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A Pap Smear is a screening test done to to test for occurrence of uterine cancer. Carried out in a quick and simple way to extract a sample, the sample is collected from the cervix area of a woman during a pelvic exam. The examination of the sample takes place under a microscope thereafter to find abnormalities that can point towards cancer and pre cancer changes.
There are many reasons why women should get a pap smear screening done:
1. Women who are HIV positive should get this test done regularly so as to detect any anomalies in the cervix. This condition usually comes with higher risk of infections and cancer, which is why regular screening is required.
2. Age is also another factor and women over the age of 30 should go through an annual screening on a compulsory basis. This is also true for women who have been through pregnancy and child birth.
Preparing for a Pap Smear: To prepare for a pap smear test, you need to ensure that you are not menstruating at the time. Also, you may want to avoid sexual activity just before the test so as to get the most accurate readings. During the process, remember to stay calm and relax your body physically.
Procedure: The pap smear procedure is a quick one that might be only slightly uncomfortable. This test is usually carried out on the examination table at the gynecologist's clinic. The legs will need to be spread and placed in stirrups. The doctor will insert a speculum to hold open the vaginal opening so that the spatula can be inserted easily to take a sample from the area. This sample of the cells will be tested in a lab after due preservation.
Test Results: The test results can either be normal or abnormal. An abnormal result does not point at the presence of cancer. Rather it can simply mean that abnormal cells exist in the cervix. The doctor may ask you to go through these tests and screening more frequently so as to study the anomalies in a more detailed manner. Consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
I have anterolithesis grade 1 disc bulge at l3-4 and diffuse disc bulge at l4-5.i have no pain but my both legs get numb while standing and walking for just 2-3 minutes. C.
Kidney Cancer, more commonly known as renal cancer, first presents itself in the lining of the kidney. It then grows malignant and forms a tumor. The good news is that renal cancer rarely spreads to other organs. The bad news is that the tumors grow quite large before they can be detected.
Kidney cancer has been found to occur most often in people who are older than 40 years of age. Though the cause of the cancer is not definitively known, there are a few factors that might increase the risk of developing kidney cancer. These include-
1. Obesity- Obesity can cause hormonal changes which in turn can increase the risk of cancer.
2. Smoking- As with any other kind of cancer, nicotine consumption, in the form of smoking cigarettes, increases the risk of developing the disease. In the case of renal cancer, it can, in fact, double the chances.
3. Pain Medications- A prolonged use of pain relievers over a period of time can increase the risk of renal cancer. Certain components of the medication can lead to kidney damage.
4. Genetic history- A medical history of family members, especially siblings, with the disease can significantly increase the risk of kidney cancer.
In its early stages, kidney cancer remains asymptomatic, but as the tumor grow in size, symptoms begin to present themselves. These symptoms might include the following-
1. Blood in the urine.
2. A gradual loss of appetite leading to weight loss.
3. A persistent pain in your abdomen in conjunction with a lump.
5. Swelling of the legs and ankles.
Treatment for kidney cancer will depend on the size and location of the tumour and whether it has spread to other organs or parts of the body. Therefore, to determine the stage of cancer, diagnostic tests such as biopsy, are performed along with urine and blood tests. After determination of your cancer stage, the doctor will perform either a radical or a partial nephrectomy, where the cancerous tumor is removed along with additional tissues. Often, kidney surgery is followed by kidney transplant if both the kidneys need to be removed in nephrectomy. However, if nephrectomy does not cure your kidney cancer, then your oncologist may recommend cryotherapy, radiofrequency ablation or arterial embolization.
Kidney cancer in its advanced stage is often treated with either biological therapy where your body’s immune system is utilized to fight cancer cells or targeted therapy where drugs are used stop the multiplication of cancer cells by blocking their signals. Due to such advancement in cancer treatment, the rate of success has gone up in recent years but you also need to follow a healthy lifestyle to make sure that the treatment can bring out the desired positive outcomes. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Good day to you. For a few months i've been having numbness and weakness in my left leg and scrotum. Got my mri results back and they say. Mild scoliosis at L4 L5 region with minor disc bulge with no nerve compression. No sign of cauda equina. Small annular tear at L4 region with muscular spasm. What's causing my numbness? How do I fix the disc bulge?
Sir I am suffering from. L4-5 problem since 2 years there is any treatment with out operation please help me.
Prolapse disc surgery endoscopic can be done under local anaesthesia for aged patient with cardiac renal pulmonary functions normal?
Breast cancer is characterized by an abnormal multiplication of cells in the tissues of the breast. The disease is the second most common cancer in women, and mostly affects women in the age group 55-65. However, the disease may occur in men as well.
The exact cause of breast cancer is not known as of now. Some of the factors that influence multiplication of cells are your genes and the environment. Other factors such as late menopause, being subjected to hormone therapy post-menopause and dense breast tissues can be other triggers for this disease.
The symptoms of breast cancer are:
- Discharge from your nipples
- A swelling in the breast
- You may have a lump in your armpits
- The skin around the breast may become flaky
- The skin around the breast may be irritated
The treatment depends on the size, grade and stage of the breast cancer. The sensitivity of the cancerous cells to the hormones in the body is also considered in this regard. The various treatment methods are:
- Surgery: There are multiple types of surgeries which may be used to treat breast cancer. In some cases, only a small area of the breast may be removed if the size of the tumor is small. Sometimes, mastectomy is performed where the entire breast tissue has to be removed.
- Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is a type of treatment in which the cancerous cells are targeted by using certain drugs which are injected in to the body. However, chemotherapy has its own share of side effects such as hair loss, sudden and drastic weight loss and persistent fatigue.
- Radiation Therapy: This procedure involves using radiations such as x-rays to destroy cancer cells in the body. This procedure is carried out with the help of a machine that focuses radiation on the affected areas of the body. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Uterine fibroids, also referred to as uterine myomas) are non-cancerous tumors that grow within the muscle tissue of the uterus. As many as 20% to 50% women between the age group of 18 to 40 suffer from the condition, but not all cases warrant treatment.
It may be as tiny as a coin or it may grow to the size of a watermelon, making people think the lady is 6/7 months pregnant! There may be one big fibroid or several small ones.
Though the exact causes are not known, family history and hormonal imbalances are said to be the main causes for the same.
Types of Uterine Fibroids
The four types are:
- Subserosal uterine fibroids: Develops outside the uterus and continues to grow.
- Intramural uterine fibroids: The most common type that lead to pregnancy like tummy. They develop within the uterus wall and continue to expand.
- Submucosal uterine fibroids: Because these develop within the uterus lining, they are most likely to be the cause of heavy flow during periods.
- Pedunculated uterine fibroids: These grow on the inner or outer side of a small stalk connecting to the uterus.
- An enlarged uterus is the most common symptom. It is often mistaken for general weight gain or pregnancy.
- Prolonged and painful menstrual cycle, that is many times irregular.
- Urinary incontinence and constant urge to urinate.
- Pelvic pressure.
- Pressure on the bowels leading to constipation.
- Pain during intercourse.
If you find out that you have fibroids during an examination or if you consult a doctor with any of these symptoms, they will most likely ask for an ultrasound or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) which will confirm the type of fibroid and the extent of your problem. Treatment includes non-invasive-focused ultrasound surgery.
Treatment with Homeopathy:
One of the best advantages of choosing Homeopathy is that it works without side effects. It addresses the issue rather than the symptom. A surgical procedure mentioned in general treatment does remove the fibroids but there is no guarantee that they won't grow back as the underlying issue of hormonal imbalance remains.
During a clinical study of the effects of Homeopathy on fibroids, 85% patients showed improvement and 48% people had complete fibroid removal.
Treatment: There are medicines in Homeopathy that can treat uterine fibroids, cervical fibroids and help maintain normal hormonal balance in females.
Cancer is the one of the biggest threat to the young Indian population because of the factors that cause cancer, but also due to late detection. However, certain bad habbits and the factors increase the risk of cancer in India.
Causes of cancer in India:
- Overpopulation and the problem of nutrition: As per records, India is the world's third most populous country. However, it lacks in resources to feed the multiplying number of mouths. Nutrition plays a key role in deciding the quality of a person's life. Nutrition has therefore emerged as an essential branch of research and medical care in the last few decades. Lack of nutrition directly results in weakened immunity. Your body becomes prone to diseases, some of which can be fatal. To fight off cancer cells, one must have a strong immune system that comes from the right kind of nutrition.
- Smoking is a recurrent habit among children and adults: Smoking can cause cancer. Every cigarette packet reads the same warning messages but it doesn't actually deter smokers in any way. Smoking is prevalent among people of all age groups in India. From poor children to conscious educated adults, all are seen smoking.
- A Tropical country and its woes: Tropical countries are known to face the wrath of the sun. While most places in central, western, partly eastern and southern India experience extremes of temperature in summer, other places with moderately hot summers are not exempted from the harmful UV rays. Ultraviolet rays can be very harmful for one's skin, as it can cause skin cancer. Indians have a high amount of melanin, which protects them against sun rays, but the threat exists nonetheless.
- The concept of fast food: A global economy has opened avenues awaiting your attention in the realm of food. To suit the tones and moods of a fast life, fast food has been made available to you. We take pride in consuming things that can be prepared in an instant: instant noodles, soups and even curries. Packaged food and junk food are sources of cancer cells.
- Lack of awareness regarding the most common types of cancer: Breast and cervical cancer are the two most common types of cancer eating away the health of Indians. The problem lies in being unaware about the root causes, symptoms and treatment procedures related to these kinds of cancer. Social repression turns health concerns into matters of insignificance. Women fear social alienation after coming in the open with their problems.