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I am not able to gain my weight even if I am having my food properly. I am having right amount of calories per day.
According to WHO a third of the world population is obese, obesity is caused by overeating, lack of physical activity, age factor, hereditary and sometimes malfunctioning of the endocrine glands causing excessive fat accumulation. Food is meant to generate energy in the body so as to enable each and every organ to discharge its individual functions. To avoid overeating one has be careful about portion control and eat at a fixed time. Each meal should have a combination of carbohydrate 50 to 60 % of total calories + protein 35 to 40% of total calories and fat 20 to 25% of total calories. Dietary fibre of 25 to 30 grams a day can obtained from whole grain, fruits and vegetables should also be taken in sufficient quantities as it imparts a sense of satiation and reduces the food intake.
Indian diets are usually high in carbohydrates leading to higher incidence of diabetes. This can be countered by increasing proteins in each meal along with fibre,which gives a controlled balance to sugar levels in the body. Use unsaturated vegetable oils like olive, rice bran, soyabean and sunflower oil to maintain and reduce cholesterol and maintain heart health along with Omega-3 from flax seed, nuts (almonds and walnuts) or fish oil supplements, including vegetable juices in your daily diet improves the antioxidant level and fibre in the body and helps in weight loss.
How to make meal plans customized to your BMR
Step 1 - Calculate your BMR
|Women's BMR||Men's BMR|
|+ (9.6* of your weight in kilos)||+ (13.7* your weight in kg)|
|+ (1.8*your height in cm)||+ (5*your height in cm)|
|- (4.7*your age in years)||- (6.8*your age in years)|
|= ___________ Calories per day||= ___________ Calories per day|
Step 2 - After calculating your BMR ,and to start weight loss cut 200 kcal from your BMR.
For example if your BMR is 1600 kcal choose a meal plan that is 200 kcal lower I.e is from 1200 to 1400 calorie meal plan.
The main meals should be three meals like your breakfast ,lunch and dinner and the in between meals should be like fruits ,veg juice ,dry fruits,dry bhel , roasted chana, a slice of cheese ,which are not very dense in calories and high in nutrients.
STEP 3 - Eat every two hours with three main meals and three small meals.
STEP 4 - Drink plenty of water through the day at least 8 to 10 glasses.
Exercise - Lack of physical activity means there is no energy output and this results in weight gain over the period of time because as we age our BMR reduces (basal metetabolic rate : that is total number of calories your body requires for normal body functions excluding any activity factor like exercise, BMR is the energy used for metabolic process of maintaining life itself and usually accounts for two thirds of total daily expenditure ). To maintain a healthy weight increasing the BMR is essential and this means increasing the muscle mass over the fat mass as 1 pound of muscle burns 6 calories at rest and 1 pound of fat just 2 calories. Increasing muscle mass can happen only through physical exercise and adequate protein in the diet thereby, increasing fibre and reducing fat in the diet.
Advantages of Physical Activity
- Helps to keep digestive system in optimum condition
- Improves cardiac rhythm and output
- Maintains flexibility of body
- Energies blood vessels and does not allow cholesterol deposits and improved heart health as it does not allow fat accumulation
- Improves peristaltic action of intestine and rectum and removes constipation
- Helps in improving insulin resistance in the body especially in PCOD and PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome)
- Maintains the sugar levels in diabetic patients
Other Causes of Obesity
- Age factor: Obesity is generally prevalent in the middle age as the BMR reduces as a person ages especially if he or she does not exercise, but weight gain can be gender specific as women have more fat mass and the weight gain during pregnancy is common due to increase in fat in the diet, but in recent years there has been a rapid rise in obesity in children and teens due to over indulgence in junk and fast foods, which have high amounts of refined carbohydrates and hydrogenated fats. Heredity also plays an important role in fat accumulation. Children of obese parents do have high chances inheriting obesity from their parents as genetic factor could be a contributing factor rather than excessive food. In such cases physical activity plays a very important role for weight loss
- Untreated Hypothyroidism: Hypothyroid causes a drop in the BMR and increase in fat percentage and if untreated can cause weight gain, but once on medication they have improved metabolism.
- Drugs: Use of oral contraceptives, steroids, insulin and phenothiazines is generally followed by weight gain to stimulation of appetite.
- Alcohol: Alcohol is just empty calories and 1ml of alcohol gives 7 calories and this causes weight gain along with the fat laden food eaten while having alcohol, overeating is usually a consequence of drinking leading to weight gain and drinking coupled with smoking increases the lipid levels in the body affecting the heart health
- Fasting and Yo Yo Dieting: The process of losing weight and gaining weight several times throughout a life time is often characterised by increased fatness with each cycle (Krause food and nutrition therapy). Fasting is dropping calories to less than 600 to 800 over a period of time, which causes starvation and breakdown of muscle mass and lowering of BMR and once one gets back to normal diet there is sudden surge in weight which then gets difficult to rid off.
- Water: Incredible as it may seem water is a very important catalyst in weight loss,water suppress the appetite naturally and helps metabolise stored fat. Drinking water is best for fluid retention caused due to excessive intake of salt, the more water you take, more it dilutes the excess salt and reduces the fluid retention. Eight to twelve glasses of water in a day is the optimal intake.
- Stress: Stress is a another precipitating factor for weight gain which causes damage to the heart. Excessive stress causes an increase in cortisol and thereby, increase in fat percentage in the body and weight gain. An emotionally charged and highly strung nervous system can adversely affect the coronary arteries and deteriorate the heart. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor.
I am 16 years old and I am becoming fat day by day. Please assist me with a regular time table and also what to eat and what not to. Including time respectively.
I am 17 years old, . The food over here is too oily, and moreover here we don't get enough time to do yoga, arabics. And so I am increasing weight day by day. Now its 68kg And due to this reason I feel so lazy.
I have a desk job and in the last 2 years, my weight has gone up from 75 kgs to85 kgs. I want to lose my weight help me.
I am 60 years old. I want to increase my strength and stamina. I am a regular gym goer. I have a pain in my left knee and I feel that is due to a nerve. Please suggest.
I am a 23 year boy suffering from cold for last 3 days. Today I feel their is no more power in my body to carry even my daily work. My head is suffering enormous pain. Although I feel I have a fever but it has not shown by Thermometer. It still showing 99.
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder affecting the joints, symmetrically (usually). The joints become swollen, red, hot, painful & tender. The joint movement becomes limited due to pain & swelling
It starts with inflammation of the synovial membrane but may involve the joint capsule and other surrounding soft tissues.
It is a self limiting disease. But by the time it leaves, the patient is crippled due to contractures & deformities.
Acute phase can be managed with medicines.
Commonly used medicines are ibuprofen/paracetamol/aspirin in therapeutic doses. They help to control symptoms of pain and swelling of the joints in most of the cases by their anti inflammatory properties. Fever is also controlled.
Vitamins, minerals, anti oxidents & other supportive medicines are also needed. Omega 3 fatty acids have a very definite role to play in improving the response to the treatment.
Physiotherapy helps in preventing contractures & deformities.
The patient should do general exercises & keep active.
He may have to be further investigated.
In established cases of rheumatoid arthritis dmard (disease modifying drugs) e. G. Methotrexate, hcq, leflunomide, saaz etc. Have to be used.
They all are toxic drugs & can cause bone marrow depression along with other side effects. They should be taken under medical supervision.
Sometimes steroids may have to used.
The dose of these medicines should be adjusted to the minimum required, to control the symptoms.
Blood, urine tests & other investigative procedures should be done periodically to rule out any side effects.
X rays of the affected part should be done to confirm diagnosis & assess the extent of damage.
Diabetes, vitamin d deficiency or any other metabolic disorder should be ruled out. Sometimes they mimic the symptoms & create confusion in diagnosis. Associated disorders like these, most certainly affect recovery adversely.
It should be ascertained that the patient is not allergic to any of the medicines that he is going to take.
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic disorder that lasts over many years with acute exacerbation & remissions. The earning capacity of the family is adversely affected. The cost of medical treatment is high. If the patient needs surgery, it is further escalated. Most of the population in india is not covered by any medical insurance. All these factors put together create an atmosphere of depression in the family. Patient feels morally degraded & may even develop suicidal tendency.
In a situatation like this it becomes essential that a moral support is provided to the patient by his friends & relations. Treating doctor has a very definite role to play in keeping up the moral of patient.