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Management of Abortion
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Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
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Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
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In vitro fertilisation, commonly known as IVF, is the process of fertilising single or multiple eggs outside the body. This treatment can be performed by either using your own egg and sperm or using donated egg or sperm or sometimes both. The resulting sperms and eggs are evaluated for quality and then one or more of them are positioned properly in the uterus through the cervix. IVF is regarded as one of the most commonly opted treatment plans, and it accounts for more than 99% of assisted reproductive technology processes.
Who are suitable for IVF?
IVF can be helpful for you in case you have some issues with the egg quality or ovulation, fallopian tubes that are blocked in some way or endometriosis. It can also help you to get pregnant if your partner has problems with mortality and sperm count and when you have opted for donor eggs. About 1.5% of babies in the United States are conceived through the IVF process.
How does IVF work?
There are several steps through which IVF process works and the timeline follows the following steps:
- Stimulation for ovary: You will have to take a special kind of fertility drug for 8 to 14 days near the start of your menstruation cycle. This drug aids in the stimulation of your ovaries for developing multiple mature eggs to fertilise instead of a single one. You may also need to take an artificial hormone-like cetrofelix and leuprolide for keeping your body from releasing eggs very early.
- Development of follicle: When you are under all these medications, you will have to visit your doctor’s office often for checking the hormone levels as well as ultrasound measurements for the ovaries.
- Getting the trigger shot: Once the follicles are ready, you are likely to receive a trigger shot, which is an injection causing the eggs for maturing fully and becoming capable of being fertilised. Your eggs are ready for being retrieved after about 36 hours of receiving this shot.
- Gathering the eggs: At this stage, you are likely to receive an aesthetic or ultrasound probe that is inserted through the vagina for checking the ovaries and identifying the follicles. Normally, about 8 to 15 eggs are retrieved through the insertion of a thin needle.
- Fertlisation: This is the most vital step, where an embryologist is going to examine the eggs before they are combined with the sperm and incubated overnight. Fertilisation happens at this particular time, but abnormal eggs are not fertilised.
Then the embryos slowly develop and are planted on the basis of your age and clinical condition. When the treatment is working, an embryo is implanted in the uterine walls and starts developing. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
I am 23 years old. I had sexual relationship with many of my friends that include girls too. How can I know whether I have any sexually transmitting diseases?
My hpt came positive. I am 32 years old. I am 1 month 11 days pregnant. I am having backache and stomach cramps too. Is this normal or my periods are going to start?
Ear infection is a disorder which can either be viral or bacterial, affecting one’s middle ear the most. This disorder is painful as fluid accumulates in the ear leading to inflammation. Infections of the ear can either be chronic or acute in nature, the damage is more prominent in case of chronic infections. Acute ear infections can be painful but they usually fade away in a few days’ time.
In case of an ear infection, you will experience pain in the ear. A pressure may develop in the ear accompanied by drainage of pus from the ears. Some severe cases might also lead to loss of hearing, be it temporary or permanent. The symptoms of ear infection may develop and affect both the ears. Fever during ear infections is another common auxiliary condition.
Ear infections tend to occur when the Eustachian tubes in the ear get blocked as a result of fluid accumulation in the ear. The Eustachian tubes can get blocked due to the following reasons –
- Being affected by allergies
- Conditions such as cold can lead to ear infection
- Problems in the sinuses
- Excessive smoking
- Infected adenoid glands
In addition to the causes, there are certain risk factors which can make one prone to ear infections, some of them being:
- Narrow Eustachian tubes in children increase the risks of ear infections
- Changes in climate and altitude
- Second hand exposure to cigarette smoke
For mild symptoms, simple home remedies will suffice. A warm compress on the affected area can reduce the pain. Taking pain relieving medications such as ibuprofen can also help in reducing pain. For moderate symptoms, antibiotics may be required to treat the bacterial infection.
If other treatments do not work, then surgery may be required. Usually tubes are inserted in the ear to drain the accumulated fluid. If it involves the adenoid glands, then surgical removal of the adenoid glands may be required. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an ENT specialist.
I have problem of pcod from last 2 years and I trying to conceive what can I do my Dr. give me some medicine.
Hard facial hair on chin and neck (beard area). Acne is lesser than before but leaving behind open pores. I also suffer from irregular/ late periods cycle.
Child birth is a joyous and emotional time. After nine long months of pregnancy, one greets the arrival of baby with great anticipation.It is absolutely normal that the time post-delivery marks a drastic change in sexual desire. While both women and men expect changes in their sex life immediately after the birth of a child, but as time passes by, it is normal for both partners to wonder when things will ever return to normal.
It is a fairly common condition to have a decreased sex drive after giving birth and this feeling can last for months which can be attributed to many factors. Refer to the following tips to get your drive back.
- Consult your gynaecologist: One should take gynaecologist into confidence to discuss how one's libido has changed after child birth, who will in turn help to rule out any physical issues if any.
- Emotional & Physical Fatigue: Nursing a new-born is no joke and it physical drains out. In a post-delivery scenario, ones libido has to fight with overwhelming emotional as well as physical fatigue that results from nursing of a new-born. One can share the night-time feeding with one's partner and try to catch up on the sleep with day time nap. One simply cannot look forward to sex if one is deprived of sleep.
- Release the pressure and guilt: The body is still recovering and one may get a feel that one is not attractive as before which makes a dramatic impact on body image. Communicate honestly with partner about the lack of drive. It is likely that he will also be experiencing similar issues and conflicting emotions. Giving reassurance that one is working on increasing the libido can help ease the pressure on both the individuals.
- Prepare for sex: Do anything to relax and get into the mood before hitting the bed. It can be as simple as a hot shower or a refreshing drink but it is important to help your body transition from mother to lover.
- Use a lubricant: It is hard to look forward to something that is painful.. Breastfeeding plays a significant role in the decrease in libido. Oestrogen is an important hormone that decreases with breastfeeding which affects vaginal tissues. The most common vaginal side effects of decreased oestrogen are dryness hence it's important to use lubricants to minimize the discomfort of vaginal dryness and make sex more enjoyable
Libido is complicated and there will be times one has to do even if one is not in the mood. Sometimes it takes a little nudge to get the libido back into gear. Once one gets over the hurdle of not being in the mood, one may just realise that one is enjoying the act.The good news is that this decrease in libido is temporary. With time and patience, one can rebuild a satisfying sexual relationship with their partner. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Sexologist.
I am a 22 years old lady, I am experiencing brown discharge before & after my periods too. Yes, I had intercourse with my partner on the 4th day of my last period and I took I pill after that. Please tell me what's the problem and how could I stop this brown discharge.
- Zika virus disease is caused by a virus transmitted by aedes mosquitoes.
- People with zika virus disease usually have a mild fever, skin rash (exanthema) and conjunctivitis. These symptoms normally last for 2-7 days.
- There is no specific treatment or vaccine currently available.
- The best form of prevention is protection against mosquito bites.
- The virus is known to circulate in africa, the americas, asia and the pacific.
Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first identified in uganda in 1947 in rhesus monkeys through a monitoring network of sylvatic yellow fever. It was subsequently identified in humans in 1952 in uganda and the united republic of tanzania. Outbreaks of zika virus disease have been recorded in africa, the americas, asia and the pacific.
- Genre: flavivirus
- Vector: aedes mosquitoes (which usually bite during the morning and late afternoon/evening hours)
- Reservoir: unknown
Signs and symptoms
The incubation period (the time from exposure to symptoms) of zika virus disease is not clear, but is likely to be a few days. The symptoms are similar to other arbovirus infections such as dengue, and include fever, skin rashes, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint pain, malaise, and headache. These symptoms are usually mild and last for 2-7 days.
During large outbreaks in french polynesia and brazil in 2013 and 2015 respectively, national health authorities reported potential neurological and auto-immune complications of zika virus disease. Recently in brazil, local health authorities have observed an increase in zika virus infections in the general public as well as an increase in babies born with microcephaly in northeast brazil. Agencies investigating the zika outbreaks are finding an increasing body of evidence about the link between zika virus and microcephaly. However, more investigation is needed before we understand the relationship between microcephaly in babies and the zika virus. Other potential causes are also being investigated.
Zika virus is transmitted to people through the bite of an infected mosquito from the aedes genus, mainly aedes aegypti in tropical regions. This is the same mosquito that transmits dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever.
Zika virus disease outbreaks were reported for the first time from the pacific in 2007 and 2013 (yap and french polynesia, respectively), and in 2015 from the americas (brazil and colombia) and africa (cape verde). In addition, more than 13 countries in the americas have reported sporadic zika virus infections indicating rapid geographic expansion of zika virus.
Zika virus is diagnosed through pcr (polymerase chain reaction) and virus isolation from blood samples. Diagnosis by serology can be difficult as the virus can cross-react with other flaviviruses such as dengue, west nile and yellow fever.
Mosquitoes and their breeding sites pose a significant risk factor for zika virus infection. Prevention and control relies on reducing mosquitoes through source reduction (removal and modification of breeding sites) and reducing contact between mosquitoes and people.
This can be done by using insect repellent; wearing clothes (preferably light-coloured) that cover as much of the body as possible; using physical barriers such as screens, closed doors and windows; and sleeping under mosquito nets. It is also important to empty, clean or cover containers that can hold water such as buckets, flower pots or tyres, so that places where mosquitoes can breed are removed.
Special attention and help should be given to those who may not be able to protect themselves adequately, such as young children, the sick or elderly.
During outbreaks, health authorities may advise that spraying of insecticides be carried out. Insecticides recommended by the who pesticide evaluation scheme may also be used as larvicides to treat relatively large water containers.
Travellers should take the basic precautions described above to protect themselves from mosquito bites.
Zika virus disease is usually relatively mild and requires no specific treatment. People sick with zika virus should get plenty of rest, drink enough fluids, and treat pain and fever with common medicines. If symptoms worsen, they should seek medical care and advice. There is currently no vaccine available.
Who is supporting countries to control zika virus disease through:
- Define and prioritize research into zika virus disease by convening experts and partners.
- Enhance surveillance of zika virus and potential complications.
- Strengthen capacity in risk communication to help countries meet their commitments under the international health regulations.
- Provide training on clinical management, diagnosis and vector control including through a number of who collaborating centres.
- Strengthen the capacity of laboratories to detect the virus.
- Support health authorities to implement vector control strategies aimed at reducing aedes mosquito populations such as providing larvicide to treat standing water sites that cannot be treated in other ways, such as cleaning, emptying, and covering them.
- Prepare recommendations for clinical care and follow-up of people with zika virus, in collaboration with experts and other health agencies.
It is as important for the man as it is for the woman to undergo certain tests before the IVF cycle is started. Fertility is not only an issue for a woman, but it also might be for the man in question. There are certain tests that need to be conducted on men before they can gear up for IVF:
1. Semen Analysis: One of the most important tests for male infertility is semen analysis. Sometimes, a man may be completely healthy, but his sperm production could be of poor quality. Semen analysis is done to provide an accurate evaluation of sperm number, the ability to move (motility), size and shape (morphology), as well as the consistency and volume of the sample collected.
2. Binding Test: Sometimes agglutination occurs where the sperms might stick to each other by their heads or tails. Sperm antibodies might cause this problem. The IVF treatment's success might be compromised if this happens. A simple binding test is done to determine this.
3. Trial Wash: This is also known as sperm wash. It is mostly done to remove chemicals from the sperm. Not doing a sperm wash might end up affecting the later stages of the IVF treatment. In this process, the misshapen and immotile sperm is separated so a clean sample of motile and healthy sperm can be collected.
4. TUNEL Assay: Since sperms build up about half of a child's genetic makeup, a TUNEL Assay or 'sperm DNA test' is required. This test is done to measure the sperm population that have fragmented DNA. Negative impacts on genetics can hamper the success of the fertility treatment.
TUNEL Assay is usually recommended to men with:
- Leukocytes detected by the sperm analysis
- Age approaching 50
- A history of diabetes II type or prostatitis
- Exposure to chemicals or prolonged heat at workplaces
5. Screening for Infectious Diseases: This test is done for both the partners to check for diseases like AIDS, Hepatitis C, and so on.