
Partial/complete: If only one or few teeth are being replaced, it is a partial denture. This can be fixed or removable. In case of old age or trauma where all teeth are lost, a complete denture would be in order. In most cases, this is a removable denture.
Fixed dentures/Removable dentures: Depending on whether the denture is fixed in the mouth or can be removed when not in use.
Metal or ceramic or combination: In some cases, for aesthetic or economic reasons, the patient can decide to go for a metallic fixed partial denture. The fabricated crowns will have a metallic surface but is acceptable given the strength, especially in posterior teeth, which take a heavy mastication load.
In cases of front teeth loss, the denture should almost always be a ceramic one, especially for cosmetic reasons. If the person cannot afford, a removable denture can be done.
The optimal denture should be chosen based on a number of factors including the functional and aesthetic expectations.
Caring for dentures: It depends on the types of dentures you choose.
Fixed dentures: This requires religious brushing, flossing or interdental brushing, and rinsing. The edges of the denture can put pressure on the gums and cause irritation, this needs to be watched for.
- Clean the dentures after every meal
- Be careful when handling them to avoid fall and breakage
- Handle the clasps with care, altered clasps may not fit properly
- Clean the bone and gums around the denture after each meal
- Soak the dentures overnight in water or a denture-soaking solution
- Avoid soaking it in hot water, can lead to warping of the denture plate
- Avoid hard brushing of the dentures
With any denture in the mouth, visit the dentist regularly every 6 months to keep a constant vigil on your overall dental health. Ill-fitting dentures, especially, need to be corrected immediately as they can lead to irritation, ulcers, and even infections.
With these small precautions, the denture can function to its optimal level and serve as a good replacement of the lost tooth.
Back pain that grips you every moment you stand up is a sign that you need to work on your back and thigh muscles. When you are not paying attention to this warning sign, it can lead to a chronic condition that can prevent you from doing even the daily routine activities.
Performing the right exercises can help you keep back pain at bay, and prevent it turning into a threat to your physical and emotional health.
- Partial crunches: This is a core strengthening exercise that helps the lower back and the ab area. People who suffer from spondylitis can find this a great workout to manage pain. To do this, choose a flat surface. Lie on your back with bent knees. Your feet should be flat on the floor. Keep your arms on the chest, crossed. Or you can even place them at the back of your head. Your stomach muscles should be tight and slowly raise the shoulders. Breathe out slowly. You will feel the urge to raise the elbows and neck to ease the movement. But, you shouldn’t try this. Hold for a second, and get back to the floor slowly. Repeat this 8 to 10 times. When you cannot keep ab muscles tight, you will be straining the back muscles and joints again. So, maintain the right posture.
- Hamstring stretches: The hamstring muscles at times become inflexible, which leads to the radiating pain from the thighs to the lower back. You need to lie flat and bend your knee. One leg should be unbent. Keep a soft towel and thread it under the ball of your foot of the unbent knee. Slowly straighten the knee and pull back the towel softly. During this, you will feel a gentle stretch in the back of the leg. Stay in the position for 30 seconds. Initially, you will not be able to stay for this long. So you can start with 10 seconds. Do this stretch at least 4 times for each leg.
- Press up back extensions: Begin this position by lying down on your stomach. Place your hands underneath your shoulders. Push the hands down. You will feel the shoulders lifting away from the ground. You can also place the elbows on the ground if you feel comfortable. Stay in this position for 30 seconds.
- Knee to chest: You can ease your muscles in the thighs and lower back with this exercise. Lie on the back, and your feet should be flat. Now bend the knees. Slowly move one leg to the chest with the knees bent. The other has to be flat on the ground with bent knees. Your lower back should be on the floor. You need to hold for several seconds. Lower the knee. Then repeat with the other leg. Do this 4 times for each leg.
All these exercises can do wonders but give some time to experience the effect and do it regularly. You will feel the changes in due course of time. Do not continue when you encounter severe pain during the workout session. You should also ensure that you stick to the right posture while performing these exercises.