teeth become sensitive to cold food-stuff and water due to a variety of causes, the most common being:
1. Brushing your teeth too hard
2. Gum diseases
3. Dental cavity
if you are applying too much pressure while brushing, it is likely to lead to a condition called as attrition, wherein the the outermost tough layer of the teeth (enamel) begins to wear, exposing the underlying structures that are more sensitive to cold stuff. If that is the case, you need to use a soft brush and put minimal pressure on your teeth while brushing. Also, you must switch to an anti-sensitivity toothpaste which will help reduce your problem to a considerable extent.
In case you have an inadequately maintained oral hygiene, it is likely that you may have developed a gum problem, which is manifesting as sensitivity. For that, you would be required to get a thorough professional cleaning/scaling done from a dentist. It will solve your problem.
Besides the above, dental cavities also cause abnormal sensations to cold water. You will have to get it checked from a dentist, and if such a cavity is present, it may require a filling.
For the second part of your question, the shade of your teeth can be improved by procedures such as bleaching and laser tooth whitening. No whitening toothpastes can improve the color of teeth. Hope that helps.
Get scaling polishing done use sensodent k twice daily.
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